a serologic survey of mule deer and elk in utah.sera from mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) and elk (cervus canadensis) in central and northern utah were tested for the prevalence of antibodies to 11 diseases communicable to man or domestic livestock. antibodies to francisella tularensis (at 1:20) were found in 47 of 88 (53.4%) elk and 1 of 89 (1.1%) deer. a screening slide agglutination test for titers to brucella (at 1:20) showed two reactors in elk but none in deer sera. no positive antibody titers were obtained in tests for anaplasmosis, co ...1978105153
epizootic vesicular stomatitis in colorado, 1982: some observations on the possible role of wildlife populations in an enzootic maintenance cycle.sera obtained from wild ungulates, carnivores, and rodents in colorado were tested for neutralizing (n) antibody against vesicular stomatitis, new jersey serotype (vsnj), virus to determine their involvement in the 1982 colorado vsnj epizootic in domestic animals. viremic and n antibody responses of two local rodent species to a 1982 colorado isolate of vsnj were determined in the laboratory. the rodents produced only weak viremias, but all developed n antibody. n antibody prevalences for vsnj i ...19873035241
survey for evidence of colorado tick fever virus outside of the known endemic area in california.a virus very similar or identical to colorado tick fever (ctf) virus was recovered from the blood clot of one of 104 black-tailed jack rabbits (lepus californicus) examined during a survey for various zoonotic agents in mammals and ticks from the university of california, hopland field station, mendocino county, california, 1974--79. this is the first reported isolation of a ctf-like virus from l. californicus, and only the second time such a virus has been found in northwestern california. mend ...19827102919
spongiform encephalopathy in free-ranging mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) in northcentral colorado.between march 1981 and june 1995, a neurological disease characterized histologically by spongiform encephalopathy was diagnosed in 49 free-ranging cervids from northcentral colorado (usa). mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) were the primary species affected and accounted for 41 (84%) of the 49 cases, but six rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and two white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) were also affected. clinical signs included emaciation, excessive salivation, behavioral changes, ...19979027685
epizootiology of chronic wasting disease in free-ranging cervids in colorado and wyoming.surveillance and epidemic modeling were used to study chronic wasting disease (cwd), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that occurs naturally among sympatric, free-ranging deer (odocoileus spp.) and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) populations in contiguous portions of northeastern colorado and southeastern wyoming (usa). we used clinical case submissions to identify endemic areas, then used immunohistochemistry to detect cwd-infected individuals among 5,513 deer and elk sample ...200011085429
detection of bias in harvest-based estimates of chronic wasting disease prevalence in mule deer.diseased animals may exhibit behavioral shifts that increase or decrease their probability of being randomly sampled. in harvest-based sampling approaches, animal movements, changes in habitat utilization, changes in breeding behaviors during harvest periods, or differential susceptibility to harvest via behaviors like hiding or decreased sensitivity to stimuli may result in a non-random sample that biases prevalence estimates. we present a method that can be used to determine whether bias exist ...200011085430
chronic wasting disease of cervids.chronic wasting disease (cwd) has recently emerged in north america as an important prion disease of captive and free-ranging cervids (species in the deer family). cwd is the only recognized transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse) affecting free-ranging species. three cervid species, mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (o. virginianus), and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), are the only known natural hosts of cwd. endemic cwd is well established in southern wyomin ...200415148993
low frequency of prp genotype 225sf among free-ranging mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) with chronic wasting disease.the prion protein (prp) gene was characterized in 1482 free-ranging mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) from wyoming and colorado. using dna sequences from 363 deer, dimorphisms at codons 20 (aspartate/glycine) and 225 [serine (s)/phenylalanine (f)] were found; silent changes occurred at codons 131 (tyrosine) and 247 (isoleucine). the remaining samples were surveyed for codon 225 genotype and all were characterized for chronic wasting disease (cwd) infection status. a total of 112 deer with the geno ...200516033959
epidemiology of chronic wasting disease in free-ranging mule deer: spatial, temporal, and demographic influences on observed prevalence patterns.we analyzed chronic wasting disease (cwd) prevalence data from mule deer populations in northcentral colorado, usa, to discern the likely influences of temporal, spatial, and demographic factors on patterns observed in naturally infected populations. in addition to reaffirming spatial heterogeneity among wintering mule deer subpopulations, we report marked differences in cwd prevalence by sex and age groups as well as clear local trends of increasing prevalence over a 7-yr period. prevalence of ...200516107661
relative vulnerability of chronic wasting disease infected mule deer to vehicle collisions.we estimated chronic wasting disease (cwd) prevalence among vehicle-killed mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) in select data analysis units (daus) in northern colorado, usa, and compared these with estimated cwd prevalence among mule deer of the same sex sampled in the vicinity of collision sites to assess relative vulnerability of cwd-infected individuals to vehicle collisions. twenty-five of 171 vehicle-killed mule deer tested positive for cwd (overall prevalence=0.146, 95% confidence interval [c ...200516244060
a meta-baci approach for evaluating management intervention on chronic wasting disease in mule deer.advances in acquiring and analyzing the spatial attributes of data have greatly enhanced the potential utility of wildlife disease surveillance data for addressing problems of ecological or economic importance. we present an approach for using wildlife disease surveillance data to identify areas for (or of) intervention, to spatially delineate paired treatment and control areas, and then to analyze these nonrandomly selected sites in a meta-analysis framework via before-after-control impact (bac ...200717479841
malignant catarrhal fever associated with ovine herpesvirus-2 in free-ranging mule deer in colorado.malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) was diagnosed in four free-ranging mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) in january and february of 2003. diagnosis was based on typical histologic lesions of lymphocytic vasculitis and pcr identification of ovine herpesvirus-2 (ohv-2) viral genetic sequences in formalin-fixed tissues. the animals were from the uncompahgre plateau of southwestern colorado. deer from these herds occasionally resided in close proximity to domestic sheep (ovis aries), the reservoir host of ...200717699095
persistent bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in wild cervids of colorado.bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) is a significant viral pathogen of domestic cattle. worldwide, there is evidence of bvdv exposure and infection in wild ungulates; however, the frequency and significance of such events are unknown. to determine the prevalence and distribution of colorado deer, elk, and moose persistently infected (pi) with bvdv, a cross-sectional study was conducted using full-thickness ear tissue samples collected from animals presented to the colorado division of wildlife fo ...200818776103
mountain lions prey selectively on prion-infected mule deer.the possibility that predators choose prey selectively based on age or condition has been suggested but rarely tested. we examined whether mountain lions (puma concolor) selectively prey upon mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) infected with chronic wasting disease, a prion disease. we located kill sites of mountain lions in the northern front range of colorado, usa, and compared disease prevalence among lion-killed adult (> or =2 years old) deer with prevalence among sympatric deer taken by hunters ...201019864271
a weighted surveillance approach for detecting chronic wasting disease foci.a key component of wildlife disease surveillance is determining the spread and geographic extent of pathogens by monitoring for infected individuals in regions where cases have not been previously detected. a practical challenge of such surveillance is developing reliable, yet cost-effective, approaches that remain sustainable when monitoring needs are prolonged or continuous, or when resources to support these efforts are limited. in order to improve the efficiency of chronic wasting disease (c ...201020090025
new records of hair follicle mites (demodecidae) from north american cervidae.individuals of three species of cervids, with varying degrees of alopecia, were examined for ectoparasites: rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus) in colorado and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) in south dakota. hair follicle mites were recovered and identified as demodex kutzeri, a species originally described from the european red deer (cervus elaphus, from austria) and the sika deer (cervus nippon pseudaxis, captive in germany). the ...201020688655
select tissue mineral concentrations and chronic wasting disease status in mule deer from north-central colorado.trace mineral imbalances have been suggested as having a causative or contributory role in chronic wasting disease (cwd), a prion disease of several north american cervid species. to begin exploring relationships between tissue mineral concentrations and cwd in natural systems, we measured liver tissue concentrations of copper, manganese, and molybdenum in samples from 447 apparently healthy, adult (> or = 2 yr old) mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) culled or vehicle killed from free-ranging popul ...201020688718
estimating chronic wasting disease effects on mule deer recruitment and population growth.chronic wasting disease (cwd), a prion disease of mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), accelerates mortality and in so doing has the potential to influence population dynamics. although effects on mule deer survival are clear, how cwd affects recruitment is less certain. we studied how prion infection influenced the number of offspring raised to weaning per adult (≥2 yr old) female mule deer and subsequently the estimated growth rate (λ) of an infected deer herd. infected and presumably uninfected r ...201020966260
age and repeated biopsy influence antemortem prp(cwd) testing in mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) in colorado, usa.biopsy of rectal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue provides a useful, but imperfect, live-animal test for chronic wasting disease (cwd) in mule deer (odocoileus hemionus). it is difficult and expensive to complete these tests on free-ranging animals, and wildlife health managers will benefit from methods that can accommodate test results of varying quality. to this end, we developed a hierarchical bayesian model to estimate the probability that an individual is infected based on test results. ou ...201526251986
mineral licks: motivational factors for visitation and accompanying disease risk at communal use sites of elk and cervids acquire most of their essential minerals through forage consumption, though occasionally seek other sources to account for seasonal mineral deficiencies. mineral sources occur as natural geological deposits (i.e., licks) or as anthropogenic mineral supplements. in both scenarios, these sources commonly serve as focal sites for visitation. we monitored 11 licks in rocky mountain national park, north-central colorado, using trail cameras to quantify daily visitation indices (d ...201424711146
testicular lesions and antler abnormalities in colorado, usa mule deer (odocoileus hemionus): a possible role for epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus.antler abnormalities of deer and other cervids often result from testicular lesions and decreased levels of testosterone, inhibiting normal cycles of antler growth. affected males have antlers with retained velvet, numerous short, misshapen points ("cactus bucks"), and failure to shed these abnormal antlers annually. in colorado, us, we observed a high occurrence of "cactus bucks" in mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) populations after management efforts to increase the number of mature male deer i ...201525375947
wild ungulates as disseminators of shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli in urban 2008, children playing on a soccer field in colorado were sickened with a strain of shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (stec) o157:h7, which was ultimately linked to feces from wild rocky mountain elk. we addressed whether wild cervids were a potential source of stec infections in humans and whether stec was ubiquitous throughout wild cervid populations in colorado.201324349083
high elaeophorosis prevalence among harvested colorado moose.infection with elaeophora schneideri, a filarial parasite, occurs commonly in mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) and elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), but seemingly less so in moose (alces alces). of 109 carotid artery samples from moose harvested throughout colorado, usa, in 2007, 14 (13%; 95% binomial confidence interval [bci]=7-21%) showed gross and 91 (83%; 95% bci=75-90%) showed histologic evidence of elaeophorosis. although neither blindness nor other clinical signs associated with elaeophorosis ...201323778618
iodine-129 in mule deer thyroids in the rocky mountain west.thyroids from mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) were collected in new mexico, colorado, wyoming and idaho and 129i/127i atom ratios were determined. iodine-129/127 atom ratios were significantly (p less than 0.005) different among states. ratios in wyoming and idaho control thyroids were significantly (p less than 0.05) larger than ratios in new mexico and colorado. fallout from past atmospheric nuclear tests at the nevada test site is suggested as a possible explanation for the differences in rat ...19836874350
baseline levels of selected trace elements in colorado oil shale region animals.baseline levels of boron, fluorine, molybdenum, and copper are described for 18 mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) and for 45 composite samples of deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) from the piceance creek basin, rio blanco county, colorado. these data were collected before oil shale mining took place, and can be used to compare with levels found after mining is initiated. the data can thus be used to monitor changes in levels in animal tissues and as a basis for mitigating possible harmful effects ...19807431515
trypanosomes from mule deer in new mexico and colorado. 19724673718
factors influencing the accumulation of fallout 137-cs in colorado mule deer. 19655894390
blood serum electrolytes in a colorado mule deer population. 19725021007
asynchronous vegetation phenology enhances winter body condition of a large mobile herbivore.understanding how spatial and temporal heterogeneity influence ecological processes forms a central challenge in ecology. individual responses to heterogeneity shape population dynamics, therefore understanding these responses is central to sustainable population management. emerging evidence has shown that herbivores track heterogeneity in nutritional quality of vegetation by responding to phenological differences in plants. we quantified the benefits mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) accrue from ...201526009244
quantifying spatial habitat loss from hydrocarbon development through assessing habitat selection patterns of mule deer.extraction of oil and natural gas (hydrocarbons) from shale is increasing rapidly in north america, with documented impacts to native species and ecosystems. with shale oil and gas resources on nearly every continent, this development is set to become a major driver of global land-use change. it is increasingly critical to quantify spatial habitat loss driven by this development to implement effective mitigation strategies and develop habitat offsets. habitat selection is a fundamental ecologica ...201526264447
increases in residential and energy development are associated with reductions in recruitment for a large change due to anthropogenic development is pervasive across the globe and commonly associated with negative consequences for biodiversity. while land-use change has been linked to shifts in the behavior and habitat-use patterns of wildlife species, little is known about its influence on animal population dynamics, despite the relevance of such information for conservation. we conducted the first broad-scale investigation correlating temporal patterns of land-use change with the demograp ...201727428886
movement reveals scale dependence in habitat selection of a large ungulate.ecological processes operate across temporal and spatial scales. anthropogenic disturbances impact these processes, but examinations of scale dependence in impacts are infrequent. such examinations can provide important insight to wildlife-human interactions and guide management efforts to reduce impacts. we assessed spatiotemporal scale dependence in habitat selection of mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) in the piceance basin of colorado, usa, an area of ongoing natural gas development. we employ ...201627859842
soil clay content underlies prion infection odds.environmental factors-especially soil properties-have been suggested as potentially important in the transmission of infectious prion diseases. because binding to montmorillonite (an aluminosilicate clay mineral) or clay-enriched soils had been shown to enhance experimental prion transmissibility, we hypothesized that prion transmission among mule deer might also be enhanced in ranges with relatively high soil clay content. in this study, we report apparent influences of soil clay content on the ...201121326232
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