a prospective study of the effects of ultralow volume (ulv) aerial application of malathion on epidemic plasmodium falciparum malaria. i. study design and perspective.a large-scale prospective study was designed to test the effects of aerial ultralow volume (ulv) application of malathion on epidemic plasmodium falciparum malaria. the study was conducted during 1972 to 1973, in the miragoane valley of haiti, an area having annual anticipated outbreaks of malaria, which allowed prospective assessment. spraying of malathion at a dosage of 4.5 fluid ounces per acre reduced populations of adult anopheles albimanus to less than 1% of prespray levels and interrupted ...19751091167
a prospective study of the effects of ultralow volume (ulv) aerial application of malathion on epidemic plasmodium falciparum malaria. ii. entomologic and operational a large-scale study in the miragoane valley of haiti, designed to test the effects of aerial ultralow volume (ulv) malathion on epidemic plasmodium falciparum malaria, spray operations resulted in an immediate and sharp decline in numbers of the vector, anopheles albimanus. the adult population of this mosquito remained at less than 1% of previous levels until several weeks after a 50-day spray period (27 october-16 december 1972) during which six cycles were completed. the study area offered ...19751091168
a prospective study of the effects of ultralow volume (ulv) aerial application of malathion on epidemic plasmodium falciparum malaria. iv. epidemiologic the miragoane valley of haiti a consistent pattern in the incidence of plasmodium falciparum malaria over a 10-year period made it possible to predict an annual outbreak and perform a prospective study to test the effects of aerial ultralow volume (ulv) malathion on epidemic levels of this disease. at the end of october 1972, after epidemic levels (100 cases/month/10,000 population) had been reached, spray operations were begun. the first spray cycle produced a sharp and immediate drop in pop ...19751091170
field evaluation of ultra-low volume applications with a mixture of d-allethrin and d-phenothrin for control of anopheles albimanus in haiti.ultra-low volume applications of d-allethrin and d-phenothrin could possibly reduce populations of anopheles albimanus when used in conjunction with residual spraying of fenitrothion. the experiments were carried out in les cayes, haiti.19911791463
microplate assay analysis of reduced fenitrothion susceptibility in haitian anopheles albimanus.reduced fenitrothion susceptibility in haitian anopheles albimanus is documented using time/mortality measurements from otherwise standard world health organization (who) bioassays. survival beyond a time threshold in bioassays is shown to be highly correlated with elevated non-specific esterase levels. a shift in resistance incidence from less than 20 to over 60% in a six-month period is documented using both the bioassay and microassay procedures, showing the potential of microplate assay meth ...19883193111
the biting and resting behavior of anopheles albimanus in northern haiti.a one-year study of the biting and resting habits of the malaria vector anopheles albimanus was carried out in four rural villages of northern haiti. man-biting rates and nightly biting cycles were determined by the use of all-night man-biting captures inside and outside houses. seasonal changes in density and behavior were determined by repeating the captures on a bimonthly basis throughout one year. exophily was demonstrated in these anopheline populations by a comparison of inside-biting with ...19863507484
comparison of an experimental updraft ultraviolet light trap with the cdc miniature light trap and biting collections in sampling for anopheles albimanus in haiti.three methods of capturing anopheles albimanus mosquitoes were compared during a field study in four villages in northern haiti. updraft ultraviolet (uv) light traps proved to be more effective than biting collections, regardless of season or whether the tests were done indoors or outdoors. biting collections were in turn more effective than the centers for disease control (cdc) miniature light traps. updraft uv light traps and biting collections yielded more an. albimanus outdoors than indoors; ...19863507485
recent developments in methods of mosquito control.since residual insecticide spraying in domiciles does not sufficiently control some species of anophelines to halt malaria transmission, alternate methods of control have been investigated. these include ultra-low-volume (ulv) sprays or aerosols, the release of sterile males to suppress or eradicate populations, and the use of diseases or parasites to interfere with transmission or to reduce populations of mosquitos. the ulv aerial sprays gave practical control of anopheles albimanus in haiti an ...19744548396
selection for resistance to carbamate and organophoshorus insecticides in anopheles albimanus. 19714937399
studies on resistance to carbamate and organophosphorus insecticides in anopheles albimanus. 19725074693
observations on two strains of plasmodium falciparum from haiti in aotus monkeys.two strains of plasmodium falciparum originating in haiti were studied in the aotus monkey. the haitian i/cdc strain was first adapted to in vitro cultivation and subsequently inoculated into monkeys. the haitian iii/cdc strain was inoculated directly from a human patient into the aotus monkey. the strains varied in their levels of pathogenicity to the animals. the haitian i/cdc strain was highly virulent in six splenectomized animals; in one intact animal, the infection could be controlled but ...19826750071
[bioecology in haiti of anopheles albimanus wiedemann, 1820 (diptera:culicidae)].hispaniola has the highest malaria rate in the west indies. a study of the bio-ecology of the major vector anopheles albimanus was carried out in haïti. our observations concerned the length of pre-imaginal stages, biting rates and the gonotrophic cycle. a table of its complete life cycle, stage by stage, was produced as well as a graph illustrating its whole larval development in its natural habitat. results in the field and insectarium were compared. in the laboratory, the development was shor ...19989846229
[a malarial attack on return from a voyage to the french antilles. discussion of the mode of transmission].malaria has been considered to be eradicated from the french west indies for over 25 years. in this report we describe a patient who was hospitalized and successfully treated in paris for severe plasmodium falciparum malaria after returning form a brief trip to guadeloupe. several modes of transmission are possible. given the presence of a reservoir of plasmodium falciparum gametocytes in the haitian immigrant community and persistent breeding of anopheles albimanus in the french west indies, th ...199910472584
malaria in the limbé river valley of northern haiti: a hospital-based retrospective study, the limbé river valley of northern haiti a retrospective study at the bon samaritain hospital (bsh) determined the total number of cases and the cyclical nature of malaria from 1975 through 1997, examined the relationship between rainfall and malaria from 1975 through 1985, and compared the incidence of malaria at that hospital with general trends for haiti for 1975 through 1996 as reported by the world health organization (who). during 1975-1997, 27,078 positive cases of malaria were diagnos ...200010808749
[malaria in haiti today].haiti is the only caribbean island where malaria, practically always due to plasmodium falciparum, persists in an epidemic-endemic state. in 1995 haitian strains of p. falciparum were still sensitive to chloroquine. the principal vector is anopheles albimanus, but the recent introduction in the south of haiti of an. pseudopunctipennis, which is an effective vector of p. falciparum in central america, requires appropriate entomological surveillance. essentially rural and seasonal, malaria is incr ...200415745868
characterization of aquatic mosquito habitat, natural enemies, and immature mosquitoes in the artibonite valley, haiti.this paper characterizes water body types harboring immature mosquitoes in a low-lying area of haiti and investigates the relationship between immature anopheles albimanus abundance and aquatic predator presence. larval an. albimanus were found in permanent and semi-permanent groundwater habitats including (in order of greatest abundance) hoof/footprints, ditches, rice fields, and ground pools. high levels of species co-occurrence were observed in habitats. among water bodies positive for immatu ...200818697323
malaria acquired in haiti - 2010.on january 12, 2010, a 7.0 magnitude earthquake struck haiti, which borders the dominican republic on the island of hispaniola. the earthquake's epicenter was 10 miles west of the haiti capital city of port-au-prince (estimated population: 2 million). according to the haitian government, approximately 200,000 persons were killed, and 500,000 were left homeless. malaria caused by plasmodium falciparum infection is endemic in haiti, and the principal mosquito vector is anopheles albimanus, which f ...201020203553
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