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high levels of anti-phlebotomus perniciosus saliva antibodies in different vertebrate hosts from the re-emerging leishmaniosis focus in madrid, spain.from july 2009 to date, a leishmaniosis outbreak has occurred in the south-west of the madrid region (spain) and has already accounted for more than 450 human cases in an area that comprises a population of approximately 500,000. the causative agent is leishmania infantum and the main vector in the area is phlebotomus perniciosus. although canine leishmaniosis prevalence in the focus is not higher than the average in the madrid region, a wild reservoir - the hare - has been implicated. in this s ...201424629428
evidence of leishmania infantum infection in rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus) in a natural area in madrid, spain.leishmaniasis is one of the most important neglected zoonosis and remains endemic in at least 88 developing countries in the world. in addition, anthropogenic environmental changes in urban areas are leading to its emergency world wide. zoonotic leishmaniasis control might only be achieved by an integrated approach targeting both the human host and the animal reservoirs, which in certain sylvatic cycles are yet to be identified. recently, hares have been pointed out as competent reservoirs of le ...201424724079
could wild rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus) be reservoirs for leishmania infantum in the focus of madrid, spain?xenodiagnosis has previously proved that hares (lepus granatensis) from a focus of leishmaniasis in the southwestern madrid region (spain) are infective to phlebotomus perniciosus, the only vector in the area, thus playing a probable role as active reservoirs in a sylvatic transmission cycle linked to the usual domestic one. although actions have been taken to reduce the population of this lagomorph, a high population of wild rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus) is present in the area, which shows de ...201424774435
current status of l. infantum infection in stray cats in the madrid region (spain): implications for the recent outbreak of human leishmaniosis?since 2009, the incidence of human leishmaniosis in the sw of the madrid region has been unusually high. although dogs are the main reservoir for this disease, a role played by dogs in this outbreak has been ruled out and investigators are now considering other hosts (eg. cats, rabbits, hares) as possible alternative reservoirs.this study was designed to examine the leishmania infantum status of stray cats in madrid to assess its possible implications in the human leishmaniosis outbreak.201424655361
characterisation of the ex vivo virulence of leishmania infantum isolates from phlebotomus perniciosus from an outbreak of human leishmaniosis in madrid, spain.since mid 2009, an outbreak of human leishmaniosis in madrid, spain, has involved more than 560 clinical cases. many of the cases occurred in people who live in areas around a newly constructed green park (bosquesur). this periurban park provides a suitable habitat for sand flies (the vectors of leishmania infantum). indeed, studies of blood meals from sand flies captured in the area showed a strong association between the insect vector, hares or rabbits, and humans in the area. interestingly, u ...201425376381
natural transmission of leishmania infantum through experimentally infected phlebotomus perniciosus highlights the virulence of leishmania parasites circulating in the human visceral leishmaniasis outbreak in madrid, spain.a human leishmaniasis outbreak is occurring in the madrid region, spain, with the parasite and vector involved being leishmania infantum and phlebotomus perniciosus respectively. the aim of this study was to investigate the virulence of l. infantum isolates from the focus using a natural transmission model. hamsters were infected by intraperitoneal inoculation (ip) or by bites of sand flies experimentally infected with l. infantum isolates obtained from p. perniciosus collected in the outbreak a ...201526645907
vector-borne diseases in client-owned and stray cats from madrid, spain.abstract the role of various vector-borne pathogens as a cause of disease in cats has not been clearly determined. the current study evaluated risk factors, clinical and laboratory abnormalities associated with ehrlichia spp., anaplasma spp., neorickettsia spp., leishmania spp., and bartonella spp. infection or exposure in 680 client-owned and stray cats from madrid, spain. our results indicate that a large portion (35.1%) of the cat population of madrid, spain, is exposed to at least one of t ...201122022820
molecular and immunogenic properties of apyrase sp01b and d7-related sp04 recombinant salivary proteins of phlebotomus perniciosus from madrid, spain.sand fly salivary proteins are on the spotlight to become vaccine candidates against leishmaniasis and to markers of exposure to sand fly bites due to the host immune responses they elicit. working with the whole salivary homogenate entails serious drawbacks such as the need for maintaining sand fly colonies and the laborious task of glands dissection. in order to overcome these difficulties, producing recombinant proteins of different vectors has become a major task. in this study, a cdna libra ...201324171166
leishmania infantum infection in bennett's wallabies (macropus rufogriseus rufogriseus) in a spanish wildlife park.although dogs are the main reservoir for human leishmania infantum infection, the disease has also been reported in other domestic and wild mammals. in 2011, a fatal case of naturally acquired leishmaniosis was described for the first time in a bennett's wallaby (macropus rufogriseus rufogriseus) kept in a wildlife park in madrid (spain). this study was designed to assess the infection status of twelve bennett's wallabies in the same park one year after this incident. phlebotomus perniciosus, th ...201627468032
cytokine release assays as tests for exposure to leishmania, and for confirming cure from leishmaniasis, in solid organ transplant recipients.spain has one of the world's largest pools of organ donors and is a global leader in terms of the number of transplants it performs. the current outbreak of leishmaniasis in fuenlabrada (in the southwest of the region of madrid, spain) has involved 600 clinical cases since late 2009 (prevalence 0.2%). it may therefore be wise to monitor the town's transplanted population for leishmania infantum; its members are immunosuppressed and at greater risk of infection and relapse following treatment. th ...201526496365
a leishmaniosis surveillance system among stray dogs in the region of madrid: ten years of serodiagnosis (1996-2006).two seroepidemiological surveys on canine leishmaniosis in stray dogs were performed annually in the madrid region for 10 years (november 1996-april 2006). the presence of anti-leishmania antibodies was detected by immunofluorescence antibodies test (cut off 1:100). the overall seroprevalence found in the 1,803 dogs studied was 7.8% (141 positive dogs). seropositivity was not associated with either breed or sex. statistical analysis revealed greater seroprevalence in groups of older dogs, indica ...200717323100
iso-enzymatic variability of leishmania infantum in spain.in many areas of the mediterranean basin, leishmaniasis can now be found in hiv-positive individuals. such cases of leishmania/hiv co-infection are relatively common in southern europe, spain being the country that has reported the greatest number. since 1984, 359 spanish isolates of leishmania infantum have been characterized at the instituto de salud carlos iii in madrid. most (94.6%) of the isolates came from hiv-positive patients. the results of iso-enzymatic analysis indicated a high level ...200314678633
practical approach for typing strains of leishmania infantum by microsatellite analysis.currently the universally accepted standard procedure for characterizing and identifying strains of leishmania is isoenzyme analysis. however, in the mediterranean area, despite their very wide geographical distribution, most leishmania infantum strains belong to zymodeme mon-1. in order to increase our understanding of polymorphism in strains of l. infantum, we developed pcr assays amplifying 10 microsatellites and sequenced pcr products. the discriminative power of microsatellite analysis was ...200212202583
questionnaire-based survey on the clinical management of canine leishmaniosis in the madrid region (central spain).this paper describes a questionnaire designed to gain information on how veterinarians clinically manage canine leishmaniosis (canl) in the madrid region (central spain). the present survey is one of the several similar questionnaire-based surveys conducted within the framework of the project eden (emerging diseases in a changing european environment). the questionnaire sought to obtain data regarding the main clinical manifestations observed, the diagnostic methods used and the preventive measu ...201121821298
detection of leishmania infantum and identification of blood meals in phlebotomus perniciosus from a focus of human leishmaniasis in madrid, spain.since 2010, the number of cases of both human visceral leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis in southwestern madrid region (spain) and more specifically in the town of fuenlabrada has increased. direct xenodiagnosis of leishmaniasis proved that hares (lepus granatensis) from this focus are able to infect with leishmania infantum colonized phlebotomus perniciosus. to a better understanding of this focus of leishmaniasis, we conducted an entomological survey using cdc light traps, at the end o ...201323535889
re-emergence of leishmaniasis in spain: community outbreak in madrid, spain, 2009 to 2012.since july 2009, there has been a community outbreak of leishmaniasis in the south-west area of the madrid autonomous community, spain, affecting residents from four towns that are geographically close together and share extensive park areas. as of december 2012, 446 cases were reported (6 in 2009, 97 in 2010, 196 in 2011 and 147 in 2012), a mean incidence rate of 22.2 per 100,000 inhabitants during july 2009 and december 2012. the mean age was 44 years (range: 2 months to 95 years); 61.0% were ...201323929177
molecular typing of leishmania infantum isolates from a leishmaniasis outbreak in madrid, spain, 2009 to 2012.leishmaniasis is endemic in south-west europe. recent data point to the spread and (re-)emergence of this disease in previously endemic and non-endemic european countries. a recent example is the urban community outbreak of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis in the south-west of madrid autonomous community, spain, which began on 1 july 2009. a total of 446 cases associated to this outbreak were reported up to 31 december 2012. we show molecular typing data for 73 leishmania infantum isolates o ...201323929179
leishmania infantum in free-ranging hares, spain, 2004-2010.iberian hares (lepus granatensis) were recently deemed responsible for an outbreak of human leishmaniasis affecting metropolitan madrid, spain. however, the reservoir potential of hares in europe is poorly known. we report a retrospective survey on leishmania infantum, the causal agent of zoonotic endemic leishmaniasis in the mediterranean basin, infection status of iberian, european (le. europaeus) and broom (le. castroviejoi) hares in spain. spleen samples from 94 hares were tested by polymera ...201323929180
detection of anti-leishmania infantum antibodies in sylvatic lagomorphs from an epidemic area of madrid using the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test.an outbreak of human leishmaniasis was confirmed in the southwest of the province of madrid, spain, between july 2009 and december 2012. incidence of leishmania infection in dogs was unchanged in this period, prompting a search for alternative sylvatic infection reservoirs. we evaluated exposure to leishmania in serum samples from animals in the area with an indirect immunofluorescence test (ifat). using promastigotes from six culture passages and a 1/25 threshold titer, we found anti-leishmania ...201424211046
the hare (lepus granatensis) as potential sylvatic reservoir of leishmania infantum in spain.xenodiagnosis of leishmania infection in hares (lepus granatensis) from a focus of human leishmaniasis in fuenlabrada at southwestern madrid region (spain) proved that they are infective to phlebotomus perniciosus. molecular characterization of isolates obtained from sand flies infected after xenodiagnosis demonstrates that hares were infected by leishmania infantum. this is the first evidence of the transmission of l. infantum from hares to sand flies. moreover the results confirm the role that ...201222677135
mapping the current distribution and predicted spread of the leishmaniosis sand fly vector in the madrid region (spain) based on environmental variables and expected climate change.leishmaniosis caused by leishmania infantum is a widespread zoonotic disease that is endemic in the mediterranean basin. based on prior point abundance data for the two sand fly vectors of leishmaniosis in the madrid region (phlebotomus perniciosus and phlebotomus ariasi), models were constructed to predict the spatial distribution patterns of these vectors. the models were obtained by negative binomial regression of several environmental variables and then used to map vector distributions. to v ...201121417927
[review of the current situation and the risk factors of leishmania infantum in spain].in spain, leishmaniasis is an endemic zoonosis present in most of the iberian peninsula and the balearic islands. the parasite detected is leishmania infantum and the main reservoir is the dog. competent vectors to transmit the parasite are sandflies, of which there are two species distributed throughout the iberian peninsula and the balearic islands. this article reviews the current situation and the behaviour of leishmaniasis in spain. it analyzes and compares information about the disease fro ...201223325131
emerging trends in the seroprevalence of canine leishmaniasis in the madrid region (central spain).this report describes a cross-sectional serological survey of the epidemiology of canine leishmaniasis (canl) performed in 2006 and 2007 in the madrid region (central spain) where the disease is endemic. the work presented here is one of the several studies conducted in different spanish regions under the integrated project of the european commission entitled emerging diseases in a changing european environment (eden). the aim of this project is to identify and catalogue european ecosystems and ...201020031330
clinicoepidemiologic characteristics, prognostic factors, and survival analysis of patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus and leishmania in an area of madrid, spain.from 1987 to 1995, a retrospective case study was conducted at the ramon y cajal hospital in madrid, spain, a public teaching hospital with 1,100 beds, to determine the clinicoepidemiologic characteristics, survival, and prognostic factors of patients with visceral leishmaniasis (vl) and human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection. the prevalence of vl in hiv+ patients compared with hiv- patients was studied. epidemiologic, clinical, and parasitologic characteristics, as well as the effects of ...19989574788
detection of high leishmania infantum loads in phlebotomus perniciosus captured in the leishmaniasis focus of southwestern madrid region (spain) by real time pcr.since 2010 a human leishmaniasis outbreak has been notified in southwestern madrid region that still remains active. entomological surveys have been carried out in the affected area in order to obtain information about species diversity, distribution, and density of sand flies. moreover, molecular identification of blood meal preferences of sand flies and molecular detection of leishmania infantum has been performed. in this work, we optimized a real time pcr assay in order to determine parasite ...201728356232
serologic and molecular evaluation of leishmania infantum in cats from central spain.infection by different leishmania spp. in cats has been reported in many countries. in spain, since the first leishmania infection described in 1933, sporadic clinical cases in cats have been reported. various serologic studies performed in other areas of spain have shown seroprevalences ranging between 1.7 and 60%. the aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of leishmaniasis in cats from central spain (madrid), and to assess the existence of associations between leishmania infa ...200819120250
epidemiological role of dogs since the human leishmaniosis outbreak in madrid.canine leishmaniosis (canl) has been in the spotlight since the 2009 outbreak of human leishmaniosis in madrid. in the framework of the leishmaniosis surveillance programme set up in madrid, this study examines leishmania-specific seroprevalences in stray dogs for the outbreak area and rest of the madrid region over the period spanning from the outbreak to the present (2009-2016). these data are of interest because stray dogs could be sentinels for disease surveillance in endemic areas. since 20 ...201728446214
phlebotomine sand fly survey in the focus of leishmaniasis in madrid, spain (2012-2014): seasonal dynamics, leishmania infantum infection rates and blood meal preferences.an unusual increase of human leishmaniasis cases due to leishmania infantum is occurring in an urban area of southwestern madrid, spain, since 2010. entomological surveys have shown that phlebotomus perniciosus is the only potential vector. direct xenodiagnosis in hares (lepus granatensis) and rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus) collected in the focus area proved that they can transmit parasites to colonized p. perniciosus. isolates were characterized as l. infantum. the aim of the present work was ...201728764772
environmental factors as key determinants for visceral leishmaniasis in solid organ transplant recipients, madrid, spain.during a visceral leishmaniasis outbreak in an area of madrid, spain, the incidence of disease among solid organ transplant recipients was 10.3% (7/68). being a black person from sub-saharan africa, undergoing transplantation during the outbreak, and residing <1,000 m from the epidemic focus were risk factors for posttransplant visceral leishmaniasis.201728628447
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