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eastern equine encephalomyelitis in upstate new york 1972-1974. 1975919
arboviruses in new york state: an attempt to determine the role of arboviruses in patients with viral encephalitis and meningitis.in a reveiw of 2,963 patients with signs of infections of the central nervous system in new york state in 1966--1977, arboviruses were found to be the confirmed or presumptive etiologic agents in 60 patients. california encephalitis (ce) virus was the most common (44 patients), followed by powassan (pow) virus (8), st. louis encephalitis virus (7), and eastern equine encephalitis (eee) virus (1). most patients (47) were children. the incidence of encephalitis was higher in patients with arboviru ...1979222159
new office was once horse barn. 1977265924
survey findings of equine infectious anemia positive horses in new york state. 19751078049
trypanosomes in horse flies and deer flies in central new york state.tabanids were collected during 2 consecutive summers from 3 counties in new york using a canopy trap and insect net. twenty-seven per cent of all fly specimens (n equals 641) representing 69% of the species collected (n equals 36) were infected with flagellates. tabanid intestines harbored amastigote, choanomastigote, and epimastigote forms. epimastigotes were frequently found, and trypomastigotes and choanomastigotes rarely found in cultures of tabanid intestinal flagellates. epimastigote and t ...19751117353
retrospective evaluation of factors associated with the risk of seropositivity to ehrlichia risticii in horses in new york state.a retrospective study was designed to determine the distribution of equine monocytic ehrlichiosis among the equine population in new york state, and to identify factors associated with risk of disease. serum samples submitted to the diagnostic laboratory of the university during the period from january 1985 through december 1986 were examined for antibodies to ehrlichia risticii, using the indirect fluorescent antibody technique. factors evaluated included geographic origin and date of submissio ...19921456543
factors associated with the risk of developing sarcoid tumours in horses.a retrospective case-control study was conducted to identify risk factors in horses associated with the development of the common skin tumours known as sarcoids. the study involved 503 sarcoid cases diagnosed (january 1980-december 1989) at new york state college of veterinary medicine and a similar number of controls (non-sarcoid cases). data on age, breed and sex of cases and controls were obtained from computerised records. multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk facto ...19921606927
the risk of severity of limb injuries in racing thoroughbred horses.a retrospective study was carried out to identify factors which predisposed thoroughbred horses to severe injuries, as compared to less severe injuries, while racing on new york racing association (nyra) tracks during the period of january 1986 to june 1988. a severe injury was defined as an injury which led to humane destruction of the horse. a less severe injury was defined as a horse which didn't race within 6 months following a muscular, ligament, tendon, or skeletal injury on the racetrack. ...19921643884
analysis of serotypes and electropherotypes of equine rotaviruses isolated in the united states.equine group a rotaviruses isolated over a 10-year period in new york state, new jersey, kentucky, and texas were compared serotypically and electropherotypically. all isolates were determined to be serotype 3 by reaction with hyperimmune antiserum to the serotype 3 h-2 strain of equine rotavirus. all displayed rna electrophoretic migration patterns related to that of the h-2 strain but distinct from that of serotype 5 strain h-1. a serologic survey of 184 mares in kentucky, which was done to de ...19911647407
eastern equine encephalitis--florida, eastern united states, 1991.the florida department of health and rehabilitative services (hrs) has confirmed five human cases of eastern equine encephalitis (eee) in elderly residents of bradford, duval, and washington counties in northern florida. dates of illness onset were in mid-june and early july. one patient partially recovered and has residual neurologic deficits, two patients remain comatose, and two patients died.(abstract truncated at 250 words)19911861668
trajectory analysis of winds and eastern equine encephalitis in usa, 1980-5.backward trajectories of winds were determined to identify possible sources of eastern equine encephalitis virus associated with isolation of virus from mosquitoes or birds or outbreaks in horses between 1980 and 1985 in maryland, new jersey, new york and michigan, usa. the results of the trajectory analyses suggested that eastern equine encephalitis virus could have been carried by infected mosquitoes on surface winds at temperatures 13 degrees c or higher from north carolina north-eastwards al ...19901969804
serologic survey for borrelia burgdorferi antibody in horses referred to a mid-atlantic veterinary teaching hospital.blood samples obtained from 13 of 100 (13%) and 6 of 91 (7%) horses at the george d. widener hospital for large animals in the months of june and october, respectively, had antibody to borrelia burgdorferi as determined by elisa. horses from the states of new york, maryland, delaware, new jersey, and pennsylvania were seropositive for b burgdorferi. the frequency of antibody response in horses from new jersey was greater (p less than 0.05) than the frequency of antibody response in horses from p ...19902332371
epidemiology of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis in north america based on histologically confirmed cases. a report.following a workshop on equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (epm) convened at the veterinary medical forum of the american college of veterinary internal medicine in 1988, this survey of epm in north america was developed. it is based upon 364 histologically confirmed case records from california, florida, illinois, kentucky, new york, ohio, oklahoma, ontario, pennsylvania, and texas up to 1988. the highest rate of infection was found in young thoroughbred, standardbred, and quarter horses. diffe ...19902342022
factors associated with the development of equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy.a case-control study was done to identify factors associated with the development of equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy (edm). questionnaires were mailed to the owners of 146 horses admitted to the new york state college of veterinary medicine between november 1978 and june 1987 and diagnosed as having edm by histologic examination. questionnaires also were sent to owners of 402 clinically normal horses admitted to the college during the same period. data were compared between the edm-affec ...19902386332
clonal groups of salmonella typhimurium in new york state.the epidemiology of 278 strains of salmonella typhimurium isolated from 1973 to 1981 from animals in new york state was studied by using four "fingerprinting" techniques, bacteriophage type (b.r. callow, j. hyg. 57:346-359, 1959), biotype (j. p. duguid, e. s. anderson, g. a. alfredsson, r. barker, and d. c. old, j. med. microbiol. 8:149-166, 1975), plasmid profile, and antibiogram. phage type with biotype was the most useful marker for distinguishing clonal groups of s. typhimurium. four clones ...19892656740
epizootiology of eastern equine encephalitis virus in upstate new york, usa. vii. virus surveillance 1978-85, description of 1983 outbreak, and series conclusions. 19882905010
borreliosis in equids in northeastern united states.during 1982 and 1985, blood samples from 705 equids were examined for antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi. by indirect immunofluorescence staining, igm and total immunoglobulin (igm and igg) antibodies were detected in 37 (5.3%) and 90 (12.8%) serum specimens, respectively. the geometric mean titer for igm antibody (140.4) was highest during july, whereas total immunoglobulin ranged from 94.1 in october to 338 in may. eighty-six equids with total immunoglobulin to b burgdorferi lived in areas of ...19883282461
equine ehrlichial colitis (potomac horse fever): recognition of the disease in pennsylvania, new jersey, new york, ohio, idaho, and connecticut.equine ehrlichial colitis (potomac horse fever), a newly identified colitis of the horse, was first recognized in maryland. in this report, we document occurrence of the disease in pennsylvania, new jersey, new york, ohio, idaho, and connecticut. enzootic areas were recognized by a characteristic pattern. frequently there was a seasonal pattern and high prevalence of sporadic colitis in unstressed horses. the attack rate per farm generally was low. horses on pasture, as well as those stabled, we ...19863744978
hydatidosis in a horse. 19863776023
salmonella serotypes from animals in new york state, 1978-1983.the salmonella serotypes isolated during 1978 to 1983 at the diagnostic and clinical laboratories of the new york state college of veterinary medicine from animal sources in new york state were reviewed and compared to earlier data from new york state animals and to national data for both human and animal sources. a total of 255 salmonella strains were studied from the six year period and included 33 serotypes. salmonella enteritidis ser typhimurium continued to be the most commonly reported ser ...19863940747
salmonellosis: a continual threat to new york state's cattle and horses. 19853979065
an outbreak of equine influenza at a harness horse racetrack.an outbreak of an influenza-like illness affected approximately 1/3 of the 1050 race horses stabled at a standardbred racetrack and resulted in a 3-day suspension of racing. a/equi-2 influenza virus was isolated from 1 affected horse and 8 of 10 horses sampled seroconverted. threshold protective levels of hi antibody against a/equi-2 influenza virus were not demonstrated in unaffected horses. resistance in unaffected horses was assumed to result from other factors following previous exposure. fe ...19853987296
an outbreak of eastern equine encephalomyelitis in upstate new york during 1971. 19734146219
equine infectious anemia: a retrospective study of an epizootic. 19744358831
considerations on the ecology of several arboviruses in eastern long island. 19734684881
taxus cuspidata (japanese yew) poisoning in horses. 19705434270
epizootiology of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in upstate new york, usa. vi. antibody prevalence in wild birds during an interepizootic period. 19846092637
epizootiology of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in upstate new york, usa. ii. population dynamics and vector potential of adult culiseta melanura (diptera: culicidae) in relation to distance from breeding site. 19806106718
epizootiology of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in upstate new york, usa. iv. distribution of culiseta (diptera: culicidae) larvae in a fresh water swamp. 19826130157
epizootiology of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in upstate new york, usa. v. habitat preference of host-seeking mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae). 19836131137
isolation and characteristics of an equine reovirus type 3 and an antibody prevalence survey to reoviruses in horses located in new york state.reoviruses have been isolated from a number of species including human, bovine, feline, canine and equine. in most species they seem to produce mild to inapparent disease. we have isolated a reovirus type 3 from a foal with diarrhea. the virus designated the ralph strain has been propagated in both the ma-104 and a-72 cell lines. the strain produced cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in these cell cultures. tissue-cultured virus fixed complement in the presence of reovirus antibodies, but failed to do ...19846326376
epizootiology of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in upstate new york, usa. iii. population dynamics and vector potential of adult culiseta morsitans (diptera: culicidae). 19817265134
ataxia due to a vertebral haemangiosarcoma in a horse.a haemangiosarcoma in a horse resulted in ataxia affecting all four legs, a low head carriage and a reluctance to flex the neck. ancillary diagnostic procedures included the analysis of cerebrospinal fluid, standing lateral cervical radiographs and a myelogram. post mortem a tumour was found which involved the body of the second cervical vertebra and the associated hypaxial muscles, with secondary intravertebral extradural infiltration and focal compressive myelopathy. a histological examination ...19947992476
geographical variation of seropositivity to ehrlichia risticii (equine monocytic ehrlichiosis) of horses in new york state.a total of 2,579 serum samples from horses in new york state during 1985-1986 were examined for seropositivity to ehrlichia risticii using the indirect fluorescent antibody technique. cluster analysis statistical technique was used to group counties according to their estimated eme-disease rate (seropositive proportion of sampled horses). counties were clustered into 4 groups of different eme-disease rates, representing high (86% seropositive), medium (66% seropositive), medium-low (47% seroposi ...19948575378
evaluation of vaccination of horses as a strategy to control equine monocytic ehrlichiosis.to determine whether preferentially vaccinated horses were at risk for exposure to ehrlichia risticii, whether horses with equine monocytic ehrlichiosis (eme) were likely to have been nonvaccinated, and whether clinical severity and financial costs associated with care and treatment of eme were less for vaccinated horses with eme than for nonvaccinated horses with eme.19968635974
benefit-cost analysis of vaccination of horses as a strategy to control equine monocytic ehrlichiosis.to determine whether horses in new york should be vaccinated against equine monocytic ehrlichiosis (eme).19968635975
evidence for multiple foci of eastern equine encephalitis virus (togaviridae:alphavirus) in central new york state.a regional surveillance system for eastern equine encephalitis (eee) virus was established in central new york in 1984 after the 2nd human eee fatality occurred in 1983. extensive mosquito surveillance activities were coordinated with the rapid laboratory processing of mosquito specimens for eee virus. active surveillance for eee infections in humans and equines also was initiated. results of long-term surveillance detected the presence of multiple culiseta breeding swamps. a 6-yr interepizootic ...19968667390
evaluation of travel and use as a risk factor for seropositivity to ehrlichia risticii in horses of new york state.to determine whether mean annual frequency and destination of equine travel was associated with exposure to ehrlichia risticii and whether these associations were modified by horses' place of residence.19968669754
cross-sectional evaluation of environmental, host, and management factors associated with risk of seropositivity to ehrlichia risticii in horses of new york state.to locate counties within new york state with a high seroprevalence among the equine population, to determine host, management, and environmental factors that were associated with seropositivity to ehrlichia risticii, and to determine evidence for arthropod- or helminth-mediated transmission of e risticii to horses.19968669755
comparison of major antigenic proteins of six strains of the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent by western immunoblot analysis.the etiologic agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge) is an obligate intracellular bacterium. in 1996, blood specimens from 53 patients suspected of having hge were examined by indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) testing with the hge agent no. 13 isolate as the antigen, by nested pcr, and by culture. all patients resided in westchester county, n.y. twelve patient specimens were positive for ifa (titer > or = 1:40). seven of these were also positive by pcr. of the seven specimens positive ...19979316916
risk factors associated with the likelihood of leptospiral seropositivity in horses in the state of new york.to determine and quantify risk factors associated with exposure of horses to the following serovars of leptospira interrogans: pomona, autumnalis, and bratislava.19979328661
components of variability in the systolic blood pressures of preschool children.the term "horse-racing effect" refers to a positive correlation between the slope at which blood pressure increases with age and blood pressure level at a baseline. previous studies have reported such an effect in adults, while studies in children have found a negative correlation (termed "the jenss effect"). these studies used analytic methods in which it was assumed that the blood pressure slopes were constant or the blood pressure profiles were linear. in this study, the authors used a compon ...19989482498
epidemiologic features of equine leptospira interrogans of human significance.leptospirosis is a zoonotic bacterial disease caused by leptospira interrogans. there is a serologic evidence that horses are exposed to l. interrogans and, as a shedder of these organisms, can be a threat to humans. we examined risk factors associated with the risk of testing seropositive to three l. interrogans serovars (l. icterohaemorrhagiae, l. grippotyphosa, and l. canicola) in the horses of new york state, in order to understand the epidemiology of the disease and suggest strategies to co ...19989762736
blind injustice and socially descriptive representatives, or, the cart without a horse. 198110249571
veterinarians key to discovering outbreak of exotic encephalitis. 199910579033
[west nile-like virus is the cause of encephalitis in humans and horses and the death of hundreds of birds in new york]. 199910744548
biohazards--emerging diseases. a plum of an island. 200010862416
update: west nile virus activity--eastern united states, 2000.data reported to cdc through the west nile virus (wnv) surveillance system have shown an increase in the geographic range of wnv activity in 2000 compared with 1999, the first year that wnv was reported in the western hemisphere. in response to this occurrence of wnv, 17 states along the atlantic and gulf coasts, new york city, and the district of columbia conducted wnv surveillance, which included monitoring mosquitoes, sentinel chicken flocks, wild birds, and potentially susceptible mammals (e ...200011105767
west nile viral encephalitis.west nile virus (wnv) has emerged in recent years in temperate regions of europe and north america, presenting a threat to both public and animal health. the most serious manifestation of infection is fatal encephalitis in humans and horses, as well as mortality in certain domestic and wild birds. a recent development in the epizootiology of this mosquito-borne flavivirus was the occurrence of a severe outbreak in new york city and surrounding areas. during this outbreak, mortality was observed ...200011189714
prevalence of placentophagia in horses. 200111266073
detection of arboviral rna directly from mosquito homogenates by reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction.many arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are important human pathogens medically. the development of an effective technique to detect the viruses by using nucleic acid amplification, such as polymerase chain reaction (pcr), improves not only clinical diagnosis but also virologic surveillance of mosquito vectors in the field. in this study, the development of an improved and simplified assay is described for detection of mosquitoes infected with eastern equine encephalitis (eee) virus, cache va ...200111337046
the west nile virus: its recent emergence in north america.west nile fever emerged in new york in the summer of 1999 when seven people, several horses and thousands of wild birds died. it was soon established that the human disease and the mortality of birds were related. continued surveillance detected west nile virus in mosquitoes, birds, horses, small mammals, bats and humans, and has shown its spread to several northeastern states. these events confirm the establishment of west nile virus endemically in the united states.200111358716
reactivity of serum samples of dogs and horses tested by use of class-specific recombinant-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of granulocytic ehrlichiosis.to test serum samples of dogs and horses by use of class-specific recombinant-based elisa for establishing a diagnosis of granulocytic ehrlichiosis attributable to infection with organisms from the ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup.200111560261
exposure of domestic mammals to west nile virus during an outbreak of human encephalitis, new york city, 1999.we evaluated west nile (wn) virus seroprevalence in healthy horses, dogs, and cats in new york city after an outbreak of human wn virus encephalitis in 1999. two (3%) of 73 horses, 10 (5%) of 189 dogs, and none of 12 cats tested positive for wn virus-neutralizing antibodies. domestic mammals should be evaluated as sentinels for local wn virus activity and predictors of the infection in humans.200111585540
detection of north american west nile virus in animal tissue by a reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction assay.a traditional single-stage reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) procedure is effective in determining west nile (wn) virus in avian tissue and infected cell cultures. however, the procedure lacks the sensitivity to detect wn virus in equine tissue. we describe an rt-nested pcr (rt-npcr) procedure that identifies the north american strain of wn virus directly in equine and avian tissues.200111585541
west nile virus outbreak among horses in new york state, 1999 and 2000.west nile (wn) virus was identified in the western hemisphere in 1999. along with human encephalitis cases, 20 equine cases of wn virus were detected in 1999 and 23 equine cases in 2000 in new york. during both years, the equine cases occurred after human cases in new york had been identified.200111585543
equine west nile encephalitis, united states.after the 1999 outbreak of west nile (wn) encephalitis in new york horses, a case definition was developed that specified the clinical signs, coupled with laboratory test results, required to classify cases of wn encephalitis in equines as either probable or confirmed. in 2000, 60 horses from seven states met the criteria for a confirmed case. the cumulative experience from clinical observations and diagnostic testing during the 1999 and 2000 outbreaks of wn encephalitis in horses will contribut ...200111589171
west nile virus infection in mosquitoes, birds, horses, and humans, staten island, new york, 2000.west nile (wn) virus transmission in the united states during 2000 was most intense on staten island, new york, where 10 neurologic illnesses among humans and 2 among horses occurred. wn virus was isolated from aedes vexans, culex pipiens, cx. salinarius, ochlerotatus triseriatus, and psorophora ferox, and wn viral rna was detected in anopheles punctipennis. an elevated weekly minimum infection rate (mir) for cx. pipiens and increased dead bird density were present for 2 weeks before the first h ...200111589172
west nile encephalitis: an emerging disease in the united states.in 1999, an epidemic of west nile virus (wnv) encephalitis occurred in new york city (nyc) and 2 surrounding new york counties. simultaneously, an epizootic among american crows and other bird species occurred in 4 states. indigenous transmission of wnv had never been documented in the western hemisphere until this epidemic. in 2000, the epizootic expanded to 12 states and the district of columbia, and the epidemic continued in nyc, 5 new jersey counties, and 1 connecticut county. in addition to ...200111595987
west nile virus activity in the united states, 2001.west nile virus (wnv) first appeared in the naive environment of the western hemisphere in 1999 in new york. genetic analysis determined that the virus was introduced into the united states from the mediterranean basin. this review discusses the spread of the virus in 2001 from the initial focus in queens, new york, to widespread activity in the eastern and midwestern united states. it concentrates on viral ecology, epizootiology, pathology, prediction, and prevention. research questions to furt ...200111792062
west nile virus transmission and ecology in birds.the ecology of the strain of west nile virus (wnv) introduced into the united states in 1999 has similarities to the native flavivirus, st. louis encephalitis (sle) virus, but has unique features not observed with sle virus or with wnv in the old world. the primary route of transmission for most of the arboviruses in north america is by mosquito, and infected native birds usually do not suffer morbidity or mortality. an exception to this pattern is eastern equine encephalitis virus, which has an ...200111797804
complete genome sequences and phylogenetic analysis of west nile virus strains isolated from the united states, europe, and the middle east.the complete nucleotide sequences of eight west nile (wn) virus strains (egypt 1951, romania 1996-mq, italy 1998-equine, new york 1999-equine, md 2000-crow265, nj 2000mq5488, ny 2000-grouse3282, and ny 2000-crow3356) were determined. phylogenetic trees were constructed from the aligned nucleotide sequences of these eight viruses along with all other previously published complete wn virus genome sequences. the phylogenetic trees revealed the presence of two genetic lineages of wn viruses. lineage ...200212093177
leading a horse to water: are crucial lessons in endoscopy and outbreak investigations being learned? 200212138971
oral conjugated equine estrogen increases plasma von willebrand factor in postmenopausal women.we sought to test whether one month of daily oral conjugated equine estrogen (cee) or transdermal estradiol alters hemostatic factors in postmenopausal subjects.200212475460
a comparison of therapy continuation rates of different hormone replacement agents: a 9-month retrospective, longitudinal analysis of pharmacy claims among new users.to estimate the rate of therapy continuation among women using six different hormone replacement therapies (hrts).200312544675
surveillance for acute insecticide-related illness associated with mosquito-control efforts--nine states, 1999-2002.ground and aerial applications of insecticides are used to control populations of adult mosquitoes, which spread such diseases as west nile virus--related illness, eastern equine encephalitis, and dengue fever. this report summarizes investigations of illnesses associated with exposures to insecticides used during 1999-2002 to control mosquito populations in nine states (arizona, california, florida, louisiana, michigan, new york, oregon, texas, and washington) (estimated 2000 population: 118 mi ...200312855943
serologic evidence of group a and b arthropod-borne virus activity in new york state. 196314044754
chromosome complement: differences between equus caballus and equus przewalskii, poliakoff.the chromosome number of the domestic horse is 2n = 64; different races have the same complement. the chromosomes of two przewalski's horses (at catskill game farm, new york), presumably ancestral wild horses from mongolia, are identical: 2n = 66, with more acrocentric and fewer metacentric elements than the chromosomes of the domestic horse. this apparent difference in karyotype may help resolve the questions of "purity" in the relatively few remaining przewalski's horses. moreover, these findi ...196514261533
arbovirus surveillance in rhode island: assessing potential ecologic and climatic correlates.during 1995-2000, mosquitoes were collected from sites throughout rhode island and tested for the presence of arboviruses. mosquito trapping was done weekly from june to october with co2-baited light traps. in all, 186,537 mosquitoes belonging to 7 different genera were collected, of which coquillettidia perturbans was most abundant. a total of 6,434 pools were processed for arbovirus isolation, from which 193 arboviral isolations were made. these included 109 highlands j, 71 eastern equine ence ...200314524538
personal reflections on saratoga springs, new york: hydrogeological and horse racing 'hot spot' of the east. 200414763629
look a gift horse in the mouth. nassau health care settles charges of illegal gifts. 200415077355
west nile virus activity--united states, july 14-20, 2004.during the week of july 14-20, a total of 74 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from seven states (arizona, california, florida, new mexico, new york, south dakota, and texas).200415269701
west nile virus activity--united states, july 28-august 3, 2004.during july 28-august 3, a total of 141 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 11 states (alabama, arizona, california, colorado, florida, illinois, nevada, new york, north dakota, south dakota, and texas). during 2004, a total of 20 states have reported a total of 406 cases of human wnv illness to cdc through arbonet. of these, 247 (61%) were reported from arizona. a total of 226 (57%) of the 406 cases occurred in males; the median age of patients was 51 years (range: 1 ...200415295314
equine congenital papilloma: pathological findings and results of papillomavirus immunohistochemistry in five cases.abstract congenital cutaneous papillomas were identified in five foals. age at diagnosis ranged from 305 days' gestation to 2 days of age. breeds were thoroughbred (2), standard-bred (1), warmblood (1) and paint (1). two were female, one was male and the gender of two cases was not specified. masses were pedunculated with a roughened, wart-like (verrucous) or a smoother, cauliflower-like surface. masses occurred as single lesions on the forelimb, lip and face, or as multiple lesions on the trunk ...200415305931
west nile virus activity--united states, september 8-14, 2004.during september 8-14, a total of 195 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 26 states (alabama, arizona, arkansas, california, colorado, florida, georgia, idaho, illinois, iowa, kansas, maryland, minnesota, missouri, nebraska, nevada, new mexico, new york, north dakota, oklahoma, oregon, pennsylvania, south dakota, tennessee, texas, and wisconsin).200415371969
west nile virus activity--united states, october 20-26, 2004.during october 20-26, a total of 80 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 16 states (arizona, california, florida, iowa, kentucky, louisiana, michigan, mississippi, missouri, montana, nebraska, new york, ohio, south dakota, texas, and utah).200415514584
west nile virus activity--united states, november 9-16, 2004.during november 9-16, a total of 31 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from eight states (arizona, georgia, maryland, michigan, missouri, new york, pennsylvania, and texas).200415549023
antibody response of wild birds to natural infection with alphaviruses.from 1986 to 1990, we conducted our second longitudinal study in the central (upstate) new york (cny) area on the wild avian hosts of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (eee) virus. field-collecting methods mirrored a study conducted from 1978 to 1980 at the same endemic focus. over the 5-yr study period, we captured 6,296 birds representing 99 species and took 4,174 blood samples from representatives of 83 species. gray catbirds, song sparrows, and veerys were the three dominant species captured ...200415605649
radiographic and pathologic characterization of lateral palmar intercarpal ligament avulsion fractures in the horse.in this study, the radiographic and histologic appearance of lateral palmar intercarpal ligament (lpicl) avulsion in the horse was characterized. thirty-seven horses with radiographic evidence of avulsion fragments originating from the medial palmar aspect of the ulnar carpal bone were examined. the dorsolateral to palmaromedial projection was useful for evaluating the size and shape of the avulsed bone fragment, and the dorsopalmar projection added information on the relative proximity of the f ...200415605844
detection of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in naturally infected horses in the usa by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using whole-cell and recombinant antigens.blood samples were collected from 98 horses suspected of having borreliosis or granulocytic ehrlichiosis in connecticut and new york state, usa during 1985, 1995, and 1996. serum antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi were detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), based on whole-cell and recombinant antigens, in 82 (84%) horses. of the 181 sera tested, 59% were positive, using whole-cell antigens, compared to 48% with protein (p)37 and 35% with vlse antigens. an elisa containing eith ...200515924926
molecular characterization of potentially zoonotic isolates of giardia duodenalis in horses.giardia isolates from eight horses from new york state (ny), usa and two horses from western australia (wa) were genetically characterized at the ssu-rdna and triose-phosphate isomerase (tpi) genes. phylogenetic analysis of the tpi gene provided strong support for the placement of both isolates of giardia from horses in wa and a single isolate from a horse in ny within the assemblage ai genotype of g. duodenalis. another two isolates from horses in ny placed within the assemblage aii genotype of ...200515925726
epidemic west nile virus encephalomyelitis: a temperature-dependent, spatial model of disease dynamics.since first being detected in new york in 1999, west nile virus (wnv) has spread throughout the united states and more than 20,000 cases of equine wnv encephalomyelitis have been reported. a spatial model of disease occurrence was developed, using data from an outbreak of serologically confirmed disease in an unvaccinated population of horses at 108 locations in northern indiana between 3 august and 17 october 2002. daily maximum temperature data were recorded at meteorological stations surround ...200516112761
heart rate arousal and excitement in gambling: winners versus losers.people sometimes claim they gamble for excitement rather than money. the authors examined in a laboratory analog whether excitement is generated by the expectancy of winning money. eighty male undergraduate students watched a videotaped horse race with an exciting neck-to-neck finish. half bet $1 for a chance of winning $7 if they picked the winning horse; the other half predicted the winning horse without wagering. winning and losing were experimentally manipulated. participants with a chance t ...200516187811
assessing capacity for surveillance, prevention, and control of west nile virus infection--united states, 1999 and 2004.indigenous human disease caused by west nile virus (wnv) was first identified in the united states in august 1999 in the greater new york city area. by the end of 2004, human wnv disease had been reported in all states except washington, hawaii, and alaska, and wnv transmission to humans had been documented by five routes: mosquito bites (principally from culex spp.), blood transfusions, organ transplantation, transplacental transfer, and breastfeeding. during 1999-2005, a total of 19,525 cases ...200616484978
west nile virus in the united states (1999-2005).the accidental introduction of west nile virus into new york city from the old world in 1999 resulted in an epidemic in humans, horses, and birds that swept to the west coast in just 3 years. the virus is transmitted by infective mosquitoes among susceptible native birds, which serve as amplifying hosts. clinical disease occurs in humans and horses, but not enough virus is produced in their blood to infect other mosquitoes; therefore, humans and horses are considered dead-end hosts. humans can b ...200616611928
molecular identification of blood-meal sources in culiseta melanura and culiseta morsitans from an endemic focus of eastern equine encephalitis virus in new york.eastern equine encephalitis (eee) virus perpetuates in an enzootic cycle involving ornithophilic mosquito vectors, principally culiseta melanura (coquillett) and avian amplification hosts. to better understand the role of cs. melanura and culiseta morsitans (theobald) in the epizootiology of eee virus, we collected blood-fed mosquitoes between 31 may and 15 october 2004 at two sites associated with an eee virus focus in central new york and identified the source of vertebrate blood by nucleotide ...200617172382
west nile virus activity--united states, 2006.west nile virus (wnv) is the leading cause of arboviral encephalitis in the united states. originally discovered in africa in 1937, wnv was first detected in the western hemisphere in 1999 in new york city. since then, wnv has caused seasonal epidemics of febrile illness and severe neurologic disease in the united states. this report summarizes provisional wnv surveillance data for 2006 reported to cdc as of april 3, 2007. during 2006, wnv transmission to humans or animals expanded into 52 count ...200717557072
molecular epidemiology of eastern equine encephalitis virus, new york.perpetuation, overwintering, and extinction of eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) in northern foci are poorly understood. we therefore sought to describe the molecular epidemiology of eeev in new york state during current and past epizootics. to determine whether eeev overwinters, is periodically reintroduced, or both, we sequenced the e2 and partial nsp3 coding regions of 42 eeev isolates from new york state and the eastern seaboard of the united states. our phylogenetic analyses indicate ...200818325261
comparative analysis of distribution and abundance of west nile and eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus vectors in suffolk county, new york, using human population density and land use/cover data.five years of cdc light trap data from suffolk county, ny, were analyzed to compare the applicability of human population density (hpd) and land use/cover (luc) classification systems to describe mosquito abundance and to determine whether certain mosquito species of medical importance tend to be more common in urban (defined by hpd) or residential (defined by luc) areas. eleven study sites were categorized as urban or rural using u.s. census bureau data and by luc types using geographic informa ...200818533453
west nile virus activity--united states, 2007.west nile virus (wnv) is the leading cause of arboviral encephalitis in the united states. originally identified in africa in 1937, wnv was first detected in the western hemisphere in 1999 in new york city. since then, wnv has caused seasonal epidemics of febrile illness and neurologic disease in the united states. this report summarizes national wnv surveillance data for 2007. wnv transmission to humans or animals expanded into 19 counties that had not reported transmission previously and recur ...200818600197
tracking eastern equine encephalitis virus perpetuation in the northeastern united states by phylogenetic analysis.epidemics and epizootics of eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) occur sporadically in temperate regions where transmission is seasonal from late summer to early fall. these outbreaks may derive from virus that overwinters locally or perhaps results from reintroduction of virus from other sites. to evaluate these possibilities, we compared the phylogenetic relationships of eeev isolates obtained from mosquitoes collected during statewide arbovirus surveillance in connecticut, in addition to ...200818689638
salt marsh as culex salinarius larval habitat in coastal new york.culex salinarius is considered one of the most likely bridge vectors involved in the human transmission cycle of west nile virus (wnv) and eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (eeev) in the northeastern usa. the larval habitats of this species in the coastal region of new york state are currently poorly known. between 2005 and 2007, a larval survey was carried out to identify and characterize possible larval habitats in suffolk county, encompassing natural and man-made freshwater wetlands, art ...200818939687
leading a horse to water: using automated reminders to increase use of online decision support.online knowledge resources are generally underused despite their potentially beneficial effect on patient care. we are interested in ways to increase use of context-specific links, called infobuttons, from clinical information systems to such resources. we used log files to examine the impact of classroom instruction on infobutton use to pinpoint a particular context where infobuttons appeared to be underused by particular users. we sent users e-mail suggestions about infobuttons and reviewed lo ...200818999097
distribution and abundance of host-seeking culex species at three proximate locations with different levels of west nile virus activity.culex species were monitored at three proximate sites with historically different west nile virus (wnv) activities. the site with human wnv transmission (epidemic) had the lowest abundance of the putative bridge vectors, culex pipiens and cx. salinarius. the site with horse cases but not human cases (epizootic) had the highest percent composition of cx. salinarius, whereas the site with wnv-positive birds only (enzootic) had the highest cx. pipiens abundance and percent composition. a total of 2 ...200919346396
identification of bloodmeals in anopheles quadrimaculatus and anopheles punctipennis from eastern equine encephalitis virus foci in northeastern u.s.a.the host-feeding patterns of anopheles quadrimaculatus say and anopheles punctipennis (say) were examined in order to evaluate their potential contributions to the transmission of eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) and other arboviruses in the northeastern u.s.a. engorged mosquitoes of the two species were collected from eeev foci in central new york (ny) and throughout new jersey (nj), and their bloodmeals were identified using a polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based assay and sequencing ...200919941600
plasma arginine vasopressin concentration in horses undergoing surgery for colic.to determine if horses before undergoing anesthesia for surgical correction of colic would have lower plasma arginine vasopressin (avp) concentrations than healthy horses undergoing anesthesia for arthroscopic surgery, and would not increase their plasma avp concentrations in response to anesthesia and surgery.200920017758
dry weather induces outbreaks of human west nile virus infections.since its first occurrence in the new york city area during 1999, west nile virus (wnv) has spread rapidly across north america and has become a major public health concern in north america. by 2002, wnv was reported in 40 states and the district of columbia with 4,156 human and 14,539 equine cases of infection. mississippi had the highest human incidence rate of wnv during the 2002 epidemic in the united states. epidemics of wnv can impose enormous impacts on local economies. therefore, it is a ...201020181272
west nile virus activity - united states, 2009.west nile virus (wnv) was first detected in the western hemisphere in 1999 in new york city and has since caused seasonal epidemics of febrile illness and neurologic disease across the united states, where it is now the leading cause of arboviral encephalitis. this report updates a previous report and summarizes wnv activity in the united states reported to cdc in 2009. a total of 38 states and the district of columbia (dc) reported 720 cases of wnv disease. of these, 33 states and dc reported 3 ...201020592686
the prevalence of cryptosporidium, and identification of the cryptosporidium horse genotype in foals in new york state.to date, little is known about the prevalence, genotypes and zoonotic potential of cryptosporidium spp. affecting horses, especially in north america. a cross-sectional study was conducted in new york, usa between february 25th and may 1st 2009. fecal samples were collected from three hundred and forty nine 1-10-week-old foals and their dams on 14 different broodmare farms. all fecal samples were screened for cryptosporidium spp. using a direct immunofluorescence assay (dfa). dna extraction and ...201020932647
microevolution of canine influenza virus in shelters and its molecular epidemiology in the united states.canine influenza virus (civ) emerged around 2000 when an equine influenza virus (eiv) was transmitted to dogs in florida. after 2003, the canine virus was carried by infected greyhounds to various parts of the united states and then became established in several large animal shelters, where it has continued to circulate. to better understand the evolution of civ since its emergence, and particularly its microevolution in spatially restricted populations, we examined multiple gene segments of civ ...201020943966
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