Publications

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the epidemiology of ringworm in racehorses caused by trichophyton equinum var autotrophicum.the epidemiology of dermatomycocis due to trichophyton equinum var autotrophicum was studied in a number of thoroughbred stables in south-east queensland. the significant factors in the epidemiology were defined. the infection was readily transmitted, particularly by infected saddle-girths, on which the fungus could survive for 12 months. mild abrasion from the saddle during work favoured the development of lesions and prolonged the recovery period. a pronounced age and seasonal incidence of the ...1979543830
identifying hazards and risk opportunity in child farm injury.although children are overrepresented in farm injury, little is known about the environmental hazards and risk behaviours associated with injury, or about how to identify these factors at a local level. this study addresses the measurement of these hazards and hazardous behaviours. the study was conducted in 1990 at gloucester, new south wales, a small dairy, beef and hobby farm community. after some formative research and local consultation, a checklist survey was constructed and sent to 120 fa ...19921391153
horse-hair and asthma. 19911988813
observations of swainsona galegifolia poisoning in cattle in northern new south wales. 19715106529
outbreak of equine herpesvirus abortion in the hunter valley, new south wales. 19836309512
a serological survey of dogs, cats and horses in south-eastern australia for leptospiral antibodies. 19938257320
failure of hyperimmune plasma to prevent pneumonia caused by rhodococcus equi in foals.a trial was conducted on a thoroughbred stud to determine whether or not the administration of anti-rhodococcus equi hyperimmune plasma would reduce the prevalence of r equi pneumonia (rattles) in foals born in the 1992 horse breeding season. hyperimmune plasma was administered to 34 foals; another 57 foals were untreated. there was no significant difference in the number of transfused foals developing r equi pneumonia compared with the untreated foals. the time required for recovery from pneumo ...19958929188
failure of passive transfer in foals: incidence and outcome on four studs in new south wales.to determine the regional incidence and effectiveness of treatment of failure of passive transfer (fpt) in foals.19979034501
wastage in the australian thoroughbred racing industry: a survey of sydney trainers. 19979034505
effect of a single bout of high intensity exercise on lower respiratory tract contamination in the horse. 19979140658
suspected blue canary grass (phalaris coerulescens) poisoning of horses. 199910494401
the prevalence of antibodies to adenoviruses in horses from queensland and new south wales. 19744374922
equine herpesvirus type 3 (equine coital exanthema) in new south wales. 1979232418
brucella cultures typed by the who brucellosis centre at the commonwealth serum laboratories, melbourne.results of the typing of brucella cultures received at the who brucellosis centre, csl, melbourne, from 1968-1976 are presented. the distribution of the biotypes of cultures recovered throughout australia is shown on a host and state basis and atypical cultures are discussed. cultures identified from australia were br. abortus, biotypes 1, 2 and 4 and strain 19; br. suis, biotype 1 and br. ovis. br. melitensis biotypes 1, 2 and 3 were recorded only as exotic human infections from the mediterrane ...1978105700
prevalence of stereotypic and other problem behaviours in thoroughbred horses. 199910590799
incidence of equine herpesvirus 1 infection in thoroughbred weanlings on two stud farms. 200010840577
epidemiological studies of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) in thoroughbred foals: a review of studies conducted in the hunter valley of new south wales between 1995 and 1997.sero-epidemiological studies conducted between 1995 and 1997 on two large thoroughbred stud farms in the hunter valley of nsw showed clear evidence of ehv-1 infection in foals as young as 30 days of age. similarly, serological evidence suggested that these foals were infected with ehv-1 from their dams or from other lactating mares in the group, with subsequent foal to foal spread of infection prior to weaning. these studies also provided evidence of ehv-1 infection of foals at and subsequent to ...199910501158
anthrax explodes in an australian summer.anthrax occurred on 83 properties in an area of north central victoria between 26 january and 26 march in the summer of 1997. anthrax had not been recorded in the outbreak area since records were initiated in 1914, although anthrax did occur in the general area in the 1880s to 1890s. standard australian control measures were applied to the properties, including quarantine, tracing movements of animals on and off affected properties, secure disposal of carcases by burning, enhanced surveillance o ...199910475947
a case-control study of respiratory disease in thoroughbred racehorses in sydney, australia.in order to investigate the role of infectious agents in the aetiology of lower respiratory tract disease in thoroughbred racehorses, a matched case-control study was conducted. cases were identified by the presence of coughing, and were compared to a control population matched on time of sample collection and location within the same training establishment. tracheal wash samples were collected from 100 cases and 148 controls. case horses were more likely than controls to have endoscopic and cyt ...200111352347
peritonitis associated with actinobacillus equuli in horses: 51 cases.to review the clinical findings, diagnosis and treatment of 51 horses with peritonitis attributed to actinobacillus equuli.200111599812
the structure of the community of strongyloid nematodes of domestic equids.the community structure exhibited by strongyloid nematodes from the large intestines of horses was examined using data from autopsies of 150 horses. thirty-one species of nematodes were encountered, but they were not clearly divisible into core and satellite species. multiple congeneric, consubfamilial and confamilial species were a prominent feature of the community and were more common than singleton infections. multivariate analyses provided evidence of a stable community of helminths dominat ...19968960216
a retrospective evaluation of the surgical management of equine carpal injury.records of 220 thoroughbred horses presented to the randwick equine centre or the university of queensland veterinary teaching hospital for surgical management of carpal injury were reviewed. details of racing performance were obtained, enabling evaluation of racing success following surgery. age and sex matched control horses not known to have suffered carpal injury were selected from the australian stud book and the australian racehorse register. control and treated populations were compared i ...19968894034
influence of alternative treatment strategies on the output of strongyle eggs in the faeces of horses. 19968894028
quarantine requirements for the importation of black rhinoceros from zimbabwe into australia.the proposal by the zoological parks board of new south wales to import 10 southern black rhinoceros (diceros bicornis) from zimbabwe as part of an international project for conservation of the species presented the australian quarantine and inspection service (aqis) with a unique challenge. this importation is, at least in the modern era, the first importation of live herbivores from the african continent. many of the serious animal diseases in the world are endemic in parts of africa. knowledg ...19958599567
the prevalence and distribution of gastric ulceration in 345 racehorses.to report the prevalence and distribution of gastric ulceration within a group of racehorses and to describe the endoscopic appearance of gastric antrum and pyloric ulceration.200315080440
klossiella equi infection in horses; sporocyst stage identified in urine. 19958579566
equine bronchoalveolar lavage cytology: survey of thoroughbred racehorses in training.sixty-two thoroughbred horses aged between 1 and 7 years in training in sydney had bronchoalveolar lavage (bal) samples collected for cytological examination. all horses, except the yearlings and those with a cough, had raced at the time of the examination and the trainers reported satisfactory performance. free erythrocytes were found in 73% of samples and haemosiderophages in 90% of the samples, indicating immediate or past occurrences of exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (eiph). bronchoa ...19938280021
epidemiological investigation of equid herpesvirus-4 (ehv-4) excretion assessed by nasal swabs taken from thoroughbred foals.equid herpesvirus-4 (ehv-4) was detected in nasal swabs taken from foals using a pcr based test and this information used to study the epidemiology of ehv-4 disease on three australian thoroughbred stud farms in nsw in 1992. there was a very high level of agreement (kappa value of 0.84) between the pcr results and virus isolation using cell culture techniques. there was a strong seasonal distribution of ehv-4 shedding. twenty-five of 26 positive samples were collected in january and march with t ...19948042275
clinical, pathological and epidemiological aspects of flood plain staggers, a corynetoxicosis of livestock grazing agrostis avenacea.flood plain staggers, a corynetoxicosis of grazing livestock, occurred on flood plains of the darling river in northern new south wales between spring 1990 and autumn 1991, associated with the grazing of agrostis avenacea with diseased inflorescences. over this period 1722 cattle, 2466 sheep and 11 horses died on 31 farms. clinical signs were similar in sheep and cattle, being characterised by intermittent episodes of cerebral convulsion superimposed on varying degrees of cerebellar dysfunction. ...19957661820
owners' perceptions of the health and performance of pony club horses in australia.pony club is one of the leading junior equestrian organisations in the world, and was established to teach young people the many aspects of horsemanship. the aim of this study was to gain an understanding of the health and performance of pony club horses from the perspective of their owners. in-depth interviews were conducted with pony club members at two sites in australia, and topics relating to participants' background with horses, horse attributes valued by participants, horse health and per ...200415099721
ovulatory activity, hormonal induction of ovulation and fertility of young cashmere and angora female goats in a temperate environment.reproductive parameters of young cashmere and angora goats born between 1988 and 1990 and grazed on temperate pastures in southern australia were examined with a view to reducing the age of first breeding. females born in august or october of 1989 and 1990 were examined each month by laparoscopy to determine natural ovulatory activity when 6-19-months old. cashmeres commenced ovulating as young as 7 months of age or as light as 12 kg. almost all cashmeres were ovulating by 8-10 months of age at ...19947624515
resistance to benzimidazole anthelmintics in equine strongyles. 1. frequency, geographical distribution and relationship between occurrence, animal husbandry procedures and anthelmintic usage.a survey was conducted to determine whether benzimidazole resistant populations of equine strongyles are present in new south wales and north central victoria; what is their frequency and geographical distribution; which species are involved; and whether different methods of parasite control could be related to the occurrence and frequency of anthelmintic resistant populations. resistant populations of strongyles were found over wide areas of new south wales and in north central victoria. there ...19817271605
hypogammaglobulinaemia in foals: prevalence on victorian studs and simple methods for detection and correction in the field.the prevalence of hypogammaglobulinaemia in 82 young foals was determined. twelve foals were considered clinically abnormal at birth and ten died within two weeks. all of these foals were hypogammaglobulinaemic. seven (10%) of the other 70 apparently normal foals were hypogammaglobulinaemic despite having suckled normally. three of these foals developed significant disease and one died at one month of age. rapid detection of foals with low serum immunoglobulin levels was achieved by adapting the ...19807225003
equine influenza in australia. 200717982150
the pathology of bronchointerstitial pneumonia in young foals associated with the first outbreak of equine influenza in australia.the first outbreak of equine influenza virus (eiv) infection was confirmed in australia in 2007. some eiv-positive young foals died with bronchointerstitial pneumonia, an rare disease process in this age group that is often postulated to be caused by viral infection.200818321807
equine herpesvirus abortion in australia 1977 to 1982.until 1977 no case of abortion caused by equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv1) had been recorded in australia although the virus, called equine rhinopneumonitis virus, had been known to have been present at least since 1962. outbreaks of ehv1 abortion occurred in new south wales in 1977 and in 1981. sporadic cases of ehv1 abortion had been confirmed in some parts of australia each year since 1975. it was concluded that an abortigenic subtype of ehv1 had been introduced to australia in 1977 and that the pr ...19836315394
ross river virus activity along the south coast of new south wales.the sera of 468 blood donors and 63 domestic animals, collected from the south coast of new south wales, were tested for the presence of antibodies to ross river virus. antibodies were detected in 7% of human sera, 25% of cow sera and 65% of horse sera. using the blood donors as 'human sentinels', seroconversions were demonstrated in two donors from the nowra-kiama region and from a patient in the same area; none of the three had been outside of the study area during the period of seroconversion ...19826303286
the role of land use patterns in limiting the spread of equine influenza in queensland during the 2007 epidemic.in 2007, an epizootic of equine influenza (ei) occurred in australia, involving parts of the states of queensland and new south wales. following an extensive control program, the disease was eradicated within 4 months, after infecting more than 75,000 horses on over 10,000 properties. in queensland, examination of land use patterns revealed that the majority of infected premises (89.5%) were located in one of three land use classes viz. rural residential, residential-unspecified or grazing natur ...200919486310
epidemiology of ehv-1 and ehv-4 in the mare and foal populations on a hunter valley stud farm: are mares the source of ehv-1 for unweaned foals.the prevalence of ehv-1 and ehv-4 antibody-positive horses was determined using a type specific elisa on serum samples collected from 229 mares and their foals resident on a large thoroughbred stud farm in the hunter valley of new south wales in february 1995. more than 99% of all mares and foals tested were ehv-4 antibody positive, while the prevalence of ehv-1 antibody positive mares and foals were 26.2 and 11.4%, respectively. examination of the elisa absorbance data for the individual mares ...199910501159
strangles in horse studs: incidence, risk factors and effect of vaccination.a questionnaire survey of 179 horse studs in new south wales was conducted to estimate the incidence of strangles during 1985 to 1988, to identify risk factors for strangles outbreaks and to assess the effect of strangles vaccination. forty-nine of the studs (27.4%) had at least one strangles outbreak during this period and 62 studs (34.6%) had at least one case of strangles. the average incidence of strangles was 2.1 cases per 100 horses per year. the risk of strangles increased progressively w ...19902076065
field evaluation of an equine influenza elisa used in new south wales during the 2007 australian outbreak response.during the australian epidemic of equine influenza in 2007, tens of thousands of horses were infected. from the resulting field data, 475 known infected and 1323 uninfected horses were identified to allow a post outbreak evaluation of the performance of the commonly used belisa for influenza a under field conditions. a variety of techniques, such as roc plots, area under the curve and hypothesis testing were used to assess the overall performance of the test. the test was deemed to be accurate ( ...200919800140
comparison of two modern vaccines and previous influenza infection against challenge with an equine influenza virus from the australian 2007 outbreak.during 2007, large outbreaks of equine influenza (ei) caused by florida sublineage clade 1 viruses affected horse populations in japan and australia. the likely protection that would be provided by two modern vaccines commercially available in the european union (an iscom-based and a canarypox-based vaccine) at the time of the outbreaks was determined. vaccinated ponies were challenged with a representative outbreak isolate (a/eq/sydney/2888-8/07) and levels of protection were compared.a group o ...201019863903
investigation of equine influenza transmission in nsw: walk, wind or wing?objectives: an outbreak of equine influenza occurred in new south wales in 2007. in addition to the local spread of the disease between bordering properties, windborne spread over several kilometres had been postulated as a possible method of transmission in this outbreak. this study aimed to describe potential modes of transmission for a property infected with equine influenza where no apparent epidemiological links to other infected properties were reported. methods: a semi-structured question ...200919917207
pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning in a horse in new south wales. 19695389347
an outbreak of equid herpesvirus abortion in new south wales.thirty-three of the 44 mares on a thoroughbred stud in new south wales aborted or lost foals within one day of birth. gross pathological and histological changes were in keeping with equid herpesvirus i (ehv-1) abortion. in the six foals that underwent virological examination, ehv was isolated and typed as ehv-1 by restriction endonuclease analysis. ehv-1 abortion had not occurred previously on this stud and the source of the infection was not identified.19911646102
the identification of babesia equi in australia.a babesia parasite, isolated from the blood of a horse at bowral, new south wales, was identified on the basis of its morphological features, host specificity and serological reactions, as babesia equi (laveran 1901). the case was originally reported by churchill and best (1976, aust. vet. j. 52: 487) and is the first record of equine babesiosis in australia. in preliminary studies, the organism produced only a mild disease in an intact horse, but caused the typical clinical syndrome of acute ba ...1977612315
bacterial infection of the lower respiratory tract in 34 horses.to investigate associations between the bacteriology and aspects of history, clinical presentation, outcome and pathology of lower respiratory tract disease of 34 horses.200010979512
efficacy of a whole inactivated ei vaccine against a recent eiv outbreak isolate and comparative detection of virus shedding.an outbreak of h3n8 equine influenza virus (eiv) that occurred in vaccinated horses in japan was caused by a genetically divergent eiv isolate of the florida clade 1 sub-lineage. this virus subsequently entered australia where it infected thousands of immunologically naïve horses. the objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of a non-updated whole inactivated equine influenza (ei) vaccine to protect if used in the face of an outbreak induced by a virus similar to the ones circulating ...201020400185
major quarantine plans in place for sydney 2000. 200011022274
effect of increasing the banking of a racetrack on the occurrence of injury and lameness in standardbred horses. 19979406636
suspected phalaris paradoxa (paradoxa grass) poisoning in horses. 200315080477
a case-control study of risk factors for equine influenza spread onto horse premises during the 2007 epidemic in australia.the 2007 epidemic of equine influenza in australia provided an opportunity to investigate the effectiveness of on-farm biosecurity measures in preventing the spread of a novel pathogen in a largely naive population. we conducted a case-control study of 200 horse premises from highly affected regions of the state of new south wales (nsw), to investigate risk factors for the spread of equine influenza onto horse premises, specifically, non-compliance with biosecurity measures recommended to horse ...201121481961
ehv-1 and ehv-4 infection in vaccinated mares and their foals.a silent cycle of equine herpesvirus 1 infection was described following epidemiological studies of unvaccinated mares and foals on a hunter valley stud farm. following the introduction of routine vaccination with an inactivated whole virus equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) and equine herpesvirus 4 (ehv-4) vaccine in 1997, a subsequent study identified excretion of ehv-1 and ehv-4 in nasal swab samples tested by pcr from vaccinated mares and their unweaned, unvaccinated foals. the current sero-epidem ...200616513181
newly discovered viruses of flying foxes.flying foxes have been the focus of research into three newly described viruses from the order mononegavirales, namely hendra virus (hev), menangle virus and australian bat lyssavirus (abl). early investigations indicate that flying foxes are the reservoir host for these viruses. in 1994, two outbreaks of a new zoonotic disease affecting horses and humans occurred in queensland. the virus which was found to be responsible was called equine morbillivirus (emv) and has since been renamed hev. inve ...199910501164
significant features of the epidemiology of equine influenza in queensland, australia, 2007.an outbreak of equine influenza (ei) caused by influenza a h3n8 subtype virus occurred in the australian states of queensland and new south wales in august 2007. infection in the australian horse population was associated with the introduction of infection by horses from overseas. the first case of ei in queensland was detected on 25 august 2007 at an equestrian sporting event. infection subsequently spread locally and to other clusters through horse movements prior to the implementation of an o ...201121711297
internet-based survey of horse owners for mortality and morbidity related to equine influenza in the 2007 australian epidemic.anecdotally, some sections of the horse community were under the impression that there was a high mortality rate in horses in 2007 because of the ei epidemic. a survey of horse deaths in the hunter valley of new south wales (nsw) in 2007 indicated that there were few infections and deaths attributable to equine influenza (ei) infections in foals, but other authors found a very high seroprevalence across all age classes. this study aimed to generate objective information on mortality and morbidit ...201121711277
role of the diagnostic laboratories during the 2007 equine influenza outbreak in australia.during the 2007 equine influenza (ei) outbreak in australia, diagnostic laboratories and the use of appropriate tests played a pivotal role in the response to the crisis. this role began with the detection of ei virus in new south wales (nsw) on the evening of 24 august 2007 and culminated in providing the final 'proof of freedom' from ei in march 2008. the tests that were used during the ei response were able to provide results quickly, and with high sensitivity and specificity. this section of ...201121711280
innovative zoning to support equine influenza eradication from new south wales, australia.following detection of equine influenza (ei) in new south wales, a complete standstill was imposed the next morning on the movement of all horses and donkeys within the state. premises' biosecurity guidelines became progressively more stringent with time in an effort to stop local spread. the standstill was highly effective as a primary response to stop ei becoming widespread across australia, but did not prevent spread to properties contiguous to infected premises in areas of high horse density ...201121711306
hygiene practices to prevent the spread of equine influenza by humans.this paper describes a protocol for hygiene practices that was devised by a practice in which all veterinarians were involved on a daily basis in visiting infected premises, including sampling, treatment of clinical cases and general veterinary work. this protocol was strictly followed when attending an infected or at risk property.201121711309
role of the new south wales department of primary industries' laboratory information management system (lims) in the 2007 equine influenza emergency animal disease response.a laboratory information management system (lims) was used to manage the laboratory data and support planning and field activities as part of the response to the equine influenza outbreak in australia in 2007. the database structure of the lims and the system configurations that were made to best handle the laboratory implications of the disease response are discussed. the operational aspects of the lims and the related procedures used at the laboratory to process the increased sample throughput ...201121711289
the first five days: field and laboratory investigations during the early stages of the equine influenza outbreak in australia, 2007.until august 2007, australia was one of only three countries internationally recognised to be free of equine influenza (ei). this report documents the diagnosis of the first cases of ei in australian horses and summarises the investigations that took place over the next 5 days. during that time, a multifocal outbreak was identified across eastern new south wales and south-eastern queensland. the use of an influenza type a pan-reactive real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction all ...201121711269
evaluation of the response to an accelerated immunisation schedule using a canarypox-vectored equine influenza vaccine, shortened interdose intervals and vaccination of young foals.the results of an accelerated immunisation schedule for horses used as part of the emergency response plan to contain and eradicate equine influenza in australia in 2007 is described. the horses studied were vaccinated with a recombinant canarypox-vectored vaccine (proteqflu-«, merial) with a shorter interdose interval. vaccinated horses included foals aged less than 4 months.201121711312
analysis of horse movements and events during the 2007 outbreak of equine influenza in new south wales, australia.to analyse horse event and horse movement registration data collected between september 2007 and december 2008 during the outbreak of equine influenza in new south wales, australia.201121711292
assessment of the proportion of under-reporting during the 2007 equine influenza outbreak in new south wales, australia.during the 2007 equine influenza (ei) outbreak in australia, there was no objective information about the possible under-reporting of cases by horse owners either so that they would avoid movement restrictions or because of their inability to detect infection. this investigation aimed to estimate the proportion of under-reporting during the outbreak based on the results of surveillance undertaken in conjunction with vaccination. the results provided improved estimates of morbidity during the out ...201121711295
determining the endpoint of an outbreak of equine influenza in a large population of racing thoroughbreds.outbreaks of equine influenza (ei) cause major disruption to the racing industry, resulting in cessation of racing until affected horses have recovered from the disease. the introduction of ei to a large population of thoroughbred horses stabled at a sydney racecourse provided the opportunity to observe clinical signs and monitor the spread of ei in this predominantly na+»ve population and to assist in determining an endpoint to infection spread to allow resumption of racing events.201121711278
the august 2007 equine influenza response management framework.this section outlines the most important issues addressed in the management of the response in the two infected states, new south wales and queensland. there were differences in the management of the response between the states for logistic, geographic and organisation structural reasons. issues included the use of control centres, information centres, the problems associated with the lack of trained staff to undertake all the roles, legislative issues, controls of horse movements, the availabil ...201121711301
responding to the equine influenza outbreak: challenges from a laboratory perspective.the unique challenges that laboratories in queensland and new south wales faced during the response to the 2007 equine influenza outbreak and how these were managed are described.201121711281
equine influenza immunity in the special restricted area (purple zone) of new south wales, australia.the 2007 equine influenza (ei) outbreak in new south wales (nsw) consisted of a central infected area that extended south from the lower new england tableland, across the hunter valley, central coast and the sydney basin, and a series of isolated clusters outside this area across rural nsw. the central area was assigned the status of a purple zone (special restricted area, sra) approximately 1 month after the outbreak commenced. within this sra, the eradication program's focus was to increase th ...201121711307
diagnostic specificity of an equine influenza blocking elisa estimated from new south wales field data from the australian epidemic in 2007.this observational study was undertaken in order to evaluate the diagnostic specificity of the blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (belisa) for serum antibodies to influenza a virus nucleoprotein during the equine influenza (ei) outbreak response in new south wales, australia, in 2007. using data collected during the outbreak response, belisa testing data were collated for assumed uninfected horses from areas where ei infection was never recorded. diagnostic specificity of the belisa used ...201121711287
overview of the epidemiology of equine influenza in the australian outbreak.this overview of the equine influenza (ei) epidemic as it occurred in two australian states, new south wales and queensland, in 2007 describes the functions and activities of the epidemiology teams that were engaged during the outbreak and also identifies key features of the epidemiology of ei during the outbreak.201121711290
clinical outcomes and virology of equine influenza in a na+»ve population and in horses infected soon after receiving one dose of vaccine.as part of the control measures of the equine influenza (ei) outbreak, in addition to the strategic use of vaccination to provide buffer zones around infected populations, approval was obtained to vaccinate thoroughbred racing horses. we review the clinical expression of the disease and virus excretion in a population of racehorses that were exposed to ei approximately 7 days after administration of a single dose of the canarypox-vectored recombinant compared with a similar unvaccinated populati ...201121711313
risk of an equine influenza virus reservoir establishing in wild horses in new south wales during the australian epidemic.australia has the world's largest population of wild equids and equine influenza (ei) was confirmed on several properties in new south wales (nsw) close to uncontrolled areas of land during the 2007 outbreak. likelihood and risk management assessments were carried out to determine the risk of ei infection of the wild horse populations. the likelihood of spread to the wild horse population was determined to be extremely low, but the likelihood of spread from an established wild horse reservoir ba ...201121711296
infection of dogs with equine influenza virus: evidence for transmission from horses during the australian outbreak.during the equine influenza (ei) outbreak, respiratory disease was observed in dogs that were in close proximity to infected horses. investigations were undertaken to exclude influenza virus infection. of the 23 dogs that were seropositive in tests using the influenza a/sydney/2007 virus as the test antigen, 10 showed clinical signs. ei virus appeared to be readily transmitted to dogs that were held in close proximity to infected horses, but there was no evidence of lateral transmission of the v ...201121711279
longitudinal study describing the clinical signs observed in horses naturally infected with equine influenza.we describe the clinical signs and disease course during an outbreak of equine influenza (ei) in na+»ve horses in a police stables in sydney, new south wales, australia.201121711276
demonstrating freedom from equine influenza in new south wales, australia, following the 2007 outbreak.to quantify the probability of freedom from equine influenza (ei) in new south wales (nsw), australia, based on analysis of polymerase chain reaction (pcr) testing.201121711322
immunohistochemistry in the identification of a number of new diseases in australia.immunohistochemistry plays an important part in the diagnosis of some viral diseases. demonstration of viral antigen in a lesion is an important contribution to diagnosis, either at the time of investigation or retrospectively. at the csiro australian animal health laboratory, the most frequent use of immunohistochemistry has been in the diagnosis of the important avian diseases, highly pathogenic avian influenza and newcastle disease. the technology took key roles in the diagnoses of hendra vir ...199910501165
isolation and characterisation of an h3n8 equine influenza virus in australia, 2007.before 2007, equine influenza had never been diagnosed in australia. on 22 august 2007, infection was confirmed in horses at eastern creek animal quarantine station near sydney. the virus subsequently isolated (a/equine/sydney/2888-8/2007) was confirmed by sequence analysis of the haemagglutinin (ha) gene as an h3 virus of the variant american florida lineage that is now referred to as clade 1. the ha sequence of the virus was identical to that of a virus isolated from a contemporaneous outbreak ...201121711282
biosecurity and vaccination strategies to minimise the effect of an equine influenza outbreak on racing and breeding.three biosecurity and relief-and-recovery initiatives adopted by the nsw horse racing industries reduced the economic and social disruption caused by the disease and subsequent movement controls during the 2007 australian equine influenza (ei) incursion. the first was the creation of biosecure horse training and racing precincts around the sydney area to permit racing to continue with healthy horses. infection was excluded for 3-5 weeks and race meetings were conducted safely during this period. ...201121711305
significant features of the epidemiology of equine influenza in new south wales, australia, 2007.equine influenza (ei) was first diagnosed in the australian horse population on 24 august 2007 at centennial park equestrian centre (cpec) in sydney, new south wales (nsw), australia. by then, the virus had already spread to many properties in nsw and southern queensland. the outbreak in nsw affected approximately 6000 premises populated by approximately 47,000 horses. analyses undertaken by the epidemiology section, a distinct unit within the planning section of the state disease control headqu ...201121711291
evaluating the effectiveness of the response to equine influenza in the australian outbreak and the potential role of early vaccination.to use modelling and epidemiological analyses to assess the effectiveness of control strategies employed during the equine influenza outbreak and determine if early vaccination might have had a beneficial effect.201121711314
attack risk on infected properties during the 2007 equine influenza outbreak in new south wales, australia.the aim of this preliminary study was to estimate the proportions of seropositive horses on infected premises (ips) in order to assess the attack risk of the disease. logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the differences in attack risks between enterprise sizes and predefined spatial clusters/regions. the average attack risk experienced during the outbreak was 96.88% (median 100%), but it differed according to the size of the enterprise and other geographic and demographic cond ...201121711294
surveillance and prevention in a non-affected state: victoria.the equine influenza outbreak detected in august 2007 in new south wales and queensland did not enter victoria, which was, however, considered at risk because of its sizable border with new south wales. accordingly, victoria implemented a response plan to prevent disease entry and enable early detection of any disease. horse movement restrictions, surveillance strategies and public awareness formed a large part of this response.201121711300
pathological changes in horses dying with equine influenza in australia, 2007.analysis of pathology results from the 2007 equine influenza (ei) outbreak in australia indicate that young foals in na+»ve horse populations are prone to developing broncho-interstitial pneumonia, and that this can be a rare manifestation of ei virus infection in mature horses. all horses may develop secondary bacterial bronchopneumonia, with mature horses more likely to die. ei outbreaks among heavily pregnant mares can result in increased neonatal losses because of premature placental separat ...201121711275
Spatial association and clinical development of equine influenza in horses yarded overnight at an equestrian event at Maitland prior to propagating the 2007 epidemic in Australia.The interaction and stabling of horses at equine events may have a substantial impact on the spread of a zoonotic disease. This study aimed to investigate the spread of equine influenza (EI) at an equestrian event at the start of the Australian outbreak. Around one-third of the competing horses were stabled overnight at the event and, of these, 70% developed symptoms of EI within 7 days. The index case was never positively identified, but stabling position and disease onset provided clues to its ...201121711293
equine influenza: patterns of disease and seroprevalence in thoroughbred studs and implications for vaccination.this study included 10 large thoroughbred horse studs in the upper hunter valley of new south wales and in southeast queensland, australia. the aims were to describe the ei epidemic in studs in the special restricted area (purple zone) of nsw, to estimate seroprevalence among different groups of horses on these studs and to look for evidence of exposure to ei virus in horses on 'vaccinated' studs in southeast queensland that were thought to have remained free of infection. as serology results fr ...201121711311
human and animal isolates of pseudallescheria boydii and scedosporium species, from melbourne, australia, 1977-1995.from 1977 to 1995, 25 of the fungal cultures referred to the microbiological diagnostic unit public health laboratory at the university of melbourne, victoria, australia were identified as scedosporium apiospermum, pseudallescheria boydii, or scedosporium prolificans. these cultures had been isolated from 22 patients at metropolitan hospitals and three animals at veterinary institutes. eight of the human isolates were identified as p. boydii, 11 as s. apiospermum and three as s. prolificans. iso ...201020492531
horse-related injuries in children.to identify the frequency, spectrum and outcome of horse-related injuries in children.200111837860
seroprevalence of equine herpesvirus 1 in thoroughbred foals before and after weaning.to investigate the seroprevalence of equine herpesvirus 1 in foals around weaning and after weaning on two large thoroughbred farms using a type-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to determine exposure to infection.19989830568
should children with down's syndrome who have asymptomatic atlantoaxial instability avoid horse riding? 201021166914
evaluation of tests for anthelmintic resistance in cyathostomes.resistance, especially to the anthelmintic benzimidazoles (bz), has been reported in horse cyathostomes world-wide. diagnosis of resistance has traditionally been made by faecal egg count reduction (fecr) trials, however, this technique has limitations. some of the shortcomings may be resolved by refining the test or by using an in vitro test. fecr tests and the larval development assay (lda) were performed on adult horses held on 15 different horse properties across a wide geographical area of ...200212079739
serological responses of mares and weanlings following vaccination with an inactivated whole virus equine herpesvirus 1 and equine herpesvirus 4 vaccine.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) is a major cause of respiratory disease and abortion in horses worldwide. although some vaccines have been shown experimentally to reduce disease, there are few reports of the responses to vaccination in the field. this study measured antibody responses to vaccination of 159 mares (aged 4-17 years) and 101 foals (aged 3-6 months) on a large stud farm with a killed whole virus ehv-1/4 vaccine used as per the manufacturer's recommendations. using an ehv glycoprotein d ...200212119135
spinal and spinal cord injuries in horse riding: the new south wales experience 1976-1996.the objective of the present study was to determine the incidence of acute spinal cord injuries (asci) in all forms of horse riding in new south wales (nsw) for the period 1976-1996. other aims of the present study were to compare and contrast asci with vertebral column injuries (vci) without neurological damage and to define appropriate safety measures in relation to spinal injury in horse-riding.200312752291
chemical arthrodesis of the distal tarsal joints using sodium monoiodoacetate in 104 horses.to evaluate chemical arthrodesis using sodium monoiodoacetate for treatment of degenerative joint disease of the tarsometatarsal and distal intertarsal joints.200415088956
detection of ehv-1 and ehv-4 dna in unweaned thoroughbred foals from vaccinated mares on a large stud farm.a silent cycle of equine herpesvirus 1 infection has been described following epidemiological studies in unvaccinated mares and foals. in 1997, an inactivated whole virus ehv-1 and ehv-4 vaccine was released commercially in australia and used on many stud farms. however, it was not known what effect vaccination might have on the cycle of infection of ehv-1.200415163042
in vitro transposon mutagenesis of an equine herpesvirus 1 genome cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome.the 150-kbp genome of the alphaherpesvirus equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) strain hvs25a was cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome (ehv-1 bac), with mini f plasmid sequences inserted between genes 62 and 63. transfection of ehv-1 bac dna purified from e. coli gave rise to progeny virus that had a similar growth rate and yield in mammalian cell culture to those of parental wild-type ehv-1. using in vitro mutagenesis with a mu transposon, a large library of ehv-1 bac mutants was generated, and ...200616855811
equine herpesvirus infections in yearlings in south-east queensland.twelve nasal swabs were collected from yearling horses with respiratory distress and tested for equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) and equid herpesvirus 4 (ehv-4) by real-time pcr targeting the glycoprotein b gene. all samples were negative for ehv-1; however, 3 were positive for ehv-4. when these samples were tested for ehv-2 and ehv-5 by pcr, all samples were negative for ehv-2 and 11 were positive for ehv-5. all three samples that were positive for ehv-4 were also positive for ehv-5. these three sam ...200818677574
the australian twin study of gambling (oz-gam): rationale, sample description, predictors of participation, and a first look at sources of individual differences in gambling involvement.two major challenges to conducting a community-based twin study of pathological gambling (pg) disorder are that: (a) it is relatively rare, and (b) individuals with the disorder in the community may be difficult to locate and recruit. we describe a new study of 4,764 individuals recruited from the australian twin registry in which we attempt to effectively deal with the first challenge and examine the impact of the second challenge. the lifetime prevalence of dsm-iv pg in this australian twin sa ...200919210181
equine influenza. 200919626731
the equine influenza epidemic in australia: spatial and temporal descriptive analyses of a large propagating epidemic.australia experienced a large outbreak of equine influenza in august 2007. nearly 10000 premises were infected during the epidemic. we used spatial and temporal analytical techniques to describe the epidemic, to quantify important descriptors of the epidemic, and to generate hypotheses about how the epidemic progressed and which control tools assisted in eradication. spatio-temporal epidemic curves revealed three phases in the epidemic: dispersal, local spread and disease fade out. spatial dispe ...200919748691
prevalence of equine adenovirus antibodies in horses in new south wales, australia.there are currently two known serotypes of equine adenovirus (eadv), equine adenovirus type 1 (eadv1) and equine adenovirus type 2 (eadv2); eadv1 is predominantly associated with upper respiratory tract infections while eadv2 appears to have a higher association with gastrointestinal infection, however, very little is known about the prevalence of these viruses in horse populations in australia. in this study we tested 122 serum samples obtained from horses in new south wales, australia, using a ...201020060662
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