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a prospective study of genital infections in a family-planning clinic. 1. microbiological findings and their association with vaginal symptoms.a prospective study of genital infection was conducted in four inner-city family-planning clinics. fifteen per cent of routine attenders had symptoms and signs of vaginal infection and many more women attended primarily because of symptoms. among the women with both signs and symptoms, 70% had positive laboratory findings, trichomonas vaginalis, candida albicans and bacterial vaginosis being equally prevalent. measurement of vaginal ph in the clinic was the single most useful clinical finding fo ...19902307184
non-specific genital infection in a general practice. 19744212200
chlamydia a in the female genital tract. 19744361573
bacterial and fungal flora of seagull droppingsd in jersey.in jersey 166 fresh and 122 dried seagull droppings were obtained and studied locally and in london for the presence of bacteria and fungi of potentially pathogenic nature. there were no salmonella or shigella bacteria isolated from the two groups but there was a high proportion of candida albicans obtained from the fresh material (21.7%) and only 1.6% from the dry faeces. cryptococcus neoformans and histoplasma capsulatum were not found in either the dry or fresh droppings. the normal bacterial ...19715104846
the incidence of the serological groups of candida albicans in southern england. 196414210787
candidaemia in a large teaching hospital: a clinical audit.candidaemias are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. the british society of medical mycology and infectious diseases society of america recently published audit standards, to address the changing epidemiology of candidaemia and to improve outcomes.200616935923
retrospective survey of candidaemia in hospitalized patients and molecular investigation of a suspected outbreak.episodes of candida infection at a teaching hospital were investigated. during a 3-year period from 1998 to 2000, there were 53 cases of candidaemia. candida albicans (64.2 %) was the most common causative species, followed by candida glabrata (17.0 %) and candida parapsilosis (15.1 %). molecular analysis of a cluster of eight infections from a single unit was performed using southern blotting with ca3 probe hybridization. this showed that the patients were each infected by unrelated strains of ...200515770026
fungal surveillance of an open haematology ward.air sampling and surveillance cultures for fungi were performed in a scottish general haematology ward over a five-month period in 1997. the mean total fungal count from the air sampling appeared to be correlated with the number of patients colonized by aspergillus. the most commonly isolated species were aspergillus versicolor, a. fumigatus and a. niger. rooms with portable air filtration units had significantly lower total fungal counts than the others. swabs were taken from 70 patients (mean ...200010973746
biotypes of oral candida albicans isolates in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients from diverse geographic locations.oral candida albicans isolates from hiv-infected individuals in hong kong, australia, germany and england were characterised using a biotyping system based on enzyme profiles, carbohydrate assimilation patterns and boric acid resistance of the yeasts. a total of 44 biotypes were found amongst the 117 oral c. albicans isolates examined. the major biotype a1r accounted for 17.9% of all isolates while the second commonest biotype was a1s (11.1% of isolates). whereas these two biotypes were isolated ...19957722918
outbreak of systemic candida albicans in intensive care unit caused by cross infection.the first documented outbreak of systemic candidosis shown to be due to cross infection with a particular strain of candida albicans is reported. over nine months in an intensive care unit 13 patients developed definite and one probable systemic candidosis. twenty five further patients had superficial candidal infections. the strain that caused the outbreak (serotype a, morphotype a1, biotype 0/(1)5 5/7) was responsible for all the cases of systemic candidosis acquired in the intensive care unit ...19853918738
mycology in somerset 1953--75. 1978345034
the cdr1b efflux transporter is associated with non-cyp51a-mediated itraconazole resistance in aspergillus fumigatus.recent increases in triazole resistance in aspergillus fumigatus have been attributed primarily to target site (cyp51a) mutations. a recent survey of resistant isolates in manchester showed that >50% of resistant isolates had no mutation in cyp51a or its promoter. we investigated the mechanisms of resistance in clinical azole-resistant isolates without cyp51a mutations.201323580559
neonatal infections in england: the neonin surveillance network.neonatal infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. neonatal infection surveillance networks are necessary for defining the epidemiology of infections and monitoring changes over time.201020876594
excess mortality, length of stay and cost attributable to candidaemia.there were 1967 reports of candida species isolated from blood specimens in 2007 in the uk (excluding scotland). such infections are particularly common in the intensive care unit (icu). the impact of candidaemia on mortality, length of stay (los) and cost in a uk hospital was examined.200919744519
prevalence of candida albicans and bacterial vaginosis in asymptomatic pregnant women in south yorkshire, united kingdom. outcome of a prospective study.the aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and age distribution of candida albicans and bacterial vaginosis in asymptomatic pregnant women.200818299865
oral candidosis in community-based patients with advanced cancer.oral candidosis is a significant cause of morbidity in patients with advanced cancer. the objectives of the study were to determine the epidemiology, etiology, clinical features, and microbiological aspects of oral candidosis among community-based patients. the subjects were recruited from hospice day centers in england. the clinical component involved completion of a study questionnaire, assessment of performance status, clinical examination of the oral cavity, measurement of unstimulated whole ...200818242047
comparison of candida albicans strain types among isolates from three countries.multi-locus sequence typing data for 217 candida albicans isolates cultured since 1990 from blood and vaginal samples in japan, england/wales and the usa were analysed for geographically related variations. while no significant differences were found between distributions of diploid sequence types (dsts) in blood vs. vaginal isolates, there were highly significant differences in the clade distributions of isolates from the three geographical sources. clade 2 strains were predominantly isolates f ...200818165151
neonatal invasive fungal infection in england 2004-2010.rates of invasive fungal infection are highest among neonates, especially those of low birthweight. this study aimed to describe the current epidemiology of invasive neonatal fungal infections in a uk neonatal infection surveillance network. from 2004 to 2010 prospective multicentre surveillance was conducted by 14 neonatal units using a web-based database. clinicians then completed a standardized pro forma for each positive fungal blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid culture. the overall incidence ...201424479862
candidaemia in a london teaching hospital: analysis of 128 cases over a 7-year period.in a retrospective analysis of 128 cases of candida bloodstream infections in a london teaching hospital between 1995 and 2001, the incidence of candidaemia increased from 0.2/1000 admissions in 1995 to 0.5 and 0.4/1000 admissions in 2000 and 2001, respectively. risk factors for candidaemia included the presence of intravascular (iv) lines (88%), admission to intensive care (51%), parenteral nutrition (35%), multiple antibiotics (74%), corticosteroid therapy (12%), cancer chemotherapy (11%), ren ...200314622387
management and outcome of bloodstream infections due to candida species in england and wales.this two-year prospective hospital population-based study of candidaemia is the first to be conducted in the uk. it was carried out on behalf on the british society for medical mycology (bsmm) as part of the european confederation of medical mycology (ecmm) epidemiological survey of candidaemia. six hospitals in england and wales acted as sentinel hospitals. main outcome measures were hospital population-based incidence and 30-day mortality. there were 18.7 episodes of candidaemia per 100,000 fi ...200312767842
is bacterial vaginosis associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia?previous research has produced conflicting results regarding the association of bacterial vaginosis (bv) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (cin). these studies have been weakened in their conclusions mainly by failure to adequately control for the presence of sexually transmitted infections (stis). one proposed mechanism suggesting that carcinogenic nitrosamines acting either independently or via human papilloma virus (hpv) has not been fully tested previously. we undertook a prospective, c ...200312657117
the epidemiology of neonatal and pediatric candidemia in england and wales, 2000-2009.there are few population-based studies on the epidemiology of neonatal and pediatric invasive candida infections, despite their significant clinical impact on patients. this study aimed to describe the epidemiology of pediatric candidemia in england and wales during a 10-year period as a means of quantifying the changing burden of infection and identifying emerging trends.201323241987
the management of patients with inflammatory smear results in general practice.to ascertain the management of inflammatory smear results by general practitioners.19938509093
neotran--a new double-active pessary for the treatment of vaginitis.the common causes of vaginitis have changed in recent years. infection with trichomonas vaginalis is much less frequent than it used to be. the most common causes of vaginitis are candidiasis and bacterial vaginosis due to infection with mixed bacterial flora. in general practice, treatment of vaginitis is often begun before microbiological confirmation of the diagnosis is available. a vaginal pessary has been formulated to provide an effective therapy in all three forms of vaginitis mentioned a ...19938319819
immunoblot analysis of the serological response in systemic candidosis.to investigate the heterogeneity in antibody response to the various antigenic determinants of candida albicans in patients with disseminated candidosis 201 serial serum samples from 45 patients with proven systemic candidosis were examined by immunoblotting (western blotting) for antibodies to c albicans type a nctc 3153. 40 patients had detectable antibody. 26 different antigen bands, ranging from 104 kd to 23 kd, were identified. despite wide variation in the antigens recognised by different ...19846151040
observations on the epidemiology of candida albicans.the carriage rates for c. albicans were found to vary for different groups of people but hospital patients appeared to have higher rates than the non-hospital population. candida albicans was recovered more frequently from the bedding of patients than from that of school children. the variable concentration of this fungus in the air and on the bedding suggested that its presence might be related to the presence of individual patients.19665904986
control of an outbreak of systemic candida albicans. 19853931809
four outbreaks of nosocomial systemic candidiasis.candida albicans has recently been described as a cause of nosocomial infection. this paper reports four further outbreaks occurring over a 12-month period in england. there were 13 systemic cases and 6 deaths. the outbreaks were defined by morphotyping and the new technique of immunoblot fingerprinting. control of the outbreaks was produced by the implementation of strict cross-infection control policies without recourse to systemic chemoprophylaxis.19873609173
assessment of dna fingerprinting for rapid identification of outbreaks of systemic candidiasis.dna fingerprinting was assessed as an improved typing system for candida albicans aimed at speeding the implementation of cross infection control measures in outbreaks of systemic candidiasis. the study was carried out with 45 previously characterised isolates from five different outbreaks and with 96 unrelated isolates from a mixed control population. sixteen different genotypes were produced. results were obtainable within days, reproducibility was high, and there was good discrimination among ...19892493932
hospital outbreaks with yeasts.five previous outbreaks of disseminated candidosis due to candida albicans are reviewed and a new outbreak on a neonatal unit in belfast presented. this involved four disseminated cases. the control and definition of outbreaks by morpho-, immunoblot- and dna-typing is discussed. an outbreak of torulopsis glabrata infection involving 23 patients is described. this was defined by dna fingerprinting with the enzyme xba. there were five deaths attributable either completely or in part to the yeast i ...19911679789
candida strains from neonates in a special care baby unit.carriage and acquisition of candida spp and candida albicans biotypes were studied among 163 neonates and 90 staff in a neonatal intensive care and surgical unit during a 17 week period. twenty one neonates carried yeasts in the mouth, rectum or groin when first sampled, and a further 25 were positive later. c albicans accounted for 94.7% of 431 yeast isolates from neonates but only 67.4% of 43 isolates from staff. the first isolated c albicans biotype persisted in 13 babies monitored longitudin ...19921536586
yeasts and circumcision in the male.sixty-six circumcised men and 69 uncircumcised men, both heterosexual and homosexual, had specimens taken from the coronal sulcus and meatus of the penis. yeasts were isolated at similar rates in both the circumcised (14%) and uncircumcised (17%) men. the circumcised men had significantly fewer symptoms (p = 0-0058). therefore the female partners of both circumcised and uncircumcised men are exposed to similar rates of yeast infection despite the absence of symptoms in circumcised men. eighty pe ...1977322822
analysis of the strain relatedness of oral candida albicans in patients with diabetes mellitus using polymerase chain reaction-fingerprinting.to increase our understanding of candida pathogenicity, the identification of those strains most frequently associated with infections is of paramount importance. polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based methods are extremely effective in differentiating and determining reproducibility, they require minimum starting material and are rapid and simple to perform. in this study, the genetic relatedness of candida albicans was assessed for two geographically different patient groups (london, uk and par ...200617064392
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