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analysis of serotypes and electropherotypes of equine rotaviruses isolated in the united states.equine group a rotaviruses isolated over a 10-year period in new york state, new jersey, kentucky, and texas were compared serotypically and electropherotypically. all isolates were determined to be serotype 3 by reaction with hyperimmune antiserum to the serotype 3 h-2 strain of equine rotavirus. all displayed rna electrophoretic migration patterns related to that of the h-2 strain but distinct from that of serotype 5 strain h-1. a serologic survey of 184 mares in kentucky, which was done to de ...19911647407
trajectory analysis of winds and eastern equine encephalitis in usa, 1980-5.backward trajectories of winds were determined to identify possible sources of eastern equine encephalitis virus associated with isolation of virus from mosquitoes or birds or outbreaks in horses between 1980 and 1985 in maryland, new jersey, new york and michigan, usa. the results of the trajectory analyses suggested that eastern equine encephalitis virus could have been carried by infected mosquitoes on surface winds at temperatures 13 degrees c or higher from north carolina north-eastwards al ...19901969804
trajectory analysis of winds and vesicular stomatitis in north america, 1982-5.outbreaks of vesicular stomatitis, serotype new jersey, during epidemics in the united states and northern mexico, 1982-5, were examined by backward trajectories of winds to investigate spread and possible sources. the outbreaks selected for analysis did not involve introduction of disease by infected animals. the findings indicate that wind could have been responsible for carrying infection from northern mexico to arizona and new mexico and thence to colorado and utah and on to wyoming, idaho a ...19902157606
rabies surveillance in the united states during 1989.in 1989, 4,808 cases of rabies in animals other than human beings were reported to the centers for disease control, 1.8% more (4,724 to 4,808) than in 1988. eighty-eight percent (4,224/4,808) of those affected were wild animals and 12% (584/4,808) were domestic animals. cases were reported from 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico; hawaii remained rabies-free. skunks (1,657) continued to be the most commonly reported rabid wild animal. for the second consecutive year, more cats ( ...19902276949
serologic survey for borrelia burgdorferi antibody in horses referred to a mid-atlantic veterinary teaching hospital.blood samples obtained from 13 of 100 (13%) and 6 of 91 (7%) horses at the george d. widener hospital for large animals in the months of june and october, respectively, had antibody to borrelia burgdorferi as determined by elisa. horses from the states of new york, maryland, delaware, new jersey, and pennsylvania were seropositive for b burgdorferi. the frequency of antibody response in horses from new jersey was greater (p less than 0.05) than the frequency of antibody response in horses from p ...19902332371
eastern equine encephalitis in quebec and connecticut, 1972: introduction by infected mosquitoes on the wind?in 1972 there were outbreaks of eastern equine encephalitis in the eastern townships, quebec, canada and in connecticut, usa. climatic data including northern hemisphere synoptic charts were examined. the findings indicate that the virus could have been brought to lac brome by infected mosquitoes carried on surface winds from meriden, connecticut, on the night of august 22-23, 1972. the distance of 400 km would have been covered in 14-16 h at a speed of 25-30 km h-1 and at a temperature of 15 de ...19892563337
isolation of eastern equine encephalitis virus from aedes sollicitans during an epizootic in southern new jersey.eastern equine encephalitis virus (eee) was isolated from the salt marsh mosquito, aedes sollicitans, collected from coastal areas of new jersey on 3 occasions during the late summer and fall of 1982. the isolations were made at a time when local culiseta melanura were either undergoing a population increase or exhibiting high levels of eee virus. although no human cases were reported during the epizootic period, the data lend support to the hypothesis that ae. sollicitans is capable of function ...19862853203
occurrence and seasonal incidence of mosquitoes on indian reservations in iowa, nebraska and south dakota during 1983.a mosquito surveillance program designed to prevent future human cases of western equine encephalitis or saint louis encephalitis was established in 1983 on indian reservations under the jurisdiction of the aberdeen area indian health service in iowa, nebraska and south dakota. standard new jersey light traps were operated on all reservations throughout the summer season while cdc miniature and encephalitis virus surveillance traps were employed for shorter periods of time on 4 reservations. aed ...19862906969
serologic surveillance for vesicular stomatitis virus on ossabaw island, georgia.seventeen species of mammals and seven species of birds from ossabaw island, georgia, were tested for vesicular stomatitis (vs) neutralizing antibodies. seropositive results were restricted to mammals with six of 17 species testing seropositive for vs (new jersey type) neutralizing antibodies. seropositive species included: raccoons (procyon lotor), white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), feral swine (sus scrofa), cattle (bos taurus), horses (equus caballus), and donkeys (equus asinus). all ...19852987546
failure of chickens to act as sentinels during an epizootic of eastern equine encephalitis in southern new jersey, usa. 19863025443
equine ehrlichial colitis (potomac horse fever): recognition of the disease in pennsylvania, new jersey, new york, ohio, idaho, and connecticut.equine ehrlichial colitis (potomac horse fever), a newly identified colitis of the horse, was first recognized in maryland. in this report, we document occurrence of the disease in pennsylvania, new jersey, new york, ohio, idaho, and connecticut. enzootic areas were recognized by a characteristic pattern. frequently there was a seasonal pattern and high prevalence of sporadic colitis in unstressed horses. the attack rate per farm generally was low. horses on pasture, as well as those stabled, we ...19863744978
eastern encephalitis: a review of recent studies in new jersey. 19684898086
the 1959 outbreak of eastern encephalitis in new jersey. ii. isolation and identification of viruses. 19685637862
the 1959 outbreak of eastern encephalitis in new jersey. i. introduction and description of outbreak. 19685637871
encephalitis vaccination of pheasants: a question of efficacy. 19836309722
eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in relation to the avian community of a coastal cedar swamp.eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (eeev) is perpetuated in eastern north america in a mosquito-wild bird maintenance cycle that involves culiseta melanura (coquillett) as the principal enzootic vector and passerine birds as the primary amplifying hosts. we examined the role of birds in the eeev cycle at a site in southern new jersey where eeev cycles annually at high levels. birds and mosquitoes were sampled during three epiornitics and one season of limited virus activity. we examined anti ...19947966175
effect of temperature on the development of culiseta melanura (diptera: culicidae) and its impact on the amplification of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in birds.eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (eee) is perpetuated in a maintenance cycle that involves culiseta melanura (coquillett) as the enzootic vector and passerine birds as the amplifying hosts. amplification of virus in any given year requires an influx of nulliparous cs. melanura in the presence of susceptible avian hosts. we conducted laboratory experiments at constant temperatures from 10 to 34 degrees c to develop thermal heat summation models to predict emergence in nature. embryonic deve ...19989835694
serologic survey for selected infectious disease agents in swift and kit foxes from the western united states.a serologic survey of swift fox (vulpes velox) and kit fox (v. macrotis) from the western usa was conducted for 12 infectious diseases. samples from swift fox were collected between 1987 and 1992 from colorado (n = 44), kansas (n = 10), and wyoming (n = 9). samples from kit fox were collected in california (n = 86), new mexico (n = 18), utah (n = 9), and arizona (n = 6). overall antibody prevalence rates were 33 of 110 (30%) for canine parvovirus (cpv), 9 of 72 (13%) for canine distemper virus ( ...200011085448
update: west nile virus activity--eastern united states, 2000.data reported to cdc through the west nile virus (wnv) surveillance system have shown an increase in the geographic range of wnv activity in 2000 compared with 1999, the first year that wnv was reported in the western hemisphere. in response to this occurrence of wnv, 17 states along the atlantic and gulf coasts, new york city, and the district of columbia conducted wnv surveillance, which included monitoring mosquitoes, sentinel chicken flocks, wild birds, and potentially susceptible mammals (e ...200011105767
genetic analysis of vesicular stomatitis virus-new jersey from the 1995 outbreak in the western united states.to compare molecular associations between the vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv)-new jersey isolates of the 1995 outbreak with those from previous outbreaks between 1982 and 1985 in the western united states.200011108179
pathologic and immunohistochemical findings in naturally occuring west nile virus infection in horses.the pathologic and peroxidase immunohistochemical features of west nile flavivirus (wnv) infection were compared in four horses from the northeastern united states and six horses from central italy. in all 10 animals, there were mild to severe polioencephalomyelitis with small t lymphocyte and lesser macrophage perivascular infiltrate, multifocal glial nodules, neutrophils, and occasional neuronophagia. perivascular hemorrhages, also noted macroscopically in two animals, were observed in 50% of ...200111467475
west nile encephalitis: an emerging disease in the united states.in 1999, an epidemic of west nile virus (wnv) encephalitis occurred in new york city (nyc) and 2 surrounding new york counties. simultaneously, an epizootic among american crows and other bird species occurred in 4 states. indigenous transmission of wnv had never been documented in the western hemisphere until this epidemic. in 2000, the epizootic expanded to 12 states and the district of columbia, and the epidemic continued in nyc, 5 new jersey counties, and 1 connecticut county. in addition to ...200111595987
prevalence of agglutinating antibodies to sarcocystis neurona in raccoons, procyon lotor, from the united states.equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (epm) is the most important protozoal disease of horses in north america and it is caused by sarcocystis neurona. natural cases of encephalitis due to s. neurona have been reported in raccoons, procyon lotor. we examined 99 raccoons for agglutinating antibodies to s. neurona using the s. neurona agglutination test (sat) employing formalin-fixed merozoites as antigen. raccoons originated in florida (n=24, collected in 1996), new jersey (n=25, collected in 1993), ...200111698158
use of sentinel herds to study the epidemiology of vesicular stomatitis in the state of colorado.approximately 20 sentinel premises in colorado were visited quarterly during a 3-year prospective study to investigate the persistence of vs viruses in horses. a survey to assess management practices, health events, animal movements and environmental data was completed at each visit. collection of serum samples and oral swabs along with a clinical examination of sentinel horses were performed at each visit. serum samples were tested by 2 or more of 4 available serological tests. the data collect ...200212381592
west nile virus activity--united states, october 6-12, 2004.during october 6-12, a total of 86 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 18 states (arizona, florida, illinois, kansas, louisiana, michigan, minnesota, missouri, nevada, new jersey, new mexico, north dakota, ohio, oklahoma, pennsylvania, tennessee, texas, and utah).200415483530
molecular epidemiology of vesicular stomatitis new jersey virus from the 2004-2005 us outbreak indicates a common origin with mexican strains.vesicular stomatitis (vs) outbreaks of unknown origin occur at 8-10-year intervals in the south-western usa with the most recent outbreak beginning in 2004. a previous study has suggested that strains causing us outbreaks are closely related to strains causing outbreaks in mexico [rodriguez (2002) virus res 85, 211-219]. this study determined the phylogenetic relationships among 116 vesicular stomatitis new jersey virus (vsnjv) strains obtained from the 2004 outbreak and from endemic areas in me ...200717554039
identification of bloodmeals in anopheles quadrimaculatus and anopheles punctipennis from eastern equine encephalitis virus foci in northeastern u.s.a.the host-feeding patterns of anopheles quadrimaculatus say and anopheles punctipennis (say) were examined in order to evaluate their potential contributions to the transmission of eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) and other arboviruses in the northeastern u.s.a. engorged mosquitoes of the two species were collected from eeev foci in central new york (ny) and throughout new jersey (nj), and their bloodmeals were identified using a polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based assay and sequencing ...200919941600
1995 epizootic of vesicular stomatitis (new jersey serotype) in the western united states: an entomologic perspective.entomologic and epizootic data are reviewed concerning the potential for transmission of vesicular stomatitis (vs) virus by insects, including field data from case-positive premises in new mexico and colorado during the 1995 outbreak of the new jersey serotype (vsnj). as with previous outbreaks of vsnj in the western united states, the 1995 epizootic illustrated that risk of exposure is seasonal, increasing during warm weather and decreasing with onset of cool weather; virus activity spread from ...199910071485
sampling with light traps and human bait in epidemic foci for eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in southeastern massachusetts.to estimate human exposure to potential vectors of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (eee) virus, we compared collections of putative eee virus vectors from human biting collections with collections from cdc, ab (american biophysics), and new jersey light traps and resting boxes in enzootic/epidemic foci of eee virus in southeastern massachusetts. human biting collections caught significantly more host-seeking females than resting boxes or unbaited light traps (p < 0.05). regression analysis of h ...19979474561
sampling methods for potential epidemic vectors of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in massachusetts.to determine which of 11 trapping methods best sampled populations of 6 potential epidemic vectors of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (eee) virus, we compared new jersey (nj) light trap, cdc light trap, cdc with octenol, cdc with co2, cdc with co2 plus octenol, american biophysics light trap with flickering light (ab flicker), ab steady light, ab flicker with octenol, ab flicker with co2, ab flicker with co2 plus octenol, and 3 resting boxes. there was no significant difference between cdc and ...19979474560
physiological responses to the endurance test of a 3-day-event during hot and cool weather.physiological data were collected during two 3-day-event competitions: one (h) held in hot and the other (cl) in cool conditions. during h, ambient temperature and relative humidity were 2.5 degrees c-35 degrees c and 74-36% respectively, while during cl, ambient temperature and relative humidity were 7.8 degrees c-8.3 degrees c and 46%-41%, respectively. rectal temperature, heart and respiratory rates were recorded on arrival at the event, at the end of phase c and 6 min later, at the end of ph ...19958933082
prerace venous blood acid-base values in standardbred horses.the administration of sodium bicarbonate (nahco3) or 'milk shakes' to standardbred horses before racing is widespread. this study analysed nonrace day (ctl) and prerace venous acid-base values from standardbred horses racing in pennsylvania (pa) and new jersey (nj). mean +/- s.d. ctl bicarbonate (hco3) and base excess (be) values, for a group of horses stabled during the 1993 racing season at pocono downs, pennsylvania, were 28.6 +/- 1.9 and 2.6 +/- 1.7 mmol/l, respectively. in the same populati ...19968894537
hosts of lutzomyia shannoni (diptera: psychodidae) in relation to vesicular stomatitis virus on ossabaw island, georgia, u.s.a.hosts of lutzomyia shannoni dyar, a suspected biological vector of the new jersey serotype of vesicular stomatitis (vsnj) virus, were determined using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) of 333 blood-fed female sandflies collected from their diurnal resting shelters on ossabaw island, georgia, u.s.a. sandflies had fed primarily on white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) (81%) and to a lesser extent on feral swine (sus scrofa) (16%), two species of host infected annually with ...19947841487
epidemiologic studies of lyme disease in horses and their public health significance.a serologic survey of horses in the new jersey-pennsylvania area demonstrated that about 10% (6.2-14.2%) have significant levels of serum antibody to borrelia burgdorferi. however, in a highly endemic area of central new jersey, up to 60% of the mares and yearlings samples on one farm were seropositive. in 1983, sera from this same farm exhibited only 12% positives in mares and 35% positives in yearlings. longitudinal studies of paired sera obtained from individual yearlings over a 6-month perio ...19883190097
characterization of new jersey vesicular stomatitis virus isolates from horses and black flies during the 1982 outbreak in colorado.vesicular stomatitis viruses isolated from horses, afflicted during the recent outbreak in the western united states, and from black flies (simuliidae) were characterized with respect to the homology of their genomic rnas and the mobility of their proteins in polyacrylamide gels. all the isolates were very similar, if not identical, with respect to these two parameters. when the black fly isolate was compared to other vsv isolates, this virus appeared to belong in the hazelhurst subgroup of the ...19852997995
absence of eastern equine encephalitis (eee) virus in immature coquillettidia perturbans associated with equine cases of eee. 19852906692
lutzomyia shannoni (diptera: psychodidae): a biological vector of the new jersey serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus on ossabaw island, georgia.the new jersey serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus (vsnj) is enzootic on ossabaw island, georgia. lutzomyia shannoni is the only phlebotomine sand fly present on the island and there is strong evidence that it is a vector of the virus at this site. this overview summarizes the studies that have been done on the island, reviews the evidence which confirms that l. shannoni is a biological vector of vsnj, and discusses remaining unknown aspects of the epizootiology of vsnj.19911668681
correlation of culex tarsalis population indices with the incidence of st. louis encephalitis and western equine encephalomyelitis in california.mosquito population indices from california for the period 1953-1973 were analyzed to determine their association with activity of st. louis encephalitis (sle) and western equine encephalomyelitis (wee) viruses. culex tarsalis female populations, as measured by new jersey light trap indices (lti), correlated positively with the incidence rates of encephalitis in humans, and were a reliable means of forecasting the years of highest incidence. the critical level of c. tarsalis in urban areas below ...1979453436
effect of omeprazole paste on gastric acid secretion in horses.in a multicentre trial, 13 cannulated horses were treated orally once daily with a paste that delivered omeprazole at a dose of 4 and 5 mg/kg bwt in a 2-period crossover design to evaluate steady state gastric acid suppression. in each period, basal (unstimulated) and pentagastrin-stimulated gastric output were evaluated at 5-8 h after 5 doses, at 13-16 h after 10 doses, and at 21-24 h after 15 doses. baseline data for gastric acid secretion were collected once for each horse in the month prior ...199910696296
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