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serologic evidence of exposure of wild mammals to flaviviruses in the central and eastern united states.serosurveys were conducted to obtain flavivirus and west nile virus (wnv) seroprevalence data from mammals. sera from 513 small- and medium-sized mammals collected during late summer and fall 2003 from colorado, louisiana, new york, ohio, and pennsylvania were screened for flavivirus-specific antibodies. sera samples containing antibody to flaviviruses were screened for wnv-specific antibodies by epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and confirmed with plaque reduction neutralizati ...200515891139
serologic evidence of west nile virus exposure in north american mesopredators.sera from 936 mammalian mesopredators (virginia opossums, gray foxes, striped skunks, hooded skunks, raccoons, a bobcat, and a red fox) were collected during 2003 and 2004 in california, arizona, texas, louisiana, ohio, and wyoming and screened for flavivirus-specific antibodies by an epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (blocking elisa). serum samples positive for antibodies against flaviviruses were screened for west nile virus (wnv)-specific antibodies by blocking elisa and sele ...200717255248
morbidity and mortality of bald eagles (haliaeetus leucocephalus) and peregrine falcons (falco peregrinus) admitted to the wildlife center of virginia, 1993-2003.medical records from 111 threatened bald eagles (86%, haliaeetus leucocephalus) and peregrine falcons (14%, falco peregrinus) admitted to the wildlife center of virginia from 1993 to 2003 were reviewed to identify submitters, causes of morbidity and mortality, and final disposition. half of all patients admitted were submitted by the virginia department of game and inland fisheries personnel. trauma was the most common reason for presentation in bald eagles (70%) and peregrine falcons (81%). add ...200717469277
field comparison of novel and gold standard traps for collecting aedes albopictus in northern virginia.aedes albopictus is a potential west nile virus bridge vector in northern virginia; however, information regarding its virus transmission dynamics is limited, as this species is not readily collected in existing traps. this study used 5 replicates of a 5 x 5 latin square to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of 2 novel host-seeking mosquito traps (the bg-sentinel and the collapsible mosquito trap (cmt-20) in collecting ae. albopictus, relative to a carbon dioxide (co2)-baited centers for ...200818666532
antibodies to west nile virus in raccoons and other wild peridomestic mammals in iowa.surveillance for evidence of west nile virus (wnv) infection in small- and medium-sized wild mammals was conducted in iowa, usa, from may 2005 to june 2007. sera were collected from 325 mammals belonging to nine species and tested for antibodies to wnv and other flaviviruses by epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). all sera that had antibodies to flaviviruses by blocking elisa were further examined by plaque reduction neutralization test (prnt). thirteen mammals were seropo ...200919901390
nesting bird "host funnel" increases mosquito-bird contact rate.increases in vector-host contact rates can enhance arbovirus transmission intensity. we investigated weekly fluctuations in contact rates between mosquitoes and nesting birds using the recently described nest mosquito trap (nmt). the number of mosquitoes per nestling increased from < 1 mosquito per trap night to 36.2 in the final 2 wk of the nesting season. our evidence suggests the coincidence of the end of the avian nesting season and increasing mosquito abundances may have caused a "host funn ...023540137
west nile virus workshop: scientific considerations for tissue donors.this report contains selected excerpts, presented as a summary, from a public workshop sponsored by the american association of tissue banks (aatb) held to discuss west nile virus (wnv) and scientific considerations for tissue donors. the daylong workshop was held 9 july 2010 at the ritz-carlton hotel at tyson's corner in mclean, virginia, united states (u.s.). the workshop was designed to determine and discuss scientific information that is known, and what is not known, regarding wnv infection ...201122134724
west nile virus in raptors from virginia during 2003: clinical, diagnostic, and epidemiologic findings.sixty-one birds of prey admitted to the wildlife center of virginia (wcv; waynesboro, virginia, usa) from june to november 2003 were tested for west nile virus (wnv) infection. choanal and/or cloacal swabs were obtained and submitted to virginia's division of consolidated laboratory services (richmond, virginia, usa) for analysis with real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr). forty birds of prey were positive for wnv by rt-pcr. five avian families and nine species of ra ...200616870856
west nile virus isolated from a virginia opossum (didelphis virginiana) in northwestern missouri, usa, 2012.we describe the isolation of west nile virus (wnv; flaviviridae, flavivirus) from blood of a virginia opossum (didelphis virginiana) collected in northwestern missouri, usa in august 2012. sequencing determined that the virus was related to lineage 1a wnv02 strains. we discuss the role of wildlife in wnv disease epidemiology.201425098303
culex restuans (diptera: culicidae) relative abundance and vector competence for west nile virus.the abundance and vector competence of culex restuans theobald and culex pipiens l. were compared to determine the relative importance of these species as west nile virus (wnv) vectors in the northeastern united states. abundance was estimated from egg raft collections at 12 sites in albany, suffolk, and richmond counties, new york, during july, august, and september 2002 and 2003. cx. restuans was more abundant than cx. pipiens in both urban and rural areas, comprising 86% of 1,623 egg rafts co ...200516363169
vector contact rates on eastern bluebird nestlings do not indicate west nile virus transmission in henrico county, virginia, usa.sensitive indicators of spatial and temporal variation in vector-host contact rates are critical to understanding the transmission and eventual prevention of arboviruses such as west nile virus (wnv). monitoring vector contact rates on particularly susceptible and perhaps more exposed avian nestlings may provide an advanced indication of local wnv amplification. to test this hypothesis we monitored wnv infection and vector contact rates among nestlings occupying nest boxes (primarily eastern blu ...201324287858
geographic incidence of human west nile virus in northern virginia, usa, in relation to incidence in birds and variations in urban environment.previous studies have analyzed the number and location of bird infections with human incidence of west nile virus (wnv) as well as the effects of environmental and socioeconomic factors on wnv propagation. however, such associations require more quantitative analyses. this study is intended to quantitatively analyze the relationship in eight counties/independent cities in the northern virginia, based on an integrated analysis of spatially explicit information on precipitation, land cover, infras ...201121802710
the efficacy of the bg-sentinel co2 nozzle in collecting host-seeking mosquitoes in fairfax county, virginia.this study determined whether the addition of a co2 nozzle made specifically for the bg-sentinel trap increased the efficacy of collecting host-seeking mosquitoes, particularly aedes albopictus and culex spp., which includes cx. pipiens, cx. restuans, and occasionally cx. salinarius in fairfax county, va. twenty bg-sentinel traps were incorporated into the fairfax county west nile virus (wnv) surveillance program: 10 traps were randomly selected each week to have the nozzle attached, and the rem ...201020649135
necropsy findings and arbovirus surveillance in mourning doves from the southeastern united states.mourning doves (zenaida macroura) are the most abundant and widespread native member of the columbid family, as well as a major migratory game species, in the united states. however, there is little information on mortality factors in mourning doves. records of necropsy accessions at the southeastern cooperative wildlife disease study (scwds) from 15 southeastern states, from 1971 through 2005, were reviewed. one hundred thirty-five mourning doves were submitted from nine states during the 35-yr ...200717347403
seasonal abundance of culex restuans and culex pipiens in southwestern virginia through ovitrapping.ovitrap collections were done to determine the seasonal distribution and ovipositional activity of culex restuans and culex pipiens in southwestern virginia during summers 2002 and 2003. in both years, cx. restuans was the first species collected and was the dominant species throughout the collecting period. more than 90% of the collections were comprised of cx. restuans. two oviposition peaks occurred in both years for cx. restuans, the first in june and second in the middle of july. culex pipi ...200617019765
west nile virus infection in a teenage boy with acute lymphocytic leukemia in remission.west nile virus (wnv) infection is an important cause of encephalitis. although the medical literature contains examples of wnv encephalitis in susceptible, mainly elderly, immunocompromised hosts, few case reports have described pediatric cases. the authors describe an adolescent with acute lymphocytic leukemia and wnv encephalitis. surveillance studies indicate an increase in wnv activity. physicians need to be aware of wnv activity in their community and consider wnv as a potential source of ...200516344671
west nile virus activity--united states, august 11-17, 2004.during august 11-17, a total of 194 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 17 states (alabama, arizona, california, colorado, florida, illinois, louisiana, maryland, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, new mexico, ohio, south dakota, texas, utah, and virginia).200415318160
west nile virus activity--united states, september 29-october 5, 2004.during september 29-october 5, a total of 81 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 18 states (alabama, arizona, arkansas, california, florida, georgia, illinois, iowa, kansas, kentucky, minnesota, missouri, ohio, oklahoma, pennsylvania, south dakota, texas, and virginia).200415470326
five-year surveillance of west nile and eastern equine encephalitis viruses in southeastern virginia.to investigate the occurrence of west nile virus (wnv) and eastern equine encephalitis virus (eee) in southeastern virginia, the bureau of laboratories at the norfolk department of public health (ndph) analyzed mosquito pools and the sera of sentinel chickens from the southeastern virginia area each year from 2000 to 2004. mosquito pool supernatants were screened for the presence of viral rna by conventional reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and taqman rt-pcr with the i-cy ...200616696451
serosurveys for west nile virus infection--new york and connecticut counties, 2000.in 2000, 21 persons were reported with acute illness attributed to west nile virus (wnv) infection; 19 were hospitalized with encephalitis or meningitis. of the 21, 10 resided in the staten island borough (richmond county) of new york city. other ill persons resided in nine other counties--kings (brooklyn), new york (manhattan), and queens counties in new york; hudson, passaic, monmouth, morris, and bergen counties in new jersey; and fairfield county in connecticut. because ill persons represent ...200111215880
update: west nile virus activity--eastern united states, 2000.data reported to cdc through the west nile virus (wnv) surveillance system have shown an increase in the geographic range of wnv activity in 2000 compared with 1999, the first year that wnv was reported in the western hemisphere. in response to this occurrence of wnv, 17 states along the atlantic and gulf coasts, new york city, and the district of columbia conducted wnv surveillance, which included monitoring mosquitoes, sentinel chicken flocks, wild birds, and potentially susceptible mammals (e ...200011105767
take precautions against mosquitos, dead birds to prevent west nile, encephalitis viruses. 200516042095
west virginia department of health and human resources information for physicians--west nile virus. 200111471468
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