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prevalence of equine onchocerciasis in southeastern and midwestern united states.of 664 horses reported to have originated in southeastern and midwestern united states, 341 (51.4%) were positive for onchocerca cervicalis cutaneous microfilariasis. the highest prevalence of 68.8% was recorded for horses from virginia. horses with the highest concentrations of microfilariae (as high as 19,770 microfilariae/mg in 1 horse) were from the southeast (georgia, florida, tennessee, and alabama). for horses from south carolina, the prevalence of infection was 57.1%; from the midwest (k ...19854008301
west nile virus activity--united states, july 28-august 3, 2004.during july 28-august 3, a total of 141 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 11 states (alabama, arizona, california, colorado, florida, illinois, nevada, new york, north dakota, south dakota, and texas). during 2004, a total of 20 states have reported a total of 406 cases of human wnv illness to cdc through arbonet. of these, 247 (61%) were reported from arizona. a total of 226 (57%) of the 406 cases occurred in males; the median age of patients was 51 years (range: 1 ...200415295314
west nile virus activity--united states, august 4-10, 2004.during august 4-10, a total of 89 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 14 states (alabama, arizona, california, florida, illinois, kentucky, louisiana, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, new mexico, north dakota, south dakota, and wyoming).200415306758
west nile virus activity--united states, august 11-17, 2004.during august 11-17, a total of 194 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 17 states (alabama, arizona, california, colorado, florida, illinois, louisiana, maryland, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, new mexico, ohio, south dakota, texas, utah, and virginia).200415318160
west nile virus activity--united states, august 18-24, 2004.during august 18-24, a total of 154 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 18 states (alabama, arizona, california, colorado, connecticut, florida, georgia, illinois, kentucky, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, nevada, new mexico, north carolina, south dakota, tennessee, and wisconsin).200415329654
west nile virus activity--united states, september 8-14, 2004.during september 8-14, a total of 195 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 26 states (alabama, arizona, arkansas, california, colorado, florida, georgia, idaho, illinois, iowa, kansas, maryland, minnesota, missouri, nebraska, nevada, new mexico, new york, north dakota, oklahoma, oregon, pennsylvania, south dakota, tennessee, texas, and wisconsin).200415371969
west nile virus activity--united states, september 22-28, 2004.during september 22-28, a total of 180 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported in the district of columbia (dc) and 24 states (alabama, arizona, california, georgia, illinois, iowa, kansas, kentucky, louisiana, maryland, michigan, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, montana, nebraska, nevada, new mexico, ohio, pennsylvania, texas, utah, wisconsin, and wyoming).200415457147
west nile virus activity--united states, september 29-october 5, 2004.during september 29-october 5, a total of 81 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 18 states (alabama, arizona, arkansas, california, florida, georgia, illinois, iowa, kansas, kentucky, minnesota, missouri, ohio, oklahoma, pennsylvania, south dakota, texas, and virginia).200415470326
winter biology of wetland mosquitoes at a focus of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus transmission in alabama, usa.at temperate latitudes, vectors and pathogens must possess biological mechanisms for coping with cold temperatures and surviving from one transmission season to the next. mosquitoes that overwinter in the adult stage have been proposed as winter maintenance hosts for certain arboviruses. in the cases of west nile virus (family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus) and st. louis encephalitis virus (family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus), discovery of infected overwintering females lends support to this ...201121936314
a multi-year study of mosquito feeding patterns on avian hosts in a southeastern focus of eastern equine encephalitis virus.abstract. eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) is a mosquito-borne pathogen that cycles in birds but also causes severe disease in humans and horses. we examined patterns of avian host use by vectors of eeev in alabama from 2001 to 2009 using blood-meal analysis of field-collected mosquitoes and avian abundance surveys. the northern cardinal (cardinalis cardinalis) was the only preferred host (fed on significantly more than expected based on abundance) of culiseta melanura, the enzootic vect ...201121540380
temporal analysis of feeding patterns of culex erraticus in central alabama.host blood meals in seven mosquito species previously shown to be infected with eastern equine encephalitis virus at a site in the tuskegee national forest in southcentral alabama were investigated. of 1374 blood meals derived from 88 different host species collected over 6 years from these seven mosquito species, 1099 were derived from culex erraticus. analysis of the temporal pattern of cx. erraticus meals using a runs test revealed that the patterns of feeding upon avian and mammalian hosts f ...201121395423
comparison of direct and indirect methods of intra-abdominal pressure measurement in normal horses.to develop a direct method for measuring intra-abdominal pressures in the standing horse, identify a reference interval for direct intra-abdominal pressures, compare these pressures to indirect intra-abdominal pressures measured from the bladder, and determine the optimal bladder infusion volume for indirect pressure measurement.200920017760
rapid assessment of mosquitoes and arbovirus activity after floods in southeastern kansas, 2007.a rapid assessment was conducted in july-august 2007 to determine the impact of heavy rains and early summer floods on the mosquitoes and arbovirus activity in 4 southeastern kansas counties. during 10 days and nights of collections using different types and styles of mosquito traps, a total of 10,512 adult female mosquitoes representing 29 species were collected, including a new species record for kansas (psorophora mathesoni). high numbers of aedes albopictus were collected. over 4,000 specime ...200919852215
developing gis-based eastern equine encephalitis vector-host models in tuskegee, alabama.a site near tuskegee, alabama was examined for vector-host activities of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (eeev). land cover maps of the study site were created in arcinfo 9.2 from quickbird data encompassing visible and near-infrared (nir) band information (0.45 to 0.72 microm) acquired july 15, 2008. georeferenced mosquito and bird sampling sites, and their associated land cover attributes from the study site, were overlaid onto the satellite data. sas 9.1.4 was used to explore univariat ...201020181267
estimation of dispersal distances of culex erraticus in a focus of eastern equine encephalitis virus in the southeastern united states.patterns of mosquito dispersal are important for predicting the risk of transmission of mosquito-borne pathogens to vertebrate hosts. we studied dispersal behavior of culex erraticus (dyar & knab), a potentially significant vector of eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) that is often associated with foci of this pathogen in the southeastern united states. using data on the relative density of resting adult female cx. erraticus around known emergence sites in tuskegee national forest, alabama ...201021175044
efficacy of moxidectin against cyathostomins after long-term use in a large herd of draught horses with a high stocking density.this study was undertaken to determine whether resistance to moxidectin had developed in a large herd of draught horses, maintained on a small acreage, which had been routinely treated with moxidectin for five years. faeces were collected for egg counts immediately before moxidectin gel was administered orally, and seven, 30, 60 and 90 days later. the faecal egg counts were significantly reduced at seven and 30 days after treatment, but were not significantly different from pretreatment counts a ...200919465754
avian host preference by vectors of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus.an important variable in the amplification and escape from the enzootic cycle of the arboviral encephalitides is the degree of contact between avian hosts and mosquito vectors. to analyze this interaction in detail, blood-fed mosquitoes that were confirmed vectors of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (eee) virus were collected in 2002 from an enzootic site in central alabama during the time this virus was actively transmitted. avian-derived blood meals were identified to the species level of the ...200314740882
efficacy of training in theriogenology as determined by a survey of veterinarians.to determine whether veterinarians perceive that theriogenology training at veterinary medical schools in north america and the caribbean is adequate for achievement of theriogenology skills commonly used in private practice.200616910848
identification of reptilian and amphibian blood meals from mosquitoes in an eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus focus in central alabama.uranotaenia sapphirina, culex erraticus, and cx. peccator were collected in an enzootic eastern equine encephalomyelitis (eee) virus focus in central alabama (tuskegee national forest) from 2001 to 2003 and analyzed for virus as well as host selection. eee virus was detected in each species every year except 2003, when pools of cx. peccator were negative. most (97%) of the 130 cx. peccator blood meals identified were from ectothermic hosts; 3% were from birds. among blood meals from reptiles (ap ...200415381805
virus characterization and sequence of the fusion protein gene cleavage site of recent newcastle disease virus field isolates from the southeastern united states and puerto rico.nine newcastle disease virus (ndv) isolates obtained from puerto rico, georgia, alabama, mississippi, and texas were analyzed for in vivo pathogenicity, biological properties (hemagglutination of mammalian erythrocytes), and for sequence variation at the amino acid and sense rna level of the fusion protein cleavage site. intracerebral pathogenicity index values ranged from 0 to 0.3 and the intravenous pathogenicity index obtained for all isolates was 0. four isolates hemagglutinated bovine eryth ...19968790890
acute diarrhea in horses of the potomac river area: examination for clostridial toxins.fecal specimens from horses in montgomery county, md, and in fairfax and loudoun counties, va, were examined for clostridium perfringens type a enterotoxin and for c difficile cytotoxin (92 and 108 specimens, respectively). the toxins were found in feces from horses that had experienced an acute diarrhea syndrome and from clinically normal horses. the toxins did not appear to be primary determinants of the diarrhea syndrome, although they may have contributed to the spectrum of clinical entities ...19846469842
identification of isolate-specific sporozoite proteins of cryptosporidium parvum by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.five isolates of cryptosporidium parvum collected from human, horse, and calf sources were compared for differences in sporozoite protein patterns by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. silver-stained two-dimensional gels contained over 300 protein spots from detergent-solubilized sporozoites. a distinguishing 106-kilodalton peptide that shifted in isoelectric point was detected in four of the five isolates. computerized two-dimensional gel analysis was performed to obtain objective quant ...19902365452
occupational lead poisoning, animal deaths, and environmental contamination at a scrap smelter.occupational lead poisoning and environmental contamination were evaluated at a lead scrap smelter. thirty of 37 employees (81 per cent) has blood lead levels of greater than or equal to 80 mug/100 ml, indicating unacceptable absorption, and 35 had free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (fep) levels greater than 60mug/100ml rbc, indicating toxicity of lead on heme metabolism in red blood cells; eight current and previous employees had been hospitalized with lead colic, and another with encephalopathy. ...1976937600
west nile virus activity--united states, july 21-27, 2004.during july 21-27, a total of 83 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 13 states (alabama, arizona, arkansas, california, colorado, florida, illinois, iowa, missouri, new mexico, ohio, pennsylvania, and south dakota).200415282450
transmission of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in central alabama.a site near tuskegee, alabama was examined for vector activity of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (eee) virus in 2001. more than 23,000 mosquitoes representing 8 genera and 34 species were collected during a 21-week period, and five species, culiseta melanura, aedes vexans, coquillettidia perturbans, culex erraticus, and uranotaenia sapphirina, were examined for the presence of virus using a nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for eee virus. each species was infected at vario ...200312875303
deaths from eastern equine encephalitis reported in the south. 200314740667
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