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west nile virus activity--united states, july 28-august 3, 2004.during july 28-august 3, a total of 141 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 11 states (alabama, arizona, california, colorado, florida, illinois, nevada, new york, north dakota, south dakota, and texas). during 2004, a total of 20 states have reported a total of 406 cases of human wnv illness to cdc through arbonet. of these, 247 (61%) were reported from arizona. a total of 226 (57%) of the 406 cases occurred in males; the median age of patients was 51 years (range: 1 ...200415295314
impact of climate on western equine encephalitis in manitoba, minnesota and north dakota, 1980-1983.information was collected on confirmed outbreaks of western equine encephalitis (wee) in north america east of the rockies for 1981 and 1983 (epidemic years) and 1980 and 1982 (non-epidemic years). the initial pattern of outbreaks in manitoba, minnesota and north dakota was determined for each year. backward (and in some instances forward) wind trajectories were computed for each day 4-15 days (incubation period) before the initial outbreaks of wee in a given area of province or state. during th ...19882905669
west nile virus activity--united states, september 8-14, 2004.during september 8-14, a total of 195 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 26 states (alabama, arizona, arkansas, california, colorado, florida, georgia, idaho, illinois, iowa, kansas, maryland, minnesota, missouri, nebraska, nevada, new mexico, new york, north dakota, oklahoma, oregon, pennsylvania, south dakota, tennessee, texas, and wisconsin).200415371969
the economic impact of west nile virus infection in horses in the north dakota equine industry in 2002.this study estimated economic impacts associated with the west nile virus (wnv) outbreak in horses for north dakota in 2002. the 2002 epidemic in the united states was the largest meningoencephalitis epidemic reported in the western hemisphere. over 15,257 horse cases were reported in 43 states with most cases occurring in central united states. north dakota reported over 569 horse cases, with a mortality rate of 22%. the total costs incurred by the state were approximately us$1.9 million. the c ...200818551781
arbovirus serology in north dakota mule and white-tailed deer. 19734361503
west nile virus activity--united states, september 15-21, 2004.during september 15-21, a total of 218 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 21 states (arizona, california, florida, illinois, indiana, kansas, maryland, michigan, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, nebraska, nevada, new mexico, north dakota, oklahoma, south dakota, texas, utah, wisconsin, and wyoming).200415385920
phylogeographical structure and evolutionary history of two buggy creek virus lineages in the western great plains of north america.buggy creek virus (bcrv) is an unusual arbovirus within the western equine encephalitis complex of alphaviruses. associated with cimicid swallow bugs (oeciacus vicarius) as its vector and the cliff swallow (petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and house sparrow (passer domesticus) as its amplifying hosts, this virus is found primarily in the western great plains of north america at spatially discrete swallow nesting colonies. for 342 isolates collected in oklahoma, nebraska, colorado and north dakota, from ...200818753221
west nile virus activity--united states, january 1-august 15, 2006.this report summarizes west nile virus (wnv) surveillance data reported to cdc through arbonet as of 3 a.m. mountain daylight time, august 15, 2006. a total of 26 states had reported 388 cases of human wnv illness to cdc. a total of 214 (56%) cases for which such data were available occurred in males; median age of patients was 49 years (range: 2-91 years). dates of illness onset ranged from january 6 to august 10; a total of 13 cases were fatal. a total of 68 presumptive west nile viremic blood ...200616915222
western equine encephalomyelitis in horses in the northern red river valley, 1975.in mid-july, 1975, western equine encephalomyelitis (wee) virus was isolated from mosquitoes collected in flooded areas of eastern north dakota and western minnesota. inasmuch as clinical manifestations of wee are usually observed in horses before human cases of encephalitis are recognized, surveillance of equine disease was initiated. sixty-one practicing veterinarians from the are under surveillance reported 281 cases of wee in horses from june through september, with peak incidence in late ju ...1977873843
west nile virus activity--united states, august 25-31, 2004.during august 25-31, a total of 210 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 14 states (arizona, california, florida, illinois, indiana, kansas, maryland, minnesota, montana, nevada, new mexico, north dakota, oklahoma, and pennsylvania).200415343148
weather factors in the prediction of western equine encephalitis epidemics in manitoba.cases of western equine encephalitis in horses in 1987 in western usa and manitoba, canada were examined by backward trajectory analysis of winds. culex tarsalis mosquitoes infected with western equine encephalitis virus could have been carried on southerly winds from texas and oklahoma to northern usa and from there to manitoba. the presence of the polar front over north dakota and minnesota at the end of july would have led to the landing of cx. tarsalis in montana and wisconsin and prevented ...19938405163
west nile virus activity--united states, august 4-10, 2004.during august 4-10, a total of 89 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 14 states (alabama, arizona, california, florida, illinois, kentucky, louisiana, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, new mexico, north dakota, south dakota, and wyoming).200415306758
west nile virus activity--united states, october 6-12, 2004.during october 6-12, a total of 86 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 18 states (arizona, florida, illinois, kansas, louisiana, michigan, minnesota, missouri, nevada, new jersey, new mexico, north dakota, ohio, oklahoma, pennsylvania, tennessee, texas, and utah).200415483530
environmental and ecological determinants of west nile virus occurrence in horses in north dakota, 2002.west nile virus (wnv) outbreak in north dakota in 2002 included over 569 horse cases, clustered mainly in the eastern and northeastern parts of the state. the pattern of occurrence observed suggested existence of specific environmental and ecological factors that increased the risk for infection and illness in those locations. we developed a predictive model with factors that explained the pattern of wnv occurrence observed. results indicated that surface elevation, temperature, precipitation, r ...200716753077
evaluation of an outbreak of west nile virus infection in horses: 569 cases (2002).to characterize an outbreak of west nile virus (wnv) infection in horses in north dakota in 2002, evaluate vaccine effectiveness, and determine horse characteristics and clinical signs associated with infection.200415515988
western equine encephalitis in avian populations in north dakota, 1975.the involvement of wild birds in western equine encephalitis (wee) and st. louis encephalitis (sle) virus activity in the red river valley area of north dakota (usa) during a wee epidemic was investigated in august 1975. free-ranging birds were captured with mist nets and nestlings by hand. virologic and serologic results indicated that a similar rate of wee virus activity occurred throughout richland county and between permanent and summer resident birds. the rate of sle virus activity in the b ...19892810548
1975 encephalitis epidemic in north dakota and western minnesota. an epidemiologic, clinical, and neuropathologic study. 19817278841
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