mycobacterium bovis in england and wales: past, present and future.this report reviews the literature concerning tuberculosis resulting from infection with mycobacterium bovis in man and cattle and summarises data derived from surveillance of m. bovis in england and wales from 1986 to 1990. of the 228 isolates of m. bovis examined in this period, 122 (53%) were from patients aged over 60 years and are largely the result of reactivation of infection acquired prior to the institution of control measures. however, eight isolates (3.5%) were from patients aged less ...19921499671
superficial tuberculous lymphadenitis in merseyside: 1969-1984.the aetiology, epidemiology and clinical presentation of 137 bacteriologically confirmed cases of superficial mycobacterial lymphadenitis identified at the liverpool public health laboratory between 1969 and 1984 were reviewed. despite a fall in pulmonary and total extrapulmonary isolates, the annual recovery of mycobacteria from lymph nodes remained relatively constant. mycobacterium tuberculosis was the cause of infection in 121 patients (88.3%), m. bovis in 6 and the remaining 10 isolates wer ...19853926870
cause of ill health and natural death in badgers in gloucestershire.during the period 1973 to 1976 inclusive, 1206 badger carcases were examined for evidence of tuberculosis and other diseases. tuberculosis was the major cause of natural death, killing 39 per cent of the natural death cases, followed by bite wounding and starvation. road traffic accidents were the greatest single cause of death.1979394469
bacteriological survey of tuberculous lymphadenitis in southeast england, 1981-1989.the aim was to detect any changing trends in the nature and incidence of tuberculous lymphadenitis in southeast england and to determine whether there is any evidence for an increase in this disease that could be related to hiv infection.19921431701
comparison of the specificity of human and bovine tuberculin ppd for testing cattle. 2. south-eastern england.a tuberculin testing trial was carried out in eight counties of south-eastern england to compare the specificity for bovine tuberculosis of weybridge human ppd with that of rotterdam bovine ppd. the matching of these two tuberculins for potency in naturally infected cattle had already been established, the bovine ppd being approximately one-and-a-half times more potent than the human ppd per unit of weight. in 1110 cattle in 25 herds with histories of long-standing freedom from tuberculosis and ...197547751
comparison of the specificity of human and bovine tuberculin ppf for testing cattle. 3. national trial in great britain.a field trial on a country-wide basis was undertaken to compare the specificity for bovine tuberculosis of single and comparative tuberculin tests in cattle using either weybridge human or weybridge bovine ppd. the tests were made on 10,305 cattle in 179 herds distributed throughout all regions of england, scotland and wales. results showed that a comparative tuberculin test using avian ppd with either human or bovine ppd had a much higher efficiency than a single injection of mammalian tubercul ...197547752
epidemiological features of bovine tuberculosis in cattle herds in great britain.particular epidemiological features of mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle herds in great britain during the period 1972-8 were examined. during these seven years 1099 herds became infected, the mean annual incidence of herd infection being of the order of one infected herd per 1000 cattle herds. infection in herds was predominantly a sporadic occurrence; 938 (85.4%) herds experienced only one incidence of infection which persisted for less than 12 months. the concentration of infected herds ...19836833744
a study of bovine strains of mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from humans in south-east england, 1977-1979.bovine strains of mycobacterium tuberculosis were isolated from 137 of 5021 cases of tuberculosis (2.7%) occurring in south east england during the years 1977 to 1979. these were divisible into 'classical' and 'afro-asian' bovine strains according to their susceptibility to pyrazinamide. classical strains were the predominant type among the europeans and afro-asian types were commoner in immigrants. bovine strains caused a high incidence of extrapulmonary disease in both ethnic groups and there ...19816795777
bacteriological survey of tuberculous lymphadenitis in south-east england: 1973-80.during the eight years 1973-80 the public health laboratory service regional centre for tuberculosis bacteriology received cultures of mycobacteria from 2339 patients with tuberculous lymphadenitis. of these, 2272 were m tuberculosis (2207 human and 65 bovine strains) and 67 were other mycobacterial species, usually m avium and its intracellulare variant. disease due to the human strains of m tuberculosis occurred most often in young women of asian ethnic origin. many bovine strains isolated fro ...19826815295
control of bovine tuberculosis by vaccination.the control of bovine tuberculosis remains a significant problem in the united kingdom, especially in the south west of england where the rising prevalence of the disease is attributed to a reservoir of mycobacterium bovis infection in badgers. the possibility of controlling the disease by the vaccination of cattle has been unpopular with veterinarians largely because of the potential compromise of existing diagnostic tests. however, the vaccination of badgers to reduce the risk of transmission ...19957638934
observations on the incidence of herds with non-visible lesioned tuberculin test reactors in south-west england.the herd incidence of confirmed mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle in the south-west of england has been approximately ten times that of the remainder of england and wales; this greater incidence has been attributed to infection from badgers. the incidence of herds with only non-visible lesioned tuberculin test reactors, from which m. bovis was not isolated, has also remained higher in the south-west region. the incidences of these latter unconfirmed incidents were compared in parishes in t ...19873609171
bovine tuberculosis in domestic and wild mammals in an area of dorset. ii. the badger population, its ecology and tuberculosis status.following a major outbreak of tuberculosis in cattle on a farm in dorset, badgers were discovered to be infected with mycobacterium bovis. two hundred and forty sets were found in the 1200 hectares of the study area. the sets were found predominantly in areas of portland sand. a high prevalence of tuberculosis was found in the badger population which was removed and repopulation prevented for 3 years. the removal of the infected badgers led to the resolution of the problem in cattle. re-coloniza ...19826752271
bovine tuberculosis in domestic and wild mammals in an area of dorset. i. tuberculosis in cattle.a major outbreak of tuberculosis occurred in cattle on a farm in dorset between 1970 and 1976. six hundred and twenty-six cattle were slaughtered either because they reacted to the tuberculin test or had been exposed to infection. no source of infection was found until 1974 when badgers infected with mycobacterium bovis were first discovered. an analysis of the tuberculin test records of this herd and the six surrounding herds indicated that tuberculosis had been a sporadic problem since the ear ...19826752270
mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle, badgers and other mammals in an area of dorset. 19827043887
tuberculosis in east sussex. i. outbreaks of tuberculosis in cattle herds (1964-1984).the history and epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis in cattle herds in east sussex are described. since 1960, following the compulsory eradication scheme for tuberculosis, the incidence of herd infection has been low. the epidemiological features of herd infection have been sporadic incidents, with only small numbers of cattle becoming infected in the majority of incidents. there was no evidence of endemic mycobacterium bovis infection in the cattle population in east sussex in recent years, but ...19863734437
aspects of the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis in badgers and cattle. i. the prevalence of infection in two wild animal populations in south-west england.the prevalence of infections caused by mycobacterium bovis was estimated in two populations of wild animals in the south west of england. a variety of mammalian species was trapped on farm land where incidents of infection with tuberculosis had occurred in cattle. bacteriological analysis of lymph node samples and lesions showed that the only animals acting as a reservoir for m. bovis were badgers. examination of arthropod ectoparasites of infected badgers proved negative for m. bovis and sugges ...19817016985
monocyte antimycobacterial activity before and after mycobacterium bovis bcg vaccination in chingleput, india, and london, united kingdom.monocytes from purified protein derivative s mantoux-negative children and young adults inhibited intracellular growth of mycobacterium microti more in chingleput than in london. mycobacterium bovis bcg vaccination did not enhance bacteriostasis with the indians but did so with the londoners. no evidence was found for involvement of cytokines such as macrophage-activating factor and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the differences.19938406843
incidence and nature of human tuberculosis due to bovine tubercle bacilli in south-east england: 1977-1987.a total of 201 new cases of tuberculosis due to bovine tubercle bacilli was confirmed in south-east england between 1977 and 1987 inclusive. this represents about 1% of all cases of tuberculosis in this region. most cases occurred amongst older individuals of indigenous white british origin, although some younger patients of southern european and indian subcontinent ethnic origin were also diagnosed. the lung was the most frequent site of disease, followed by the genito-urinary tract. in view of ...19883053216
the occurrence of mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle in and around an area subject to extensive badger (meles meles) control.the occurrence of mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle herds during the period 1966-92 in two geographically related areas in south-west england is compared. in one area comprising 104 km2 all badgers were systematically destroyed from 1975-81, after which recolonization was allowed; in the other, comprising 116 km2, small scale, statutory badger removal operations were undertaken from 1975 onwards where specific herds were detected with m. bovis infection. in the area with total clearance, n ...19957867737
antibodies to mycobacteria in healthy and tuberculous badgers from two english counties.sera obtained from 2 groups of badgers removed in bovine tuberculosis control operations have been examined for antibodies to 11 species of mycobacteria. from animals without post mortem evidence of tuberculosis, levels of antibodies to mycobacteria were found to increase with age, and different patterns of antibodies were found in animals coming from 2 different places. some animals (5 out of 60) without evidence of progressive infection had antibodies suggesting contact with tubercle bacilli. ...19892697108
the kinetics of serum antibody responses to natural infections with mycobacterium bovis in one badger social group.bovine tuberculosis remains a significant problem in some parts of great britain and ireland largely because of a reservoir of infection in badgers. little is currently known about the immunopathology of mycobacterium bovis infection in the badger. badgers, from 31 social groups, in a study area of the cotswold escarpment, have been trapped and sampled from 1981 to 1995. serum antibody responses directed against the 25 kda antigen (mpb83) of m. bovis have been studied in detail in a selected soc ...19979129594
tuberculosis infection in cattle and badgers in an area of staffordshire.the recent history of tuberculosis infection in cattle in staffordshire is described, showing how a problem area in the north of the county was identified. the subsequent culture of mycobacterium bovis from badger faeces and a badger carcase is reported together with the operations to remove badgers from the area.19873554718
editorial: bovine tuberculosis and badgers. 197550520
wildlife disease reservoirs: the epidemiology of mycobacterium bovis infection in the european badger (meles meles) and other british mammals.mycobacterium bovis infection has been confirmed in a wide range of mammals hosts throughout the world. the european badger (meles meles) and the brushtail possum (trichosurus vulpecula) are implicated as significant sources of infection for domestic cattle in the uk and new zealand respectively. the risk of transmission of infection between a wildlife population and domestic animals will be determined by both the epidemiology of the disease and the ecology of the host. in the uk, surveys by the ...200111463223
bovine tuberculosis in badger (meles meles) populations in southwest england: an assessment of past, present and possible future control strategies using simulation modelling.a spatial stochastic simulation model was used to compare the efficacy of different badger control policies and to determine the theoretical requirements for the control of endemic bovine tuberculosis in badger populations in southwest england. culling-based strategies for controlling endemic disease were compared with strategies employing a yet-to-be-developed oral vaccine which would provide uninfected badgers with immunity to the infection. a comparative assessment was made of the efficacy of ...19958570682
zoonotic aspects of mycobacterium bovis infection.the bovine tuberculosis eradication campaigns in many industrially developed countries have led to a huge reduction in the incidence of human tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium bovis. overt disease in man may, however, manifest decades after the initial infection and the occurrence of such disease raises several important questions. in particular, it is important to determine whether man-to-man transmission occurs, thereby rendering man a continuing reservoir of infection, and whether, if this ...19948073621
survey of badger access to farm buildings and facilities in relation to contact with cattle.thirty-six farms in parishes in western england that had recently experienced herd breakdowns of bovine tuberculosis were surveyed for signs of badger activity and for husbandry practices relating to the access of badgers to the farm buildings and facilities. signs of activity were detected within the farmyards and buildings of 14 of the farms and were associated with water troughs at pasture on two of them. few of the farmers implemented practices to reduce contact between badgers and cattle. s ...200818660519
badgers (meles meles), cattle and bovine tuberculosis (mycobacterium bovis): a hypothesis to explain the influence of habitat on the risk of disease transmission in southwest england.badgers are believed to be responsible for a high proportion of the cases of bovine tuberculosis in cattle in southwest england where, despite the onset of badger control operations in 1975, comparatively high numbers of cattle continue to fail the tuberculin test. to determine why the disease remains a problem in these areas, data on badger densities and patterns of land use were examined. areas subject to repeated badger control operations had greater landscape heterogeneity and a higher densi ...19938234365
national survey of notifications of tuberculosis in england and wales in 1988. medical research council cardiothoracic epidemiology group.a survey was undertaken to determine the distribution of tuberculosis in england and wales and, by comparison with the findings of similar surveys in 1978-9 and 1983, to study trends in the incidence of the disease by ethnic group over the decade.19921481174
suspected transmission of mycobacterium bovis between alpacas. 200919633327
the population structure of mycobacterium bovis in great britain: clonal expansion.we have analyzed 11,500 isolates of mycobacterium bovis (the cause of tuberculosis in cattle and other mammals) isolated in great britain (england, wales and scotland)] and characterized by spoligotype. genetic exchange between cells is rare or absent in strains of the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex so that, by using spoligotypes, it is possible to recognize "clones" with a recent common ancestor. the distribution of variable numbers of tandem repeats types in the most common clone in the da ...200314657373
is mad cow disease caused by a bacteria?transmissible spongioform enchephalopathies (tse's), include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (also called bse or "mad cow disease"), creutzfeldt-jakob disease (cjd) in humans, and scrapie in sheep. they remain a mystery, their cause hotly debated. but between 1994 and 1996, 12 people in england came down with cjd, the human form of mad cow, and all had eaten beef from suspect cows. current mad cow diagnosis lies solely in the detection of late appearing "prions", an acronym for hypothesized, ge ...200415325025
movement of badgers (meles meles) in a high-density population: individual, population and disease effects.the movement of 1763 badgers trapped between 36 social groups in woodchester park, gloucestershire, over 18 years was analysed to determine the frequency and duration of moves, the factors associated with a predisposition to move and the spatial pattern of movements. of those badgers whose capture history could be categorized, nearly half had moved. of these, 73.1% were classified as 'occasional movers', 22.1% as 'permanent movers' and 4.8% as 'frequent movers'. most adult badgers that moved mad ...19989718736
bovine tuberculosis in badger (meles meles) populations in southwest england: the use of a spatial stochastic simulation model to understand the dynamics of the disease.a spatial stochastic simulation model was developed to describe the dynamics of bovine tuberculosis in badger populations in southwest england, based on data from the literature and from unpublished sources. as there are no data on intra- and intergroup infection probabilities, estimates of these were obtained through repeated simulations based on field observations of the spread and prevalence of the disease. the model works on a grid-cell basis, with each grid cell potentially occupied by one ...19958570681
genotypic analysis of the earliest known prehistoric case of tuberculosis in britain.the earliest known case of human tuberculosis in britain dates to the middle period of the iron age, approximately 2,200 years before present. bone lesions on the spine of a male skeleton excavated at tarrant hinton in dorset, united kingdom, show evidence of pott's disease and are supported by molecular evidence of mycobacterium tuberculosis complex dna amplified by is6110 pcr (19). in the present study, we used a further series of sensitive pcr methods to confirm the diagnosis of tuberculosis ...200515872248
bovine variants of mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated in liverpool during the period 1969 to 1983: an epidemiological survey.between 1969 and 1983 inclusive, the bovine variants of mycobacterium tuberculosis (m. bovis and m. africanum) were isolated from 75 patients with tuberculosis. this represented 2.9 per cent of all significant mycobacteria identified at the liverpool public health laboratory during this period. the clinical and radiological features of infection did not differ from those found with m. tuberculosis. there was an association between m. bovis infection, extrapulmonary disease and lifelong united ki ...19863529160
no increase in human cases of mycobacterium bovis disease despite resurgence of infections in cattle in the united kingdom.a resurgence of mycobacterium bovis infections in cattle in the united kingdom since the 1980s has raised concern about risks to human health. enhanced surveillance data for england, wales and northern ireland between 1993 and 2003 of culture-positive human m. bovis cases identified 315 m. bovis infections; the mean annual number of cases was 28 (range 12-41). the most frequently reported exposures were consumption of unpasteurized dairy products 41/83 (49%) and exposure to cattle 45/123 (37%). ...200716740186
bovine tuberculosis in cats. 200616489166
pulmonary tuberculosis due to mycobacterium bovis.during 1969-84 mycobacterium bovis was isolated from 20 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. this represented less than 1% of the total cases of respiratory tuberculosis confirmed bacteriologically at the liverpool public health laboratory during this period. all 20 patients were considered to have reactivated disease and all presented with the typical features of respiratory tuberculosis. during the same period four cases of pulmonary infection by mycobacterium africanum were recognised. this ...19863538491
audit of scope and culture techniques applied to samples for the diagnosis of mycobacterium bovis by hospital laboratories in england and wales.this audit examines the ability of english and welsh laboratories to diagnose mycobacterium bovis infection. all 164 clinical laboratories submitting samples to the phls mycobacterium reference unit and regional centres for mycobacteriology were surveyed. twenty per cent of responding centres did not use a pyruvate-containing medium or incubate for the minimum recommended period of 8 weeks. this study demonstrates the potential for the underdiagnosis of m. bovis infection in england and wales. p ...200312733491
bovine tuberculosis infection in wild mammals in the south-west region of england: a survey of prevalence and a semi-quantitative assessment of the relative risks to the united kingdom, badgers are implicated in the transmission of mycobacterium bovis to cattle, but little information is available on the potential role of other wild mammals. this paper presents the results of the largest systematic uk survey of m. bovis infection in other wild mammals. mammal carcasses (4715) from throughout the south-west region of england were subjected to a systematic post mortem examination, microbiological culture of tissues and spoligotyping of isolates. infection w ...200716434219
quantifying the risks of tb infection to cattle posed by badger excreta.despite strong circumstantial evidence to suggest that the main route of tb transmission from badgers to cattle is via contaminated badger excreta, it is unclear whether the associated risks are high enough to account for the prevalence of the disease in south-west england. to decide whether this was a viable route of transmission, cattle contact with badger excreta was investigated using a deterministic approach to quantify the risks to cattle posed by badger excreta. levels of investigative an ...199910098801
first report of mycobacterium bovis in a muntjac deer. 200111497408
tuberculosis in east sussex. iv. a systematic examination of wild mammals other than badgers for tuberculosis.a detailed investigation of the possible role of wild mammals, other than badgers, in the maintenance of mycobacterium bovis in an area on the south downs of east sussex was carried out over 3 years. estimates of population sizes were made where possible and minimum sample sizes were selected to be 95% certain of including at least one infected animal if the prevalence was at least 5%. samples of wild mammals were taken from populations which had the highest potential direct or indirect contact ...19863525673
tuberculosis in east sussex. iii. comparison of post-mortem and clinical methods for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in badgers.following epidemiological and ecological studies of a defined badger population in an area of east sussex, removal of all badgers by cage trapping was attempted. trapping was incomplete due to the activities of protesters. forty-seven badgers were caught from the eight social groups. all badgers were examined clinically and samples of faeces, urine and tracheal aspirate were taken, together with swabs from any bite wounds, for bacteriological examinations. forty-five animals were skin tested usi ...19863525672
introduction of bovine tuberculosis to north-east england by bought-in cattle.the source of bovine tuberculosis was investigated in 31 herds in north-east england that experienced confirmed breakdowns between january 2002 and june 2004; nine of the herds had been restocked after the uk outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in 2001. in all but one of the breakdowns the most likely source of infection was identified as one or more purchased animals. in 17 of the breakdowns, reactor animals were traced to herds from which the same combination of spoligotype and variable number ...200616946308
tuberculosis in east sussex. ii. aspects of badger ecology and surveillance for tuberculosis in badger populations (1976-1984).following the disclosure of mycobacterium bovis infection in badgers in east sussex in 1976, badgers have been examined from and around farms on which cattle have become infected, but with no other attributable source of infection. these farms are confined to the downland of the south-west of the county and m. bovis has been confirmed in badger populations utilising their land. the available evidence indicates that m. bovis infection in badgers is also confined to this area. a detailed study in ...19863525670
bovine tuberculosis. 199910378292
[bovine tuberculosis--human to human transmission is possible]. 200818370350
bacillus calmette-guerin vaccination reduces the severity and progression of tuberculosis in badgers.control of bovine tuberculosis (tb) in cattle has proven particularly challenging where reservoirs of infection exist in wildlife populations. in britain and ireland, control is hampered by a reservoir of infection in eurasian badgers (meles meles). badger culling has positive and negative effects on bovine tb in cattle and is difficult, costly and controversial. here we show that bacillus calmette-guérin (bcg) vaccination of captive badgers reduced the progression, severity and excretion of myc ...201021123260
tuberculosis in humans and animals: are we a threat to each other? 200617021307
outbreak of tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium bovis in golden guernsey goats in great outbreak of caprine tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium bovis was disclosed in june 2008, affecting goats of the golden guernsey breed kept on 10 separate smallholdings in south-west wales and the west of england. following the initial diagnosis at postmortem examination, 30 goats that reacted positively to the single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (sicct) test, together with five in-contact animals, were euthanased and subjected to postmortem examination and mycobacterial cultu ...200919767636
estimating the risk of cattle exposure to tuberculosis posed by wild deer relative to badgers in england and wales.wild deer populations in great britain are expanding in range and probably in numbers, and relatively high prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (btb, caused by infection with mycobacterium bovis) in deer occurs locally in parts of southwest england. to evaluate the m. bovis exposure risk posed to cattle by wild deer relative to badgers in england and wales, we constructed and parameterized a quantitative risk model with the use of information from the literature (on deer densities, activity pattern ...200919901384
evaluation of the cervidtb stat-pak for the detection of mycobacterium bovis infection in wild deer in great britain.deer are acknowledged as hosts of mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (btb), and determining the prevalence of infection in deer species is one of the key steps in understanding the epidemiological role played by cervids in the transmission and maintenance of btb in the united kingdom. this study evaluated a rapid lateral-flow test for the detection of btb in samples from wild deer species in the united kingdom. fallow deer (dama dama), roe deer (capreolus capreolus), ...200919656989
the british royal commission on tuberculosis. 200717197674
vaccination of badgers against bovine tb. 200919617617
results of follow-up of human contacts of bovine tuberculosis in cattle during 1993-7 in north staffordshire.the purpose of the study was to describe the results of follow up of human contacts of bovine tuberculosis. the bovine tuberculosis cases occurred on farms in north staffordshire between 1993 and 1997. a total of 162 people were identified as having close contact with cattle diagnosed as having bovine tuberculosis, or who had drunk unpasteurized milk from a herd with bovine tuberculosis. a retrospective review of chest clinic notes was performed. one hundred and thirty-eight people attended for ...200111561979
histological observations of bovine tuberculosis in lung and lymph node tissues from british deer.deer are recognized as hosts of mycobacterium bovis and assessing the role of wild cervids in perpetuating tuberculosis among cattle has motivated extensive research on several continents. in this paper, the histopathology of lymph node and lung tuberculous granulomas in m. bovis positive british deer is presented. the overall aim was to seek further insights into the potential for onward transmission from infected deer to other species, including cattle. samples were obtained from an extensive ...200817584504
pathology of naturally occurring bovine tuberculosis in england and wales.the aim of this study was to obtain a contemporary data set of pathology in tuberculin reactor and in-contact cattle in england and wales. four hundred animals (200 reactors and 200 in-contacts) from 242 farms located in 14 counties in western england and wales were examined. the mean number of lymph nodes (lns) with tuberculosis (tb)-like lesions per tb-confirmed animal was 1.7 in reactors and 1.5 in in-contact animals. tuberculous lesions in both reactor and in-contact animals were most common ...200817728162
mycobacterium bovis infection in domestic pigs in great britain.mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (tb), infects a wide range of wild and domestic mammals. despite a control programme spanning decades, m. bovis infection levels in cattle in great britain (gb) have continued to rise over recent years. as the incidence of infection in cattle and wildlife may be linked to that in swine, data relating to infection of pigs identified at slaughter were examined in this study. between 2007 and 2011, almost all m. bovis-infected pigs ori ...201324095608
tuberculosis in deer: another piece in the unfinished mycobacterium bovis jigsaw. 200817845861
mycobacterium bovis causing clinical disease in adult sheep. 201020208083
social organization and movement influence the incidence of bovine tuberculosis in an undisturbed high-density badger meles meles population.1. the culling of european badgers meles meles has been a central part of attempts to control bovine tuberculosis (tb) in british cattle for many years. recent results, however, indicate that this approach could in practice enhance disease spread. 2. this paper looks at the relationship between tb incidence and badger ecology in a high-density population in south-west england, which has been the subject of a long-term intensive study. the principal aims were to relate the probability of tb incid ...200717302842
risk factors for herd breakdown with bovine tuberculosis in 148 cattle herds in the south west of england.bovine tuberculosis (btb) is caused by mycobacterium bovis. the disease has a long latent period, heterogenous spread, can infect many species and can persist in the environment. in the uk, the rate of herd breakdowns (hbd) with btb is increasing. a retrospective cohort study of 148 cattle herds was set up to investigate risk factors for hbd from october 2001 to november 2004. herds were selected from farms located in the randomised badger culling trial (rbct) and comprised holdings (24%) that w ...201020399521
mycobacterial disease in cats in great britain: i. culture results, geographical distribution and clinical presentation of 339 cases.this study investigated 339 cases of feline mycobacterial disease from cats with cutaneous lesions or masses found at exploratory laparotomy. tissue samples were submitted to the veterinary laboratories agency for mycobacterial culture over a 4-year period to december 2008. the study assessed which species of culturable mycobacteria were involved, where the cats lived, and their clinical presentation (physical findings, serum biochemistry, radiography, feline leukaemia virus and feline immunodef ...201122079343
farm-scale risk factors for bovine tuberculosis incidence in cattle herds during the randomized badger culling trial.summarywe analysed the incidence of cattle herd breakdowns due to bovine tuberculosis (mycobacterium bovis) in relation to experimental badger culling, badger populations and farm characteristics during the randomized badger culling trial (rbct). mixed modelling and event history analysis were used to examine the individual risk factors. the interdependencies of covariates were examined using structural equation modelling. there were consistent findings among the different analyses demonstrating ...201121439101
assessing the impact of tailored biosecurity advice on farmer behaviour and pathogen presence in beef herds in england and wales.the term 'biosecurity' encompasses many measures farmers can take to reduce the risk of pathogen incursion or spread. as the best strategy will vary between settings, veterinarians play an important role in assessing risk and providing advice, but effectiveness requires farmer acceptance and implementation. the aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of specifically-tailored biosecurity advice packages in reducing endemic pathogen presence on uk beef suckler farms. one hundred and sixt ...201627931934
diagnosis of tuberculosis in groups of badgers: an exploration of the impact of trapping efficiency, infection prevalence and the use of multiple tests.accurate detection of infection with mycobacterium bovis in live badgers would enable targeted tuberculosis control. practical challenges in sampling wild badger populations mean that diagnosis of infection at the group (rather than the individual) level is attractive. we modelled data spanning 7 years containing over 2000 sampling events from a population of wild badgers in southwest england to quantify the ability to correctly identify the infection status of badgers at the group level. we exp ...201626733317
minister rules out badger culling. 200818770909
managing public demand for badger rehabilitation in an area of england with endemic tuberculosis.badgers are a popular and protected species in england, despite their association with tuberculosis (mycobacterium bovis infection) in cattle. casualty badgers are commonly presented to veterinarians and wildlife rescue centres following injury, as a result of disease, or as orphans. strict policies are adopted for their rehabilitation and release, with respect to the prevention of spread of tuberculosis, these policies differ between adult badgers and badger cubs. adult badger casualties are no ...201121440385
bovine tuberculosis risk factors for british herds before and after the 2001 foot-and-mouth epidemic: what have we learned from the tb99 and ccs2005 studies?over the last couple of decades, the uk experienced a substantial increase in the incidence and geographical spread of bovine tuberculosis (tb), in particular since the epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in 2001. the initiation of the randomized badger culling trial (rbct) in 1998 in south-west england provided an opportunity for an in-depth collection of questionnaire data (covering farming practices, herd management and husbandry, trading and wildlife activity) from herds having experien ...201524330476
tb in llamas caused by mycobacterium bovis. 200717277303
the influence of previous exposure to environmental mycobacteria on the interferon-gamma response to bacille calmette-guérin vaccination in southern england and northern malawi.we report a large study of the effect of bcg vaccination on the in vitro 6-day whole blood interferon-gamma (ifn-gamma) response to antigens from eight species of mycobacteria among schoolchildren in south-eastern england, where bacille calmette-guérin (bcg) vaccination is highly protective against pulmonary tuberculosis, and among young adults in northern malawi, where bcg vaccination is not protective. in the uk children, bcg induced an appreciable increase in ifn-gamma response to antigens fr ...200617100757
epidemiology of mycobacterium bovis disease in humans in england, wales, and northern ireland, 2002-2014.despite control efforts, mycobacterium bovis incidence among cattle remains high in parts of england, wales, and northern ireland, attracting political and public health interest in potential spread from animals to humans. to determine incidence among humans and to identify associated factors, we conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of human m. bovis cases in england, wales, and northern ireland during 2002-2014. we identified 357 cases and observed increased annual case numbers (from 17 to ...201728220748
patterns of direct and indirect contact between cattle and badgers naturally infected with tuberculosis.tuberculosis (tb) due to infection with mycobacterium bovis is transmitted between cattle and badgers (meles meles) in the uk and ireland but it is unclear where or when transmission occurs. we investigated direct and indirect interactions between badgers and cattle using automated proximity loggers on animals and at badger latrines located on pasture, in an area of south-west england with a high-density badger population. direct contacts (interactions within 1.4 m) between badgers and cattle at ...201323522445
the effect of oral vaccination with mycobacterium bovis bcg on the development of tuberculosis in captive european badgers (meles meles).the european badger (meles meles) is a reservoir host of mycobacterium bovis and responsible for a proportion of the tuberculosis (tb) cases seen in cattle in the united kingdom and republic of ireland. an injectable preparation of the bacillus calmette-guérin (bcg) vaccine is licensed for use in badgers in the uk and its use forms part of the bovine tb eradication plans of england and wales. however, there are practical limitations to the widespread application of an injectable vaccine for badg ...201728174695
control of bovine tuberculosis in a farmed red deer herd in england.this report describes how mycobacterium bovis infection was controlled and eventually eradicated in a farmed red deer herd in the north of england, following sustained tuberculin skin testing supplemented with serological (antibody) tests over a period of approximately two years. by taking advantage of the anamnestic antibody response produced by the skin test to detect skin test-negative, antibody-positive infected individuals, a total of 35 additional animals were identified, including 2 with ...201728100768
mycotic aneurysm of the aorta as a complication of bacillus calmette-gu+®rin instillation.bacillus calmette-gu+®rin (bcg) is a live attenuated strain of mycobacterium bovis that has been widely used for the treatment of superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. we describe a rare case of supra-renal mycotic aortic aneurysm secondary to bcg instillation in a 75-year-old male. patients presenting with systemic symptoms post-instillation, possibly with an aneurysm, should raise suspicion of bcg dissemination, which requires early instigation of anti-mycobacterial drugs.201121677913
fasciola hepatica is associated with the failure to detect bovine tuberculosis in dairy cattle.bovine tuberculosis (btb) is a significant and intractable disease of cattle caused by mycobacterium bovis. in the united kingdom, despite an aggressive eradication programme, the prevalence of btb is increasing with an unexplained, exponential rise in cases year on year. here we show in a study involving 3,026 dairy herds in england and wales that there is a significant negative association between exposure to the common, ubiquitous helminth parasite, fasciola hepatica and diagnosis of btb. the ...201222617293
investigating transmission of mycobacterium bovis in the united kingdom in 2005 to 2008.due to an increase in bovine tuberculosis in cattle in the united kingdom, we investigated the characteristics of mycobacterium bovis infection in humans and assessed whether extensive transmission of m. bovis between humans has occurred. a cross-sectional study linking demographic, clinical, and dna fingerprinting (using 15-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat [miru-vntr] typing) data on cases reported between 2005 and 2008 was undertaken. a total of 12 ...201121430093
Human Mycobacterium bovis Infections in London and Southeast England.Variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) and spoligotyping analyses were used to assess transmission of Mycobacterium bovis between humans. VNTR was more discriminatory than spoligotyping. Low case numbers, despite a substantial animal reservoir, and resolution of all isolates provided no evidence of recent human-to-human transmission or recent significant infection from animals.201222075587
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