wildlife and environmental health: raccoons as indicators of zoonoses and pollutants in southeastern united states.inasmuch as terrestrial fauna are an integral part of our natural environment and are directly exposed to disease and pollutants, it follows that certain wild populations could serve to detect subtle alterations within ecosystems. a collection of studies on raccoons is presented to stimulate other researchers to develop the potential of our wildlife resources as monitors of environmental health. raccoons have been used as serologic sentinels for st louis encephalitis and venezuelan equine enceph ...1975170239
rabies surveillance in the united states during 1989, 4,808 cases of rabies in animals other than human beings were reported to the centers for disease control, 1.8% more (4,724 to 4,808) than in 1988. eighty-eight percent (4,224/4,808) of those affected were wild animals and 12% (584/4,808) were domestic animals. cases were reported from 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico; hawaii remained rabies-free. skunks (1,657) continued to be the most commonly reported rabid wild animal. for the second consecutive year, more cats ( ...19902276949
prevalence of equine onchocerciasis in southeastern and midwestern united states.of 664 horses reported to have originated in southeastern and midwestern united states, 341 (51.4%) were positive for onchocerca cervicalis cutaneous microfilariasis. the highest prevalence of 68.8% was recorded for horses from virginia. horses with the highest concentrations of microfilariae (as high as 19,770 microfilariae/mg in 1 horse) were from the southeast (georgia, florida, tennessee, and alabama). for horses from south carolina, the prevalence of infection was 57.1%; from the midwest (k ...19854008301
arboviruses west and north. 19725034693
hemocytic rickettsia-like organisms in ticks: serologic reactivity with antisera to ehrlichiae and detection of dna of agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis by pcr.ixodid ticks were collected from connecticut, massachusetts, missouri, pennsylvania, rhode island, and british columbia (canada) during 1991 to 1994 to determine the prevalence of infection with hemocytic (blood cell), rickettsia-like organisms. hemolymph obtained from these ticks was analyzed by direct and indirect fluorescent antibody (fa) staining methods with dog, horse, or human sera containing antibodies to ehrlichia canis, ehrlichia equi, or rickettsia rickettsii. of the 693 nymphal and a ...19958567911
ticks, lyme disease spirochetes, trypanosomes, and antibody to encephalitis viruses in wild birds from coastal georgia and south carolina.ticks and blood samples were collected from wild birds mist-netted on st. catherine's island, georgia, and at the wedge plantation in coastal south carolina in 1994 and 1995. immature stages of 5 species of ixodid ticks were recovered from 10 of 148 (7%) birds belonging to 6 species in georgia, whereas 6 ixodid species were recovered from 45 of 259 (17%) birds representing 10 avian species in south carolina. borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was isolated from 27 of 120 (23%) screened ticks (ixodes ...19979406799
update: west nile virus activity--eastern united states, reported to cdc through the west nile virus (wnv) surveillance system have shown an increase in the geographic range of wnv activity in 2000 compared with 1999, the first year that wnv was reported in the western hemisphere. in response to this occurrence of wnv, 17 states along the atlantic and gulf coasts, new york city, and the district of columbia conducted wnv surveillance, which included monitoring mosquitoes, sentinel chicken flocks, wild birds, and potentially susceptible mammals (e ...200011105767
arbovirus surveillance in south carolina, 1996-98.arboviruses isolated and identified from mosquitoes in south carolina (usa) are described, including new state records for eastern equine encephalitis virus (eee), st. louis encephalitis virus (sle), flanders virus, tensaw virus (ten), and a variant of jamestown canyon virus (jc). mosquitoes were collected at 52 locations in 30 of 46 south carolina counties beginning in june 1996, and ending in october 1998, and tested for arboviruses. of 1,329 mosquito pools tested by virus isolation (85,806 mo ...200111345423
west nile encephalitis: an emerging disease in the united 1999, an epidemic of west nile virus (wnv) encephalitis occurred in new york city (nyc) and 2 surrounding new york counties. simultaneously, an epizootic among american crows and other bird species occurred in 4 states. indigenous transmission of wnv had never been documented in the western hemisphere until this epidemic. in 2000, the epizootic expanded to 12 states and the district of columbia, and the epidemic continued in nyc, 5 new jersey counties, and 1 connecticut county. in addition to ...200111595987
isolation of eee virus from ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus and culiseta melanura in coastal south carolina.a 1-year arbovirus study was conducted at the wedge plantation located in coastal south carolina to determine the occurrence and level of arbovirus activity in mosquito species inhabiting the site. mosquito species composition and temporal abundance were also determined. a total of 45,051 mosquitoes representing 27 species in 9 genera was collected and identified during 130 trap-nights between august, 1997, and july, 1998. the most abundant species was culex salinarius (n = 20,954) followed by o ...200312674532
west nile virus activity--united states, july 3-9, 2003.this report summarizes west nile virus (wnv) surveillance data reported to cdc through arbonet as of 8 a.m. mountain daylight time, july 9, 2003.200312855948
west nile virus activity--united states, september 22-28, 2004.during september 22-28, a total of 180 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported in the district of columbia (dc) and 24 states (alabama, arizona, california, georgia, illinois, iowa, kansas, kentucky, louisiana, maryland, michigan, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, montana, nebraska, nevada, new mexico, ohio, pennsylvania, texas, utah, wisconsin, and wyoming).200415457147
prevalence of anthelmintic resistant cyathostomes on horse determine prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in cyathostome nematodes of horses in the southern united states.200415485051
importance of public engagement found through involvement in horse slaughter bill. 200515702679
prediction of equine risk of west nile virus infection based on dead bird surveillance.since the introduction of west nile virus (wnv) to the united states in 1999, the efficacy of dead bird surveillance for the prediction of human and veterinary wnv infection has been an issue of debate. we utilized south carolina's department of health and environmental control surveillance data from 2003 to determine whether dead bird surveillance accurately predicts equine wnv infection on a county level. we adjusted for human population density as a potential confounder of an association betw ...200616584321
west nile virus activity--united states, january 1-september 12, 2006.this report summarizes west nile virus (wnv) surveillance data reported to cdc through arbonet as of 3 a.m. mountain daylight time, september 12, 2006. a total of 36 states and the district of columbia had reported 1,634 cases of human wnv illness to cdc. a total of 921 (57%) cases for which such data were available occurred in males; median age of patients was 51 years (range: 3 months-95 years). dates of illness onset ranged from january 6 to september 10; a total of 52 cases were fatal.200616971889
west nile virus activity--united states, january 1-october 10, 2006.this report summarizes west nile virus (wnv) surveillance data reported to cdc through arbonet as of 3 a.m. mountain daylight time, october 10, 2006. a total of 41 states and the district of columbia had reported 3,135 cases of human wnv illness to cdc. a total of 1,717 (55%) cases for which such data were available occurred in males; median age of patients was 50 years (range: 3 months-99 years). dates of illness onset ranged from january 6 to september 25; a total of 97 cases were fatal.200617035928
west nile virus activity--united states, january 1-november 7, 2006.this report summarizes west nile virus (wnv) surveillance data reported to cdc through arbonet as of 3 a.m. mountain standard time, november 7, 2006. a total of 41 states and the district of columbia had reported 3,830 cases of human wnv illness to cdc.200617093387
hematology, parasitology, and serology of free-ranging coyotes (canis latrans) from south carolina.blood and feces were collected from 34 adult (19 males, 15 females) and seven juvenile (three males, one female, three not reported) free-ranging coyotes (canis latrans) on the us department of energy's savannah river site (south carolina, usa). significant (p<0.05) hematologic differences by sex were noted for red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. biochemical differences by sex occurred only for albumen (p<0.05). twenty-one adults were antibody positive for at least one of four vir ...200919617502
dry weather induces outbreaks of human west nile virus infections.since its first occurrence in the new york city area during 1999, west nile virus (wnv) has spread rapidly across north america and has become a major public health concern in north america. by 2002, wnv was reported in 40 states and the district of columbia with 4,156 human and 14,539 equine cases of infection. mississippi had the highest human incidence rate of wnv during the 2002 epidemic in the united states. epidemics of wnv can impose enormous impacts on local economies. therefore, it is a ...201020181272
west nile virus activity - united states, 2009.west nile virus (wnv) was first detected in the western hemisphere in 1999 in new york city and has since caused seasonal epidemics of febrile illness and neurologic disease across the united states, where it is now the leading cause of arboviral encephalitis. this report updates a previous report and summarizes wnv activity in the united states reported to cdc in 2009. a total of 38 states and the district of columbia (dc) reported 720 cases of wnv disease. of these, 33 states and dc reported 3 ...201020592686
west nile virus disease and other arboviral diseases --- united states, 2010.arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes and ticks. since west nile virus (wnv) was first detected in the western hemisphere in 1999, it has become the leading cause of neuroinvasive arboviral disease in the united states. however, several other arboviruses continue to cause sporadic cases and seasonal outbreaks of neuroinvasive disease (i.e., meningitis, encephalitis, or acute flaccid paralysis). this report summarizes su ...201121814163
arbovirus circulation, temporal distribution, and abundance of mosquito species in two carolina bay habitats.carolina bays, a type of geomorphic feature, may be important in the ecology of mosquito vectors in south carolina. their hydrology varies from wetland habitats with marked flooding/drying regimes to permanently flooded spring-fed lakes. moreover, they possess characteristics that contribute to the support of a particularly abundant and diverse invertebrate fauna. although it has been estimated that 2,700+ bays exist in south carolina, approximately 97% have been altered; < or = 200 bays remain ...200515815146
copperhead envenomations in the carolinas.although the copperhead (akistrodon contortrix) is responsible for most crotaline envenomations in the carolinas, manifestations and treatment are poorly characterized.200312645965
role of peridomestic birds in the transmission of st. louis encephalitis virus in southern response to the 1984 st. louis encephalitis (sle) epidemic in the los angeles basin of southern california (usa), an investigative program was initiated to evaluate the interactive components of the sle virus transmission cycle. from 1987 through 1996 (10 yr), 52,589 birds were bled and their sera tested for sle and western equine encephalomyelitis (wee) virus antibodies by the hemagglutination inhibition (hai) test. eighty-three percent of the birds tested were house finches (carpodacus mexi ...200010682741
evaluation of domestic pigeons as sentinels for detecting arbovirus activity in southern california.flocks of sentinel domestic pigeons (columbia livia) detected increases in st. louis encephalitis (sle) and western equine encephalomyelitis (wee) virus activity in southern california concurrently with flocks of sentinel chickens. however, occasional low-titered, transient seroconversions to both wee and sle viruses also occurred in pigeons during periods when virus activity was not detected by seroconversions in sentinel chickens, by virus isolation from culex mosquitoes, or by human disease. ...19921536386
temporal occurrence of third-stage larvae of elaeophora schneideri in tabanus lineola hinellus on south island, south carolina.the occurrence of third-stage larvae of the arterial worm (elaeophora schneideri) in populations of the horse fly, tabanus lineola hinellus, was studied on south island, georgetown county, south carolina. over the period from mid-april to mid-october 1982, horse flies had a bimodal pattern of abundance with peak populations in june and september. during individual bimonthly horse fly collections, the prevalence of infection of t. l. hinellus ranged from 0 to 1.23%. prevalence of infected horse f ...19862940381
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