hematology, serum chemistry, and serology of galápagos penguins (spheniscus mendiculus) in the galápagos islands, ecuador.the galápagos penguin (spheniscus mendiculus) is an endangered species endemic to the galápagos islands, ecuador. in 2003 and 2004, 195 penguins from 13 colonies on the islands of isabela and fernandina in the galápagos archipelago were examined. genetic sexing of 157 penguins revealed 62 females and 95 males. hematology consisted of packed cell volume (n = 134), white blood cell differentials (n = 83), and hemoparasite blood smear evaluation (n = 114). microfilariae were detected in 22% (25/114 ...200617092893
microfilariae in galápagos penguins (spheniscus mendiculus) and flightless cormorants (phalacrocorax harrisi): genetics, morphology, and prevalence.galapagos penguins (spheniscus mendiculus) and flightless cormorants (phalacrocorax harrisi) live in small, isolated populations on the westernmost islands of isabela and fernandina in the galápagos islands, ecuador. between august 2003 and february 2005, 4 field trips, 2 in the cool, dry season (august 2003 and august 2004) and 2 in the hot, rainy season (march 2004 and february 2005), were undertaken; 298 galápagos penguins and 380 cormorants were sampled for prevalence and intensity of hemopa ...200717626340
exposure to toxoplasma gondii in galapagos penguins (spheniscus mendiculus) and flightless cormorants (phalacrocorax harrisi) in the galapagos islands, ecuador.toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common protozoan parasites of humans and warm-blooded animals. members of the family felidae are the only definitive hosts of this parasite and, thus, important in the epidemiology of the disease. previous studies on pacific islands have found t. gondii infections in a number of avian species where domestic cats (felis catus) have been introduced. little is known about t. gondii in the galapagos islands, although introduced domestic cats in the archipelago ar ...201020688714
ecological correlates of microfilariae prevalence in endangered galápagos birds.this study assesses the ecological factors associated with microfilariae prevalence in wild populations of endangered flightless cormorants (phalacrocorax harrisi) and galápagos penguins (spheniscus mendiculus). prevalence values were tested for correlation with a large number of environmental variables, as modeled from weather station data and measured by satellite-borne sensors. predictions were made based on the expected effects of climatic and landscape variables on sustained populations of ...201019954259
low mhc variation in the endangered galápagos penguin (spheniscus mendiculus).the major histocompatibility complex (mhc) is one of the most polymorphic regions of the genome, likely due to balancing selection acting to maintain alleles over time. lack of mhc variability has been attributed to factors such as genetic drift in small populations and relaxed selection pressure. the galápagos penguin (spheniscus mendiculus), endemic to the galápagos islands, is the only penguin that occurs on the equator. it relies upon cold, nutrient-rich upwellings and experiences severe pop ...200717457582
seroprevalence of malarial antibodies in galapagos penguins (spheniscus mendiculus).a parasite species of the genus plasmodium has recently been documented in the endangered galapagos penguin (spheniscus mendiculus). avian malaria causes high mortality in several species after initial exposure and there is great concern for the conservation of the endemic galapagos penguin. using a plasmodium spp. circumsporozoite protein antigen, we standardized an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to test the level of exposure in this small population, as indicated by seroprevalence. sera fro ...201323594272
multiple lineages of avian malaria parasites (plasmodium) in the galapagos islands and evidence for arrival via migratory birds.haemosporidian parasites in the genus plasmodium were recently detected through molecular screening in the galapagos penguin (spheniscus mendiculus). we summarized results of an archipelago-wide screen of 3726 endemic birds representing 22 species for plasmodium spp. through a combination of molecular and microscopy techniques. three additional plasmodium lineages were present in galapagos. lineage a-infected penguins, yellow warblers (setophaga petechia aureola), and one medium ground finch (ge ...201324033638
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