characterization of a new avian-like influenza a virus from horses in march 1989 a severe outbreak of respiratory disease occurred in horses in the jilin and heilongjiang provinces of northeast china that caused up to 20% mortality in some herds. an influenza virus of the h3n8 subtype was isolated from the infected animals and was antigenically and molecularly distinguishable from the equine 2 (h3n8) viruses currently circulating in the world. the reference strain a/equine/jilin/1/89 (h3n8) was most closely related to avian h3n8 influenza viruses. sequence comp ...19921314452
seroepidemiological and molecular evidence for the presence of two h3n8 equine influenza viruses in china in may 1993, a severe epidemic of respiratory disease began in horses in inner mongolia and spread throughout horses in china. the disease affected mules and donkeys as well as horses but did not spread to other species, including humans. the severity of the disease raised the question of whether the outbreak might have been caused by the new avian-like influenza viruses detected in horses in china in 1989 or by current variants ofa/equine/miami/1/63 (h3n8) (equine-2) or by a reassortant between ...19957636481
genetic and antigenic analysis of the influenza virus responsible for the 1992 hong kong equine influenza outbreak of influenza occurred among thoroughbred racehorses in hong kong in november-december 1992, with morbidity of 37%. all horses involved had been vaccinated against equine-1 and equine-2 influenza viruses but not against the virus responsible for the 1989 equine influenza outbreak in northern china (influenza a/equine/jilin/89, subtype h3n8). therefore the source and nature of the virus causing the hong kong outbreak was investigated. virus isolated from a horse infected during the out ...19947941336
seroepidemiologic studies on babesia equi and babesia caballi infections in horses in jilin province of china.the prevalence of equine piroplasmosis caused by babesia equi and babesia caballi in northeast china has remained unknown, although the people's republic of china is recognized as an endemic country for the diseases. in the present study, we investigated the prevalence of equine piroplasmosis in jilin province, a part of northeast china. a total of 111 serum samples were taken from horses in eastern jilin, and examined for diagnosis of b. equi and b. caballi infections by the enzyme-linked immun ...200314532697
genetic analysis of h3 subtype influenza viruses isolated from domestic ducks in northern china during 2004-2005.the broad distribution and prevalence of h3 subtype influenza viruses in avian and mammalian hosts constitutes a global threat to both human and veterinary health. in this present study, six h3n8 influenza viruses isolated from domestic ducks during 2004-2005 in northern china were genetically and phylogenetically characterized. sequence analysis showed that ha, na, and m genes of all the six h3n8 isolates had a close relationship with those of equine/jilin/1/89 (h3n8) virus, which once caused o ...200919067150
evaluation of the genetic diversity and population structure of chinese indigenous horse breeds using 27 microsatellite markers.we determined the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships among 26 chinese indigenous horse breeds and two introduced horse breeds by genotyping these animals for 27 microsatellite loci. the 26 chinese horse breeds come from 12 different provinces. two introduced horse breeds were the mongolia b horse from mongolia and the thoroughbred horse from the uk. a total of 330 alleles were detected, and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.719 (elenchuns) to 0.780 (dali). the mean number o ...201120477800
high-level expression and purification of a truncated merozoite antigen-2 of babesia equi in escherichia coli and its potential for immunodiagnosis.the gene encoding a truncated merozoite antigen-2 (ema-2t) of babesia equi was cloned and highly expressed in escherichia coli as a glutathione s-transferase fusion protein (g-rema-2t). both g-rema-2t and rema-2t (after the removal of glutathione s-transferase) had good antigenicity. either western blot analysis with rema-2t or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) with g-rema-2t clearly discriminated the sera of horses experimentally infected with b. equi from sera of horses infected with b ...200312624044
cross-reactivity of existing equine influenza vaccines with a new strain of equine influenza virus from china.a novel strain of equine influenza virus, influenza a/equine/jilin (china)/1/89, has emerged which is genetically distinct from all earlier strains of equine influenza. it is therefore possible that the vaccines against equine influenza may be unable to protect horses against disease caused by this virus strain. in vitro serological assays established that there were low levels of immunological cross-reactivity between the new virus, the current vaccine strains and the strains of equine-2 influe ...19921333665
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