genetic analysis of west nile virus isolates from an outbreak in idaho, united states, 2006-2007.west nile virus (wnv) appeared in the u.s. in 1999 and has since become endemic, with yearly summer epidemics causing tens of thousands of cases of serious disease over the past 14 years. analysis of wnv strains isolated during the 2006-2007 epidemic seasons demonstrates that a new genetic variant had emerged coincidentally with an intense outbreak in idaho during 2006. the isolates belonging to the new variant carry a 13 nt deletion, termed id-δ13, located at the variable region of the 3'utr, a ...201324065039
survival and population size of a resident bird species are declining as temperature increases.1. a large number of migratory bird species appear to be declining as the result of climate change, but whether resident bird species have or will be adversely affected by climate change is less clear. we focus on the south hills crossbill (loxia curvirostra complex), which is endemic to about 70 km(2) of rocky mountain lodgepole pine (pinus contorta latifolia) forest in southern idaho, usa. 2. our results indicate that the south hills crossbill has declined by over 60% between 2003 and 2008, a ...201122010811
demographic and clinical factors associated with persistent symptoms after west nile virus infection.prognosis varies among persons with west nile virus (wnv) infection, but the most important factors associated with persistent symptoms are not clear. in this cross-sectional study, 265 persons with symptomatic wnv infection during 2006-2008 completed a survey a mean of 7.7 months after diagnosis. we determined the association of demographic and clinical characteristics to the most common symptoms. of 214 persons infected ≥ 6 months, 53% reported one or more persistent symptoms, including fatigu ...201021036852
spatio-temporal cluster analysis of county-based human west nile virus incidence in the continental united states.west nile virus (wnv) is a vector-borne illness that can severely affect human health. after introduction on the east coast in 1999, the virus quickly spread and became established across the continental united states. however, there have been significant variations in levels of human wnv incidence spatially and temporally. in order to quantify these variations, we used kulldorff's spatial scan statistic and anselin's local moran's i statistic to uncover spatial clustering of human wnv incidence ...200919594928
west nile virus activity--united states, september 8-14, 2004.during september 8-14, a total of 195 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 26 states (alabama, arizona, arkansas, california, colorado, florida, georgia, idaho, illinois, iowa, kansas, maryland, minnesota, missouri, nebraska, nevada, new mexico, new york, north dakota, oklahoma, oregon, pennsylvania, south dakota, tennessee, texas, and wisconsin).200415371969
west nile virus activity--united states, january 1-august 15, 2006.this report summarizes west nile virus (wnv) surveillance data reported to cdc through arbonet as of 3 a.m. mountain daylight time, august 15, 2006. a total of 26 states had reported 388 cases of human wnv illness to cdc. a total of 214 (56%) cases for which such data were available occurred in males; median age of patients was 49 years (range: 2-91 years). dates of illness onset ranged from january 6 to august 10; a total of 13 cases were fatal. a total of 68 presumptive west nile viremic blood ...200616915222
evolutionary dynamics of west nile virus in the united states, 1999-2011: phylogeny, selection pressure and evolutionary time-scale analysis.west nile virus (wnv), an arbovirus maintained in a bird-mosquito enzootic cycle, can infect other vertebrates including humans. wnv was first reported in the us in 1999 where, to date, three genotypes belonging to wnv lineage i have been described (ny99, wn02, sw/wn03). we report here the wnv sequences obtained from two birds, one mosquito, and 29 selected human samples acquired during the us epidemics from 2006-2011 and our examination of the evolutionary dynamics in the open-reading frame of ...201323738027
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