aflatoxins in domestic and imported foods and feeds.aflatoxins, metabolic products of the molds aspergillus flavus and a. parasiticus, may occur in foods and feeds. these toxins cannot be entirely avoided or eliminated from foods or feeds by current agronomic and manufacturing processes and are considered unavoidable contaminants. to limit aflatoxin exposure, the u.s. food and drug administration (fda) has set action levels for these toxins in foods and feeds involved in interstate commerce. fda continually monitors food and feed industries throu ...19892759983
results of a nationwide survey to determine feedstuffs fed to lactating dairy cows.a nationwide survey to determine feedstuffs used in the diets of dairy cows was conducted. this survey was mailed to dairy nutritionists at universities in each state to describe the use of 144 feedstuffs. twenty-eight states responded and were grouped by region as follows: northeast (maine, maryland, new hampshire, new york, ohio, vermont, and west virginia), northwest (idaho, oregon, and washington), midwest (iowa, illinois, michigan, minnesota, missouri, nebraska, north dakota, south dakota, ...199910068966
dna screening reveals pink bollworm resistance to bt cotton remains rare after a decade of exposure.transgenic crops producing toxins from the bacterium bacillus thuringiensis (bt) kill insect pests and can reduce reliance on insecticide sprays. although bt cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) and bt corn (zea mays l.) covered 26 million ha worldwide in 2005, their success could be cut short by evolution of pest resistance. monitoring the early phases of pest resistance to bt crops is crucial, but it has been extremely difficult because bioassays usually cannot detect heterozygotes harboring one all ...200617066779
physiological time model for predicting adult emergence of western corn rootworm (coleoptera: chrysomelidae) in the texas high plains.field observations at three locations in the texas high plains were used to develop and validate a degree-day phenology model to predict the onset and proportional emergence of adult diabrotica virgifera virgifera leconte (coleoptera: chrysomelidae) adults. climatic data from the texas high plains potential evapotranspiration network were used with records of cumulative proportional adult emergence to determine the functional lower developmental temperature, optimum starting date, and the sum of ...200818950040
using haplotypes to monitor the migration of fall armyworm (lepidoptera: noctuidae) corn-strain populations from texas and florida.fall armyworm, spodoptera frugiperda (j. e. smith) (lepidoptera: noctuidae), infestations in most of north america north of mexico arise from annual migrations of populations that overwinter in southern texas and florida. a comparison of the cytochrome oxidase i haplotype profiles within the fall armyworm corn-strain, the subgroup that preferentially infests corn (zea mays l.) and sorghum (sorghum vulgare pers.), identified significant differences in the proportions of certain haplotypes between ...200818613574
the role of wolbachia bacteria in reproductive incompatibilities and hybrid zones of diabrotica beetles and gryllus crickets.a rickettsial bacterium in the genus wolbachia is the cause of a unidirectional reproductive incompatibility observed between two major beetle pests of maize, the western corn rootworm, diabrotica virgifera virgifera, and the mexican corn rootworm, d. v. zeae. these subspecies are allopatric except for two known regions of sympatry in texas and mexico. we demonstrate that populations of d. v. virgifera, with the exception of two populations in southern arizona, are infected with a strain of wolb ...19979326628
population distribution and range expansion of the invasive mexican rice borer (lepidoptera: crambidae) in louisiana.the mexican rice borer, eoreuma loftini (dyar) (lepidoptera: crambidae), is an invasive pest that was first introduced into southern texas in 1980 and has been expanding its range eastward along the united states gulf coast. the pest attacks rice (oryza sativa l.), sugarcane (saccharum spp.), corn (zea mays l.), and other graminaceous crops, and its establishment in louisiana is expected to have severe economic impacts on crop production. range expansion and population distribution of e. loftini ...201728334259
evidence for role of white-tailed deer (artiodactyla: cervidae) in epizootiology of cattle ticks and southern cattle ticks (acari: ixodidae) in reinfestations along the texas/mexico border in south texas: a review and update.from 1907 when the fever tick eradication campaign began until 1933, the tick eradication methods of dipping cattle in an acaricide or "pasture vacation" were enormously successful in eradicating southern cattle ticks [rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus (canestrini)], until failures began to occur in some areas of florida. regarding the failures in florida, the consensus was that populations of white-tailed deer [odocoileus virginianus (zimmermann)] infested with southern cattle ticks were resp ...201020429430
texas is the overwintering source of fall armyworm in central pennsylvania: implications for migration into the northeastern united states.fall armyworm, spodoptera frugiperda (j. e. smith) (lepidoptera: noctuidae), infestations in most of north america arise from annual migrations of populations that overwinter in southern texas and florida. cytochrome oxidase i haplotype profiles within the fall armyworm corn strain, the subgroup that preferentially infests corn (zea mays l.), can differentiate the texas and florida populations. we use this molecular metric to show that fall armyworms in central pennsylvania originate from texas, ...200920021748
health and food safety: the benefits of bt-corn. 200616903029
new restriction fragment length polymorphisms in the cytochrome oxidase i gene facilitate host strain identification of fall armyworm (lepidoptera: noctuidae) populations in the southeastern united states.several restriction sites in the cytochrome oxidase i gene of fall armyworm, spodoptera frugiperda (j.e. smith), were identified by sequence analysis as potentially being specific to one of the two host strains. strain specificity was demonstrated for populations in florida, texas, mississippi, georgia, and north carolina, with an acii and saci site specific to the rice (oryjza spp.)-strain and a bsmi and hinfi site joining an already characterized mspi site as diagnostic of the corn (zea mays l ...200616813297
exposure to fumonisins and the occurrence of neural tube defects along the texas-mexico border.along the texas-mexico border, the prevalence of neural tube defects (ntds) among mexican-american women doubled during 1990-1991. the human outbreak began during the same crop year as epizootics attributed to exposure to fumonisin, a mycotoxin that often contaminates corn. because mexican americans in texas consume large quantities of corn, primarily in the form of tortillas, they may be exposed to high levels of fumonisins. we examined whether or not maternal exposure to fumonisins increases t ...200616451860
foraging resources of adult mexican corn rootworm (coleoptera: chrysomelidae) in bell county, texas.pollen analyses were used to determine pollen foraging resources of adult mexican corn rootworms, diabrotica virgifera zeae krysan & smith, captured near temple, bell county, tx, in 1996 and 1997. in 1996, adult mexican corn rootworms were captured in a corn, zea mays l., field. in 1997, nine locations outside of cornfields were added. overall, 92% of the beetles (n = 1,323) contained pollen. more than 142,000 pollen grains were counted, representing 45 families, 63 genera, and 27 species. overa ...200010902309
fumonisins disrupt sphingolipid metabolism, folate transport, and neural tube development in embryo culture and in vivo: a potential risk factor for human neural tube defects among populations consuming fumonisin-contaminated maize.fumonisins are a family of toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxins produced by fusarium verticillioides (formerly fusarium moniliforme), a common fungal contaminant of maize. fumonisins inhibit ceramide synthase, causing accumulation of bioactive intermediates of sphingolipid metabolism (sphinganine and other sphingoid bases and derivatives) as well as depletion of complex sphingolipids, which interferes with the function of some membrane proteins, including the folate-binding protein (human folate re ...200415051815
mexican rice borer (lepidoptera: crambidae) injury to corn greater than to sorghum and sugarcane under field conditions.the mexican rice borer, eoreuma loftini (dyar) (lepidoptera: crambidae), is the key pest of sugarcane (saccharum spp.) in texas; it can attack several grassy crop and noncrop host plants and has spread into louisiana. through small-plot, commercial field, and pheromone trap experiments, this study demonstrates that the pest uses corn, zea mays l., more than sugarcane and sorghum, sorghum bicolor (l.) moench, but when corn is harvested in late summer, injury to nearby sugarcane strongly increases ...201223156155
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