[decontamination of soil after bacterial warfare experiments on gruinard island].bombs containing b. anthracis spores were detonated on gruinard island in 1942 and 1943 as a part of a british research programme set up in response to fears that the germans were developing biological weapons. in 1986 island was decontaminated by spraying with 5% formaldehyde. as a demonstration of confidence in the success of the decontamination operation a flock of 40 sheep was allowed to graze for several months with no ill effects.19911819816
bacillus anthracis on gruinard island. 19816795509
anthrax island. why worry? 19827099248
landscape with dead sheep: what they did to gruinard the context of intensified international concern about biological weapons (bw), this article looks at the pioneering british research in this field during the second world war, which caused the long-term contamination of gruinard island in north-west scotland. public record office documents have been examined to show how scientists reported on the experiments at the time and what they thought about their (top secret) work, as well as how politicians directed their efforts and used their resul ...200212044028
probable human anthrax death in scotland. 200616966782
anthrax in a scottish intravenous drug user.anthrax, caused by bacillus anthracis, is an uncommon disease in the united kingdom. in december 2009, the first recorded case of injectable anthrax in the uk was diagnosed in glasgow, scotland. this case report describes the disease presentation in a detained person in police custody in dumfries, south west scotland. the case highlights to forensic physicians the clinical features of anthrax, particularly in relation to intravenous drug misuse and the importance of early recognition. anthrax an ...201021056883
injectional anthrax at a scottish district general hospital.this retrospective, descriptive case-series reviews the clinical presentations and significant laboratory findings of patients diagnosed with and treated for injectional anthrax (ia) since december 2009 at monklands hospital in central scotland and represents the largest series of ia cases to be described from a single location. twenty-one patients who fulfilled national anthrax control team standardized case definitions of confirmed, probable or possible ia are reported. all cases survived and ...201525078285
confirmed bacillus anthracis infection among persons who inject drugs, scotland, scotland, the 2009 outbreak of bacillus anthracis infection among persons who inject drugs resulted in a 28% death rate. to compare nonsurvivors and survivors, we obtained data on 11 nonsurvivors and 16 survivors. time from b. anthracis exposure to symptoms or hospitalization and skin and limb findings at presentation did not differ between nonsurvivors and survivors. proportionately more nonsurvivors had histories of excessive alcohol use (p = 0.05) and required vasopressors and/or mechanica ...201425148307
anthrax infection in drug users. 201020399978
being alert to anthrax.nurses need to be aware that heroin contaminated with anthrax is in circulation.201020373622
landscape with dead sheep: what they did to gruinard island. 2002. 200920178200
anthrax in transit; practical experience and intellectual exchange.focusing on three anglo-american outbreaks of industrial anthrax, this essay engages the question of how local circumstances influenced the transmission of scientific knowledge in the late nineteenth century. walpole (massachusetts), glasgow, and bradford (yorkshire) served as important nodes of transnational investigation into anthrax. knowledge about the morphology and behavior of bacillus anthracis changed little while in transit between these nodes, even during complex debates about the natu ...200818959192
developing disaster management modules: a collaborative approach.disasters, whether natural or human induced, can strike when least expected. the events of 9/11 in the us, the 7/7 bombings in the uk, and the anthrax incident in the us on 10th october 2001 indicate that there is a need to have a nursing workforce who is able to respond effectively to mass casualty events and incidents involving chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear substances. multi-agency collaboration is one of the fundamental principles of disaster preparedness and response. it was ...200717551443
response to bioterrorism. us anthrax incidents led to scares in scotland. 200211858179
biological warfare. gruinard island handed back. 19902109833
analysis of anthrax immune globulin intravenous with antimicrobial treatment in injection drug users, scotland, 2009-2010.we studied anthrax immune globulin intravenous (aig-iv) use from a 2009-2010 outbreak of bacillus anthracis soft tissue infection in injection drug users in scotland, uk, and we compared findings from 15 aig-iv recipients with findings from 28 nonrecipients. death rates did not differ significantly between recipients and nonrecipients (33% vs. 21%). however, whereas only 8 (27%) of 30 patients at low risk for death (admission sequential organ failure assessment score of 0-5) received aig-iv, 7 ( ...201727983504
a review of exotic animal disease in great britain and in scotland specifically between 1938 and 2007.incursions of contagious diseases of livestock into disease-free zones are inevitable as long as the diseases persist elsewhere in the world. knowledge of where, when and how incursions have occurred helps assess the risks, and regionalize preventative and reactive measures.201121818292
an outbreak of infection with bacillus anthracis in injecting drug users in investigation is currently underway to explore and control an outbreak of bacillus anthracis among drug users (mainly injecting) in scotland. contaminated heroin or a contaminated cutting agent mixed with the heroin is considered to be the most likely source and vehicle of infection. heroin users have been advised of the risk. the risk to the general public is regarded as very low.201020085694
contamination and compensation: gruinard as a 'menace to the mainland'.the decades-long contamination of gruinard island by anthrax is now a well-known part of the history of biological weapons (bw) development, as well as that of military encroachments in the scottish highlands and islands (and the authorities' rather less persistent efforts at damage limitation). some accounts have included the related episode, reportedly well-remembered by local people, of anthrax contamination on the mainland close to gruinard. this occurred in 1942--43, when bw experiments wer ...200415688884
the work of two scottish medical graduates in the control of woolsorters' disease. 1976781423
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