serologic evidence of venezuelan equine encephalitis in some wild and domestic populations of southern texas.more than 2,500 sera from approximately 30 wild and domestic species in southern texas were tested for neutralizing antibodies to venezuelan equine encephalitis (vee). virus isolations were also attempted from blood and tissue samples of many of the wild specimens. vee neutralizing substances were present in a variety of species collected prior to the 1971 epizootic, suggesting that vee was present and perhaps enzootic in this area before the recent epizootic. serologic results of this study sug ...1975238050
an epizootiologic study of anthrax in falls county, june and july, 1974, an anthrax epizootic in falls county, texas, resulted in the death of 236 animals (228 cattle, 5 horses, 2 mules, and 1 pig) on 48 premises. death rates were highest for horses (18.2%) and bulls (16.8%). the epizootic was apparently precipitated by drought, and infection appeared to be the result of ingesting intrinsically contaminated soil and grass. human illness was not associated with the epizootic.1977401803
prolonged western equine encephalitis viremia in the texas tortoise (gopherus berlandieri).subcutaneous inoculation of 34 texas tortoises (gopherus berlandieri) with either of two strains of western equine encephalitis (wee) virus resulted in prolonged viremia of up to 105 days' duration. peak viremia titers exceeded 10(6) suckling mouse intracranial lethal doses per milliliter. the length of the previremic period, the maximum viremia level attained, and the duration of viremia were markedly affected by environmental temperature. higher temperatures (30 degrees c) shortened the previr ...1977842780
arboviral disease--united states, 1991.during 1991, state and local health departments reported 122 cases of human arboviral encephalitis to cdc. more than half (69) of the cases resulted from outbreaks of st. louis encephalitis (sle) in arkansas and texas. in addition, an epizootic of eastern equine encephalitis (eee) extending from the atlantic and gulf coasts into the upper midwest caused sporadic human cases and a substantial loss of livestock. this report summarizes the reported cases of arboviral encephalitis in the united stat ...19921321947
seroprevalence of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in a population of horses in central texas.four hundred sixty-nine serum samples were obtained from horses admitted to the internal medicine service of the texas veterinary medical center between jan 1 and dec 31, 1990. serum samples were tested by elisa for antibody to borrelia burgdorferi. of these 469 samples, 1 (0.2%) was repeatedly seropositive for the organism by elisa. confirmatory testing by protein immunoblot was negative. the observed seroprevalence was 0%; the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval was 0.6%. these findings ...19921429127
[venezuelan equine encephalitis. history and present epidemic outbreak]. 19724602834
house sparrows, passer domesticus (l.), as hosts of arboviruses in hale county, texas. i. field studies, 1965-1969. 19734688420
house sparrows, passer domesticus (l.), as hosts of arboviruses in hale county, texas. ii. laboratory studies with western equine encephalitis virus. 19734688421
acute, febrile cns illnesses in an endemic area of texas. 19674963714
recurrent st. louis encephalitis infection in residents of a flood plain of the trinity river, roosevelt heights (dallas, texas). 19725048980
trinity river serologic survey. a survey of residents of communities along the course of the trinity river between houston and dallas, texas, for antibodies to the viruses of st. louis encephalitis, western equine encephalitis and california encephalitis. 19715120543
transmission of equine cyathostomes (strongylidae) in central texas.after foaling, 6 mares and their foals were placed on equine parasite-free pastures. observations of fecal nematode eggs and pasture larvae indicated peak cyathostome egg production occurred in late august and early september, with greatest numbers of larvae on the forage appearing during october. two foals were necropsied for parasitologic evaluations at approximately 155 days of age. both had approximately 100,000 adult cyathostomes, mostly cylicostephanus longibursatus, cylicocyclus nassatus ...19836638646
equestrian injuries: a five-year review.a retrospective chart review was conducted to define the demographic and injury patterns of patients presenting to the emergency department (ed). the setting is a rural/small urban tertiary care center with approximately 40,000 visits per year. all patients presenting to the ed from january 1986 through december 1990 with equestrian-related injuries were enrolled in the study. measurements included age, sex, mechanism of injury, injury or injuries diagnosed, admission to the hospital, morbidity, ...19948207147
vee in texas. an on-the-scene report (july 28, 1971). 19715209262
[venezuelan equine encephalitis]. 19715166336
neurologic, intellectual, and psychologic sequelae following western encephalitis. a follow-up study of 35 cases. 19715106260
insecticide spray. 19725025904
possible evidence for interference with venezuelan equine encephalitis virus vaccination of equines by pre-existing antibody to eastern or western equine encephalitis virus, or both.during 1971, an epizootic of venezuelan equine encephalitis (vee) reached the united states. laboratory tests were performed on a large number of sick, healthy, unvaccinated, and vaccinated horses. neutralization (n) tests in cell cultures revealed that 153 of 193 (79.3%) equines outside the state of texas and 175 of 204 (85.8%) within texas (82.6% overall) had detectable n antibody to vee virus a week or more after vaccination. twenty-six of 40 (65%) non-texas equines and 18 of 29 (62%) texas e ...19734751797
virulence of venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus subtypes for various laboratory hosts.mice, guinea pigs, and duck embryo cell cultures were inoculated with known subtypes of venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (vee) virus and the attenuated (tc-83) strain of vee. with the exception of tc-83, all strains were highly pathogenic for suckling mice by either intracranial or intraperitoneal routes of inoculation used. virulence for older mice and guinea pigs provided a means to distinguish strains. in addition, virulence or lack of virulence for adult mice or guinea pigs provides a rap ...19744155263
venezuelan equine encephalitis epidemic in texas, 1971. 19744151413
arbovirus surveillance in six states during 1972.a virus surveillance project was established and maintained during 1972 along 10 major river drainages in six states. mosquitoes, biting flies, and blood specimens from sentinel equines were collected during 83 field trip visits to 141 arthropod collecting sites and 22 sentinel locations from april into december 1972. there were 173,074 mosquitoes tested and 303 arboviruses isolated from 11 of 41 species. from 13,388 biting flies tested, 8 arbovirus isolations were obtained in 1 of 5 species. th ...19767148
weather factors in the prediction of western equine encephalitis epidemics in manitoba.cases of western equine encephalitis in horses in 1987 in western usa and manitoba, canada were examined by backward trajectory analysis of winds. culex tarsalis mosquitoes infected with western equine encephalitis virus could have been carried on southerly winds from texas and oklahoma to northern usa and from there to manitoba. the presence of the polar front over north dakota and minnesota at the end of july would have led to the landing of cx. tarsalis in montana and wisconsin and prevented ...19938405163
prevalence and factors associated with development of laminitis in horses with duodenitis/proximal jejunitis: 33 cases (1985-1991).medical records of 116 horses admitted to the texas veterinary medical center between jan 1, 1984 and dec 31, 1991 with duodenitis/proximal jejunitis (dpj) were reviewed. the prevalence of laminitis was 28.4% (33/116; 95% confidence interval: 20.2 to 36.6%). the prevalence of dpj and dpj-associated laminitis did not appear to vary significantly by year during the study period. anamnesis, physical examination, clinicopathologic data, and initial treatment recorded at the time of admission were re ...19948144386
an epizootic attributable to western equine encephalitis virus infection in emus in epizootic of encephalomyelitis attributable to western equine encephalitis virus was identified in emus (dromaius novaehollandiae) from several flocks in western texas in july 1992. affected emus ranged from 3 months to 3 years old. morbidity of emus in 8 flocks ranged from 15 to 50%, and 17 of 193 (8.8%) emus died. the diagnosis was confirmed by isolation and characterization of the causative virus and detection of antibody to the virus in emus that were currently ill and emus that had been ...19947961099
risk factors for history of previous colic and for chronic, intermittent colic in a population of identify risk factors for recurrent colic and chronic, intermittent colic in horses.19968617626
evaluation of equine breeding farm characteristics as risk factors for development of rhodococcus equi pneumonia in identify farm characteristics as risk factors for the development of rhodococcus equi pneumonia in foals.200312597420
epidemiologic study of results of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of isolates of rhodococcus equi obtained from horses and horse compare isolates of rhodococcus equi on the basis of geographic source and virulence status by use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge).200312602583
descriptive epidemiological study of equine laminitis.a descriptive and matched case-control study of laminitis was conducted in 7 private practices and at the texas veterinary medical centre (tvmc) between may 1992 and july 1993. out of 108 horses with laminitis, 19 acute (49%) and 20 chronic (51%) cases were seen in private practice and 16 acute (23%) and 53 (77%) cases at the tvmc. gastrointestinal disease was the most common problem in 19/35 horses (54%), occurring just prior to the onset of acute laminitis in all hospitals. among all horses in ...19958654351
virus characterization and sequence of the fusion protein gene cleavage site of recent newcastle disease virus field isolates from the southeastern united states and puerto rico.nine newcastle disease virus (ndv) isolates obtained from puerto rico, georgia, alabama, mississippi, and texas were analyzed for in vivo pathogenicity, biological properties (hemagglutination of mammalian erythrocytes), and for sequence variation at the amino acid and sense rna level of the fusion protein cleavage site. intracerebral pathogenicity index values ranged from 0 to 0.3 and the intravenous pathogenicity index obtained for all isolates was 0. four isolates hemagglutinated bovine eryth ...19968790890
prevalence of and risk factors for fecal shedding of cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in determine prevalence of and risk factors for fecal shedding of cryptosporidium parvum oocysts among 3 populations of horses.19989810386
impact of climate on western equine encephalitis in manitoba, minnesota and north dakota, 1980-1983.information was collected on confirmed outbreaks of western equine encephalitis (wee) in north america east of the rockies for 1981 and 1983 (epidemic years) and 1980 and 1982 (non-epidemic years). the initial pattern of outbreaks in manitoba, minnesota and north dakota was determined for each year. backward (and in some instances forward) wind trajectories were computed for each day 4-15 days (incubation period) before the initial outbreaks of wee in a given area of province or state. during th ...19882905669
foal-related risk factors associated with development of rhodococcus equi pneumonia on farms with endemic identify foal-related risk factors associated with development of rhodococcus equi pneumonia among foals on farms with endemic r. equi infection.200314690209
epidemiology of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis in north america based on histologically confirmed cases. a report.following a workshop on equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (epm) convened at the veterinary medical forum of the american college of veterinary internal medicine in 1988, this survey of epm in north america was developed. it is based upon 364 histologically confirmed case records from california, florida, illinois, kentucky, new york, ohio, oklahoma, ontario, pennsylvania, and texas up to 1988. the highest rate of infection was found in young thoroughbred, standardbred, and quarter horses. diffe ...19902342022
analysis of serotypes and electropherotypes of equine rotaviruses isolated in the united states.equine group a rotaviruses isolated over a 10-year period in new york state, new jersey, kentucky, and texas were compared serotypically and electropherotypically. all isolates were determined to be serotype 3 by reaction with hyperimmune antiserum to the serotype 3 h-2 strain of equine rotavirus. all displayed rna electrophoretic migration patterns related to that of the h-2 strain but distinct from that of serotype 5 strain h-1. a serologic survey of 184 mares in kentucky, which was done to de ...19911647407
epizootic of anthrax in falls county, epizootic of anthrax in eastern falls county, texas, killed at least 238 animals during a 6-week period ending july 31, 1974. infection appeared to be caused by the ingestion of contaminated soil and grass in the drought-stricken central texas area. the participation of the texas department of agriculture, the texas national guard, and other state agencies was of great assistance to the texas animal health commission in handling the epizootic and panic stricken public. use of the unencapsulat ...19751184447
west nile virus activity--united states, september 8-14, 2004.during september 8-14, a total of 195 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 26 states (alabama, arizona, arkansas, california, colorado, florida, georgia, idaho, illinois, iowa, kansas, maryland, minnesota, missouri, nebraska, nevada, new mexico, new york, north dakota, oklahoma, oregon, pennsylvania, south dakota, tennessee, texas, and wisconsin).200415371969
virological and serological studies of venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis in humans.during the 1971 epidemic of venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (vee) in south texas, 203 suspect vee cases were evaluated by the center for disease control. sixty-seven were confirmed as cases of vee. laboratory confirmation was accomplished by isolation of vee virus from a serum specimen taken during the acute illness in 50 (75%) of the confirmed cases. serological confirmation was obtained in 17 cases (25%). virus isolations were most often obtained from sera collected during the first 3 days ...1976956360
clinical aspects of human venezuelan equine encephalitis in texas.the venezuelan equine encephalitis epidemic which occurred in texas in 1971 produced a wide range of predominantly mild clinical symptoms. this epidemic, which peaked on 13-14 july, was most intensely felt in the far-south counties of cameron and hidalgo. in all, 88 laboratory-confirmed human cases were reported to the u.s. center for disease control by the texas state department of health. the ratio of male to female cases was about two to one. an attack of 20.8 cases per 100,000, observed in b ...1976949558
west nile virus activity--united states, september 29-october 5, 2004.during september 29-october 5, a total of 81 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 18 states (alabama, arizona, arkansas, california, florida, georgia, illinois, iowa, kansas, kentucky, minnesota, missouri, ohio, oklahoma, pennsylvania, south dakota, texas, and virginia).200415470326
venezuelan equine encephalitis vaccination survey in arizona and new mexico, 1972.field studies were conducted in 1972 to determine the immunization status of equines along the mexico, arizona, and new mexico borders. interviews with horse owners were conducted along roads selected at random in the counties of santa cruz and yuma, ariz., and in dona ana county, n. mex. at least 450 horse owners in each county were asked about the vaccination status of their animals, and information was taken on 1,260 animals. blood specimens were obtained from every third equine, regardless o ...1977877211
west nile virus activity--united states, october 20-26, 2004.during october 20-26, a total of 80 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 16 states (arizona, california, florida, iowa, kentucky, louisiana, michigan, mississippi, missouri, montana, nebraska, new york, ohio, south dakota, texas, and utah).200415514584
mechanisms and patterns of injuries related to large animals.injuries from encounters with large animals represent a significant health risk for rural communities. we evaluated our regional trauma centers' experience with large-animal injuries to determine whether certain mechanisms and patterns of injury predicted either major head/craniofacial or torso (chest/abdomen/pelvis) trauma.200010780611
causes of and farm management factors associated with disease and death in foals.a prospective study was conducted to describe the causes of and farm management factors associated with disease and death in a population of foals in texas. data from 2,468 foals at 167 farms were provided by veterinarians for all 12 months during 1991. among 2,468 foals, 116 deaths were reported (4.7%). pneumonia was the most commonly reported cause of death, followed by septicemia. when considered as a group, musculoskeletal disorders (traumatic, infectious, or deforming problems) represented ...19948050947
case-control study of the association between various management factors and development of colic in horses. texas equine colic study group.the association between various management factors and development of colic was studied in 821 horses treated for colic and 821 control horses treated for noncolic emergencies by practicing veterinarians in texas between oct 1, 1991 and dec 31, 1992. history of previous colic and history of previous abdominal surgery were found to be significantly associated with colic. change in stabling conditions during the 2 weeks prior to the time of examination, recent change in diet, and recent change in ...19957744689
spread of equine west nile virus encephalomyelitis during the 2002 texas epidemic.using reports of clinical west nile virus (wnv) encephalomyelitis in texas equids during 2002, the distribution of disease was analyzed using cluster statistics and spatial modeling to develop hypotheses of disease spread during the first year of its detection. significant (p < 0.05) clusters of cases reported early during the outbreak were identified in east, northcentral, and north texas, and significant (p < 0.05) clusters late during the outbreak were detected in central, south, and west tex ...200616760526
trypanosoma cruzi (chagas) (protozoa: kinetoplastida: trypanosomatidae) in invertebrate and vertebrate hosts from brewster county in trans-pecos texas. 19846427314
aedes albopictus in the united states: ten-year presence and public health implications.since its discovery in houston, texas, in 1987, the asian "tiger mosquito" aedes albopictus has spread to 678 counties in 25 states. this species, which readily colonizes container habitats in the peridomestic environment, was probably introduced into the continental united states in shipments of scrap tires from northern asia. the early pattern of dispersal followed the interstate highway system, which suggests further dispersal by human activities. the public health service act of 1988 require ...19979284377
seasonal occurrence and distribution of gasterophilus intestinalis and gasterophilus nasalis in the stomachs of equids in texas.stomachs of 271 horses and ponies from 2 sources were evaluated for the presence of gasterophilus intestinalis and g nasalis larvae, through 2 overlapping 12-month periods of bot fly activity in southern texas. equids (n = 140) from one source had nearly 96% of their stomachs infected, whereas equids (n = 131) from another source had 44% of their stomachs infected by gasterophilus spp. seasonal dynamics of the bot infection indicated the highest average number of bot larvae per infected stomach ...19873631711
epidemic venezuelan equine encephalitis in north america in 1971: vertebrate field studies.epidemic venezuelan equine encephalitis in north america in 1971: vertebrate field studies. am j epidemiol 101:36-50, 1975.-in june 1971, epidemic venezuelan equine encephalitis (vee) invaded the lower rio grande valley in south texas. the boca chica area of cameron county was selected as a study site to investigate vertebrate involvement in the natural cycle of epidemic vee on the basis of considerable evidence of vee virus activity there in equines, humans, and mosquito vectors. only one vee v ...19751119481
surveillance for acute insecticide-related illness associated with mosquito-control efforts--nine states, 1999-2002.ground and aerial applications of insecticides are used to control populations of adult mosquitoes, which spread such diseases as west nile virus--related illness, eastern equine encephalitis, and dengue fever. this report summarizes investigations of illnesses associated with exposures to insecticides used during 1999-2002 to control mosquito populations in nine states (arizona, california, florida, louisiana, michigan, new york, oregon, texas, and washington) (estimated 2000 population: 118 mi ...200312855943
age, breed, sex and seasonality as risk factors for equine laminitis.a case-control study was conducted at the texas veterinary medical center between january 1, 1986 and december 31, 1991. logistic regression was used to assess age, breed, sex, and seasonality as risk factors for equine laminitis. there were 70 acute cases, 183 chronic cases, and 779 controls. no statistical association was found between age, breed, sex, or seasonality and the diagnosis of acute laminitis. for chronic cases, the estimated odds ratio was statistically significant for age (or = 1. ...19979234403
identification of hyperendemic foci of horses with west nile virus disease in determine whether west nile virus (wnv) disease hyperendemic foci (hot spots) exist within the horse population in texas and, if detected, to identify the locations.200818312137
efficacy of omeprazole paste in the treatment and prevention of gastric ulcers in horses.equine gastric ulcer syndrome (egus) is very common among performance horses, with a reported prevalence of approximately 90% in racehorses, and also > 50% in foals. omeprazole, an acid pump inhibitor 5 times more potent than ranitidine, has been used with great success to treat egus. this multicentre study of thoroughbred racehorses with endoscopically verified gastric ulcers was designed to demonstrate the efficacy of an equine oral paste formulation of omeprazole in the treatment and preventi ...199910696301
risk factors for enterolithiasis among horses in identify risk factors for enterolithiasis in horses.200010844972
susceptibility of ae. aegypti (diptera: culicidae) to infection with epidemic (subtype ic) and enzootic (subtypes id, iiic, iiid) venezuelan equine encephalitis complex test the hypothesis that enzootic and epidemic venezuelan equine encephalitis (vee) complex alphaviruses can infect and be transmitted by ae. aegypti, we conducted a series of experimental infection studies. one set of experiments tested the susceptibility of geographic strains of ae. aegypti from peru and texas (u.s.a.) for epidemic (subtype ic) and enzootic (subtype id) strains from colombia/venezuela, whereas the second set of experiments tested the susceptibility of ae. aegypti from iquit ...200819058637
salmonella enterica subsp. enterica in cattle egret (bubulcus ibis) chicks from central texas: prevalence, serotypes, pathogenicity, and epizootic potential.cattle egrets have a worldwide distribution, feed in proximity to cattle and other domestic animals, and often nest in large colonies in urban woodlots. over a 3-yr period, nestlings from five cattle egret colonies from central texas, usa, were surveyed for salmonellosis. prevalence of infection ranged from 29% to 95%. seventeen salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotypes were isolated, of which the 4,5,12:i-monophasic serotype predominated in cultures of both the digestive tract and pooled sp ...201020688631
west nile virus activity--united states, september 5-11, 2002, and texas, january 1-september 9, 2002.this report summarizes west nile virus (wnv) surveillance data reported to cdc through arbonet and by states and other jurisdictions as of 7:30 a.m. mountain daylight time, september 11, 2002.200212269471
west nile virus activity--united states, january 1-august 15, 2006.this report summarizes west nile virus (wnv) surveillance data reported to cdc through arbonet as of 3 a.m. mountain daylight time, august 15, 2006. a total of 26 states had reported 388 cases of human wnv illness to cdc. a total of 214 (56%) cases for which such data were available occurred in males; median age of patients was 49 years (range: 2-91 years). dates of illness onset ranged from january 6 to august 10; a total of 13 cases were fatal. a total of 68 presumptive west nile viremic blood ...200616915222
equine piroplasmosis associated with amblyomma cajennense ticks, texas, usa.we report an outbreak of equine piroplasmosis in southern texas, usa, in 2009. infection prevalence reached 100% in some areas (292 infected horses). amblyomma cajennense was the predominant tick and experimentally transmitted theileria equi to an uninfected horse. we suggest that transmission by this tick species played a role in this outbreak.201122000367
characteristics of an outbreak of west nile virus encephalomyelitis in a previously uninfected population of horses.equine west nile virus (wnv) encephalomyelitis cases - based on clinical signs and elisa serology test results - reported to texas disease control authorities during 2002 were analyzed to provide insights into the epidemiology of the disease within a previously disease-free population. the epidemic occurred between june 27 and december 17 (peaking in early october) and 1,698 cases were reported. three distinct epidemic phases were identified, occurring mostly in southeast, northwest and then cen ...200616971067
scapulohumeral arthrodesis in miniature describe surgical arthrodesis of the scapulohumeral joint and to evaluate its efficacy in reducing morbidity associated with severe shoulder dysfunction in miniature horses.200314569569
public health aspects of venezuelan equine encephalitis. 19734735951
lessons learned: the "pale horse" bioterrorism response exercise.the city of san antonio, texas, and the fort sam houston army post conducted a bioterrorism response exercise to test the command infrastructure in a large tabletop exercise. a number of local, state, and federal agencies participated in the exercise. the scenario, program format, and multiple lessons learned from this experience are described. needs for additional services, planning, and legal issues are identified.200314666097
using geographic information systems and spatial and space-time scan statistics for a population-based risk analysis of the 2002 equine west nile epidemic in six contiguous regions of 2002, west nile virus (wnv) first appeared in texas. surveillance data were retrospectively examined to explore the temporal and spatial characteristics of the texas equine wnv epidemic in 2002. using geographic information systems (gis) and the spatial and space-time scan (satscan) statistics, we analyzed 1421 of the reported equine wnv cases from six contiguous state health service regions (hsrs), comprising 158 counties, in western, northern, central and eastern texas.200717888159
west nile virus activity--united states, july 14-20, 2004.during the week of july 14-20, a total of 74 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from seven states (arizona, california, florida, new mexico, new york, south dakota, and texas).200415269701
west nile virus activity--united states, july 28-august 3, 2004.during july 28-august 3, a total of 141 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 11 states (alabama, arizona, california, colorado, florida, illinois, nevada, new york, north dakota, south dakota, and texas). during 2004, a total of 20 states have reported a total of 406 cases of human wnv illness to cdc through arbonet. of these, 247 (61%) were reported from arizona. a total of 226 (57%) of the 406 cases occurred in males; the median age of patients was 51 years (range: 1 ...200415295314
west nile virus activity--united states, september 15-21, 2004.during september 15-21, a total of 218 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 21 states (arizona, california, florida, illinois, indiana, kansas, maryland, michigan, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, nebraska, nevada, new mexico, north dakota, oklahoma, south dakota, texas, utah, wisconsin, and wyoming).200415385920
laboratory studies of venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in equines, texas, 1971.during the summer and fall of 1971, epizootic and epidemic venezuelan equine encephalitis was detected in texas. isolates of epizootic (ib) and vaccine (tc-83) strains were distinguished by virulence of the former for guinea pigs. vaccine virus was isolated from 1 to 14 days after vaccination and neutralization tests demonstrated the appearance of antibody about a week after vaccination. viremia titers of subtype ib in horses ranged from 2.2 to 8.3 log10 suckling mouse intracranial 50% lethal do ...19751176627
west nile virus activity--united states, september 22-28, 2004.during september 22-28, a total of 180 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported in the district of columbia (dc) and 24 states (alabama, arizona, california, georgia, illinois, iowa, kansas, kentucky, louisiana, maryland, michigan, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, montana, nebraska, nevada, new mexico, ohio, pennsylvania, texas, utah, wisconsin, and wyoming).200415457147
west nile virus activity--united states, october 6-12, 2004.during october 6-12, a total of 86 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 18 states (arizona, florida, illinois, kansas, louisiana, michigan, minnesota, missouri, nevada, new jersey, new mexico, north dakota, ohio, oklahoma, pennsylvania, tennessee, texas, and utah).200415483530
evaluation of risk factors associated with development of postoperative ileus in determine factors associated with development of postoperative ileus (poi) in horses undergoing surgery for colic.200415515986
west nile virus activity--united states, november 3-8, 2004.during november 3-8, a total of 41 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from seven states (california, maryland, minnesota, new mexico, oregon, tennessee, and texas).200415538322
west nile virus activity--united states, november 9-16, 2004.during november 9-16, a total of 31 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from eight states (arizona, georgia, maryland, michigan, missouri, new york, pennsylvania, and texas).200415549023
environmental risk factors for equine west nile virus disease cases in texas.west nile virus (wnv) was first detected in the texas equine population during june 2002. infection has since spread rapidly across the state and become endemic in the equine population. environmental risk factors associated with equine wnv attack rates in texas counties during the period 2002 to 2004 were investigated. equine wnv attack rates were smoothed using an empirical bayesian model, because of the variability among county equine populations (range 46-9,517). risk factors investigated in ...200919031106
equine west nile virus disease occurrence and the normalized difference vegetation index.the association between the normalized difference vegetation index (ndvi) and periods of above- or below-average reported cases of equine west nile virus encephalomyelitis, reported in texas between 2002 and 2004, was investigated. a time-series of case reports, using a biweekly window, was constructed. because of the disparity in number of cases reported (1698, 672 and 101 in 2002, 2003 and 2004, respectively), data were standardized by calculating the number of cases reported during each biwee ...200919054585
venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection of cotton rats.venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (veev) is an emerging pathogen of equids and humans, but infection of its rodent reservoir hosts has received little study. to determine whether responses to infection vary among geographic populations, we inoculated 3 populations of cotton rats with 2 enzootic veev strains (co97-0054 [enzootic id subtype] and 68u201 [enzootic ie subtype]). the 3 populations were offspring from wild-caught cotton rats collected in a vee-enzootic area of south florida, usa; wi ...200717953085
texas horse dentists feel regulatory bite. 201021070703
prevalence of gastric lesions in racing alaskan sled dogs.human and equine athletes are reported to have a high prevalence of gastric disease, and anecdotal evidence suggests a similar phenomenon applies to racing sled dogs. to investigate the prevalence of gastric disease in racing sled dogs, we conducted 2 gastroscopy studies on dogs competing in the annual iditarod sled dog race. a pilot study of dogs that were either dropped from the 2000 iditarod sled dog race because of illness or that finished the race indicated that, approximately 5 days after ...200312774971
west nile virus activity--united states, august 11-17, 2004.during august 11-17, a total of 194 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 17 states (alabama, arizona, california, colorado, florida, illinois, louisiana, maryland, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, new mexico, ohio, south dakota, texas, utah, and virginia).200415318160
postexposure rabies prophylaxis protocol for domestic animals and epidemiologic characteristics of rabies vaccination failures in texas: determine whether postexposure rabies prophylaxis (pep) in domestic animals, as mandated by the state of texas, has continued to be effective and to evaluate pep and preexposure rabies vaccination failures from 1995 through 1999.200111229502
factors associated with vesicular stomatitis in animals in the western united identify factors associated with development of vesicular stomatitis (vs).200818275393
infection and dissemination of venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in the epidemic mosquito vector, aedes taeniorhynchus.the mosquito aedes taeniorhynchus is an important epidemic vector of venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (veev), but detailed studies of its infection are lacking. we compared infection by an epidemic veev strain to that by an enzootic strain using virus titrations, immunohistochemistry, and a virus expressing the green fluorescent protein. ae. taeniorhynchus was more susceptible to the epidemic strain, which initially infected the posterior midgut and occasionally the anterior midgut and cardi ...200717620651
reaching beyond our walls: library outreach to veterinary practitioners.the texas a&m university medical sciences library (msl) supports lifelong learning for texas veterinarians and college of veterinary medicine and biomedical sciences (cvmbs) alumni through several ongoing outreach efforts. the msl provides free document delivery and literature search services to practicing veterinarians in support of patient care. the msl also responded to unique opportunities to expand services and increase its visibility through collaborations with the american association of ...201121805931
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