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comparison of the specificity of human and bovine tuberculin ppf for testing cattle. 3. national trial in great britain.a field trial on a country-wide basis was undertaken to compare the specificity for bovine tuberculosis of single and comparative tuberculin tests in cattle using either weybridge human or weybridge bovine ppd. the tests were made on 10,305 cattle in 179 herds distributed throughout all regions of england, scotland and wales. results showed that a comparative tuberculin test using avian ppd with either human or bovine ppd had a much higher efficiency than a single injection of mammalian tubercul ...197547752
johne's disease in a herd of farmed red deer.an outbreak of johne's disease in a herd of farmed red deer was studied for four years. serological, histopathological and cultural techniques were used to monitor the progress of the disease, and delayed type hypersensitivity skin tests were also applied. the results of the serological tests showed that they were poor predictors of future clinical cases and did not consistently identify animals harbouring mycobacteria. the histopathological methods provided a sensitive and specific means of con ...19957661952
paratuberculosis infection of nonruminant wildlife in scotland.recent reports of natural paratuberculosis (or johne's disease) in rabbits, foxes, and stoats has focused debate on the presence and importance of wildlife reservoirs in the epidemiology of this disease. this paper describes an extensive study investigating 18 nonruminant wildlife species for evidence of paratuberculosis. using both culture and histopathological analysis, fox, stoat, weasel, crow, rook, jackdaw, rat, wood mouse, hare, and badger were found to harbor mycobacterium avium subsp. pa ...200111283080
do non-ruminant wildlife pose a risk of paratuberculosis to domestic livestock and vice versa in scotland?paratuberculosis (johne's disease) was long considered only a disease of ruminants. recently non-ruminant wildlife species have been shown to harbor mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the causative organism of paratuberculosis. we review the known non-ruminant wildlife host range of m. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and consider their role in the epidemiology of paratuberculosis in domestic ruminant livestock. mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis has been isolated from lagomorph, ...200312685064
survey of zoonoses recorded in scotland between 1993 and 2002.all the human and animal laboratory reports of zoonoses sent to health protection scotland between 1993 and 2002 were identified. there were 24,946 reports from veterinary laboratories, and 94,718 (20 per cent) of the 468,214 reports from medical laboratories were considered to be zoonotic. the most common reports of zoonoses from people were campylobacter, salmonella, cryptosporidium and giardia species and escherichia coli o157. the most common reports of zoonoses from animals were salmonella, ...200516311383
high prevalence of paratuberculosis in rabbits is associated with difficulties in controlling the disease in cattle.there is increasing evidence that the european wild rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus) is a wildlife reservoir for paratuberculosis and infected populations may contribute to the persistence of infection in livestock. the aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that farms with difficulties controlling paratuberculosis in their cattle herds have a higher prevalence of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) infection in their rabbit populations. a total of 281 rabbits from 13 beef farm ...201324075203
infection due to mycobacterium avium subsp. avium in a free-ranging common seal (phoca vitulina) in scotland.we describe the first reported case of mycobacterial infection in a free-ranging pinniped in the northern hemisphere. acid-fast bacteria were demonstrated histologically in the liver of an adult female common seal (phoca vitulina), and mycobacterium avium subsp. avium was cultured from the liver.201323778632
exposure to viral and bacterial pathogens among soay sheep (ovis aries) of the st kilda archipelago.we assessed evidence of exposure to viruses and bacteria in an unmanaged and long-isolated population of soay sheep (ovis aries) inhabiting hirta, in the st kilda archipelago, 65 km west of benbecula in the outer hebrides of scotland. the sheep harbour many metazoan and protozoan parasites but their exposure to viral and bacterial pathogens is unknown. we tested for herpes viral dna in leucocytes and found that 21 of 42 tested sheep were infected with ovine herpesvirus 2 (ohv-2). we also tested ...201626829883
non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections in the scottish borders: identification, management and treatment outcomes - a retrospective review.non-tuberculous mycobacteria are opportunist pathogens increasingly recognised as a cause of pulmonary and extrapulmonary disease. treatment is complicated, prolonged and potentially toxic, and due to a limited evidence base, potentially contentious and idiosyncratic. this is a retrospective review of non-tuberculous mycobacteria cases in the nhs borders health board between 1992 and 2010. we consider incidence, species identified, drug sensitivity testing and treatment outcome with reference to ...201122184566
mycobacterial disease in cats in great britain: i. culture results, geographical distribution and clinical presentation of 339 cases.this study investigated 339 cases of feline mycobacterial disease from cats with cutaneous lesions or masses found at exploratory laparotomy. tissue samples were submitted to the veterinary laboratories agency for mycobacterial culture over a 4-year period to december 2008. the study assessed which species of culturable mycobacteria were involved, where the cats lived, and their clinical presentation (physical findings, serum biochemistry, radiography, feline leukaemia virus and feline immunodef ...201122079343
the potential role of wild rabbits oryctolagus cuniculus in the epidemiology of paratuberculosis in domestic ruminants.mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, the organism responsible for paratuberculosis in cattle and sheep has been found in wild rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus) in the east of scotland. few studies have investigated either the level of faecal contamination by rabbits on farms, or the potential infectivity of rabbit excreta. the rate of rabbit faecal contamination deposited and the numbers encountered were estimated for 21 fields on 4 farms with a paratuberculosis problem. 7357 +/- 2571 ...200312825741
natural paratuberculosis infection in rabbits in scotland.natural paratuberculosis infection of rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus) was recently diagnosed in scotland, and an investigation into the pathology of the disease in wild rabbits is reported in this paper. evidence of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (m.a. paratuberculosis) infection was detected in 22% of 110 rabbits; the organism was cultured from 17 of 110 rabbits, and histopathological lesions consistent with m.a. paratuberculosis infection were noted in 18 of 98 rabbits examined. n ...200111437505
epidemiological study of paratuberculosis in wild rabbits in scotland.a survey of 22 farms confirmed the presence of paratuberculosis in wild rabbits in scotland. regional differences were apparent in the prevalence of the disease in rabbits, with a significantly higher incidence occurring in the tayside region. statistical analysis showed a significant relationship between a previous history or current problem of paratuberculosis in cattle and the presence of paratuberculosis in rabbits on the farms. molecular genetic typing techniques could not discriminate betw ...199910325318
paratuberculosis in wild rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus)a survey of wild rabbits in tayside, scotland revealed that 67 per cent were infected with mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. in general, the infected rabbits had histopathological changes within the lymph nodes and intestines which were consistent with the changes due to paratuberculosis in ruminants. the survey raises the possibility that rabbits and other wildlife may be involved in the epidemiology of paratuberculosis, a possibility which has important implications for the cont ...19979050174
disseminated disease due to mycobacterium avium complex in aids.we retrospectively analysed 46 cases of disseminated infection with mycobacterium avium complex (mac) within a cohort of 702 hiv-infected patients in edinburgh. clinical features were compared with case-matched controls (aids cases without disseminated mac), and survival and progression times were controlled for confounding variables that influence survival. disseminated mac was diagnosed antemortem in 18% of aids patients, and was the aids-defining diagnosis in 6% of all aids cases. concomitant ...19957583075
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