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new jersey prepares for a possible return of west nile virus. 200010812915
west nile virus activity--new york and new jersey, 2000.in late august 1999, an outbreak of encephalitis caused by west nile virus (wnv) was detected in new york city and subsequently identified in neighboring counties (1). in response, an extensive mosquito-control and risk-reduction campaign was initiated, including aerial and ground applications of mosquito adulticides throughout the affected areas. no human wnv infections were found in new york city with an onset date after the campaign was completed. cases continued to occur among humans in surr ...200010926307
from the centers for disease control and prevention. west nile virus activity--new york and new jersey, 2000. 200010970196
update: west nile virus activity--eastern united states, 2000.data reported to cdc through the west nile virus (wnv) surveillance system have shown an increase in the geographic range of wnv activity in 2000 compared with 1999, the first year that wnv was reported in the western hemisphere. in response to this occurrence of wnv, 17 states along the atlantic and gulf coasts, new york city, and the district of columbia conducted wnv surveillance, which included monitoring mosquitoes, sentinel chicken flocks, wild birds, and potentially susceptible mammals (e ...200011105767
serosurveys for west nile virus infection--new york and connecticut counties, 2000.in 2000, 21 persons were reported with acute illness attributed to west nile virus (wnv) infection; 19 were hospitalized with encephalitis or meningitis. of the 21, 10 resided in the staten island borough (richmond county) of new york city. other ill persons resided in nine other counties--kings (brooklyn), new york (manhattan), and queens counties in new york; hudson, passaic, monmouth, morris, and bergen counties in new jersey; and fairfield county in connecticut. because ill persons represent ...200111215880
from the centers for disease control and prevention. human west nile virus surveillance--connecticut, new jersey, and new york, 2000. 200111368043
human west nile virus surveillance--connecticut, new jersey, and new york, 2000.west nile virus (wnv), a mosquitoborne arbovirus identified in new york in 1999, has become enzootic in the northeastern united states, affecting humans, birds, horses, and other mammals. although no human wnv infection was identified in connecticut or new jersey in 1999, 62 persons with wnv illness, including seven deaths, were detected in new york city (nyc) and nearby new york counties. in 2000, these jurisdictions implemented active surveillance (as) and enhanced passive surveillance (eps) t ...200111411831
pathologic and immunohistochemical findings in naturally occuring west nile virus infection in horses.the pathologic and peroxidase immunohistochemical features of west nile flavivirus (wnv) infection were compared in four horses from the northeastern united states and six horses from central italy. in all 10 animals, there were mild to severe polioencephalomyelitis with small t lymphocyte and lesser macrophage perivascular infiltrate, multifocal glial nodules, neutrophils, and occasional neuronophagia. perivascular hemorrhages, also noted macroscopically in two animals, were observed in 50% of ...200111467475
west nile virus: new jersey's 2000 experience and surveillance plans for 2001. 200111481936
west nile virus 2000-2001. 200111481943
crow deaths as a sentinel surveillance system for west nile virus in the northeastern united states, 1999.in addition to human encephalitis and meningitis cases, the west nile (wn) virus outbreak in the summer and fall of 1999 in new york state resulted in bird deaths in new york, new jersey, and connecticut. from august to december 1999, 295 dead birds were laboratory-confirmed with wn virus infection; 262 (89%) were american crows (corvus brachyrhynchos). the new york state department of health received reports of 17,339 dead birds, including 5,697 (33%) crows; in connecticut 1,040 dead crows were ...200111585521
west nile virus isolates from mosquitoes in new york and new jersey, 1999.an outbreak of encephalitis due to west nile (wn) virus occurred in new york city and the surrounding areas during 1999. mosquitoes were collected as part of a comprehensive surveillance program implemented to monitor the outbreak. more than 32,000 mosquitoes representing 24 species were tested, and 15 wn virus isolates were obtained. molecular techniques were used to identify the species represented in the wn virus-positive mosquito pools. most isolates were from pools containing culex pipiens ...200111585523
clinical findings of west nile virus infection in hospitalized patients, new york and new jersey, 2000.outbreaks of west nile (wn) virus occurred in the new york metropolitan area in 1999 and 2000. nineteen patients diagnosed with wn infection were hospitalized in new york and new jersey in 2000 and were included in this review. eleven patients had encephalitis or meningoencephalitis, and eight had meningitis alone. ages of patients ranged from 36 to 87 years (median 63 years). fever and neurologic and gastrointestinal symptoms predominated. severe muscle weakness on neurologic examination was fo ...200111589170
comparative west nile virus detection in organs of naturally infected american crows (corvus brachyrhynchos).widespread deaths of american crows (corvus brachyrhynchos)were associated with the 1999 outbreak of west nile (wn) virus in the new york city region. we compared six organs from 20 crow carcasses as targets for wn virus detection. half the carcasses had at least one positive test result for wn virus infection. the brain was the most sensitive test organ; it was the only positive organ for three of the positive crows. the sensitivity of crow organs as targets for wn virus detection makes crow de ...200111592255
west nile encephalitis: an emerging disease in the united states.in 1999, an epidemic of west nile virus (wnv) encephalitis occurred in new york city (nyc) and 2 surrounding new york counties. simultaneously, an epizootic among american crows and other bird species occurred in 4 states. indigenous transmission of wnv had never been documented in the western hemisphere until this epidemic. in 2000, the epizootic expanded to 12 states and the district of columbia, and the epidemic continued in nyc, 5 new jersey counties, and 1 connecticut county. in addition to ...200111595987
serologic evidence of west nile virus infection in black bears (ursus americanus) from new jersey.serum samples obtained from 51 free-ranging black bears (ursus americanus) in northwestern new jersey in february and march 2002 were analyzed for neutralizing antibodies to west nile virus (wnv) and st. louis encephalitis virus. three (6%) of the black bears tested positive for wnv-neutralizing antibodies. one additional sample was positive for flavivirus-neutralizing antibodies but could not be differentiated for a specific virus type. this is the first report of wnv infection in black bears.200314733286
pre-west nile virus outbreak: perceptions and practices to prevent mosquito bites and viral encephalitis in the united states.mosquitoes can transmit over 100 of the viruses that can cause encephalitis, meningitis, and hemorrhagic disease in humans (chin 2000; gubler 1996; monath 1989). while much is known about the ecology, epidemiology, and clinical manifestations of the arboviral encephalitides (campbell et al. 2002; centers for disease control and prevention 1997; gubler 1998; hayes 1989; hubálek and halouzka 1999), little empirical research exists regarding the u.s. population's knowledge of mosquitoes and arbovir ...200314733669
host feeding patterns of established and potential mosquito vectors of west nile virus in the eastern united states.an important variable in determining the vectorial capacity of mosquito species for arthropod-borne infections is the degree of contact of the vector and the vertebrate reservoir. this parameter can be estimated by examining the host-feeding habits of vectors. serological and polymerase chain reaction based methods have been used to study the host-feedings patterns of 21 mosquito species from new york, new jersey, and tennessee, 19 of which previously have been found infected with west nile viru ...200415018775
west nile virus antibodies in bats from new jersey and new york.eighty-three serum samples were obtained from big brown (eptesicus fuscus), little brown (myotis lucifugus), and northern long-eared (myotis septentriotalis) bats (chiroptera: vespertilionidae), from new jersey and new york (usa) between july and october 2002. samples were analyzed for neutralizing antibodies to west nile virus (wnv) and st. louis encephalitis (sle) virus. one little brown bat and one northern long-eared bat tested positive for wnv neutralizing antibodies. no bats had antibodies ...200415362837
west nile virus activity--united states, october 6-12, 2004.during october 6-12, a total of 86 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 18 states (arizona, florida, illinois, kansas, louisiana, michigan, minnesota, missouri, nevada, new jersey, new mexico, north dakota, ohio, oklahoma, pennsylvania, tennessee, texas, and utah).200415483530
communicable-disease surveillance in new jersey.the dhss and federal agencies have expanded their surveillance efforts to improve existing methods of reporting notifiable communicable diseases and to include additional data sources that might provide a more comprehensive view of disease activity in new jersey. currently, the dhss is evaluating these efforts and recognizes several issues that need to be addressed, including: assessment of the timeliness, completeness, and accuracy of surveillance data; validation of surveillance data through c ...200415497734
serologic evidence of west nile virus and st. louis encephalitis virus infections in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) from new jersey, 2001.serum samples from 689 hunter-killed white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) collected during the 2001 fall hunting season in new jersey were tested for neutralizing antibodies to west nile virus (wnv) and st. louis encephalitis virus (slev) by plaque-reduction neutralization tests. wnv-neutralizing antibodies were detected in six (0.9%) of the samples, and slev-neutralizing antibodies were found in 11 (1.6%) of the samples. we provide the first report of wnv infection in white-tailed deer.200415671740
detection of west nile viral rna from an overwintering pool of culex pipens pipiens (diptera: culicidae) in new jersey, 2003.in total, 1,324 culex pipiens pipiens l. female mosquitoes were collected at ft. hancock, monmouth county, new jersey, from january to march 2001-2003. mosquitoes were held in an insectary at 27 degrees c and a photoperiod of 16:8 (l:d) h for 6 to 21 d after which they were tested in 34 pools. west nile viral rna was detected in one pool by a taqman reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay; however, infectious virus could not be isolated using either vero cell plaque assay or c6/36 ...200515962803
first collection of anopheles (anopheles) punctipennis (say) on oahu, hawaii: implications for the potential introduction of west nile virus.a single adult female of anopheles (anopheles) punctipennis (say) was collected in a new jersey light trap in the port area of honolulu, oahu, hi, on december 8, 2003. this is the 1st record of a wild-collected, intact anopheles mosquito, and the 1st detection of an. punctipennis in the hawaiian islands. extensive larval surveillance and additional light trapping in the area of the collection site indicate that populations of this species have not become established on oahu. the distribution of ...200516033127
detection of west nile virus rna from the louse fly icosta americana (diptera: hippoboscidae).west nile virus (wnv) was detected by taqman reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in 4 of 85 (4.7%) blood-engorged (n = 2) and unengorged (n = 2) icosta americana (leach) hippoboscid flies that were collected from wild raptors submitted to a wildlife rehabilitation center in mercer county, nj, in 2003. this report represents an additional detection of wnv in a nonculicine arthropod in north america and the first documented detection of the virus in unengorged hippoboscid flies, furthe ...200516506578
a survey for west nile virus in bats from illinois.a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to test 97 serum samples from big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus) captured in six counties in illinois between may 2002 and february 2004 for west nile virus (wnv) antibodies. one female big brown bat tested positive for wnv antibodies. samples of kidney, liver, and heart tissue were collected from 312 bats of seven species that were submitted to the illinois (usa) department of public health or the illinois department of agriculture diagnostic ...200616870875
first record of aedes japonicus japonicus in illinois: defining its spatial distribution and associated mosquito species.since the initial discovery of aedes japonicus japonicus in 1998 from sites in the northeastern united states (new york, connecticut, and new jersey), this invasive mosquito species now permeates local faunas throughout eastern north america and continues to expand its distribution westward. in july and august of 2006, the 1st reported specimens of ae. japonicus were detected in east central illinois at 2 woodlots in southern urbana. sampling efforts were concentrated around the site of the orig ...200717939502
comparison of light traps, gravid traps, and resting boxes for west nile virus surveillance.west nile virus surveillance was conducted at five sites in new castle county, de, and one site in salem county, nj, from june through september, 2004, using dry ice-baited centers for disease control miniature light traps, infusion-baited gravid traps, and resting boxes. all trap types were simultaneously placed at each site every two weeks and run overnight. collected mosquitoes were identified to species, pooled, and analyzed for virus using a real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain ...200718260519
development of grid-like applications for public health using web 2.0 mashup techniques.development of public health informatics applications often requires the integration of multiple data sources. this process can be challenging due to issues such as different file formats, schemas, naming systems, and having to scrape the content of web pages. a potential solution to these system development challenges is the use of web 2.0 technologies. in general, web 2.0 technologies are new internet services that encourage and value information sharing and collaboration among individuals. in ...200818755998
genetic insights into the population structure of culex pipiens (diptera: culicidae) in the northeastern united states by using microsatellite analysis.members of the culex pipiens complex are considered as biting nuisance and vectors of important arbo-viruses including west nile virus (wnv). to analyze the genetic structure of urban and rural populations of cx. pipiens form pipiens and gain insights into behavioral implications, mosquitoes were collected from established wnv transmission foci in connecticut from october 2006 through october 2007, examined by using microsatellite markers, and compared with other populations from neighboring sta ...200818840738
changes in aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae) populations in new jersey and implications for arbovirus transmission.the asian tiger mosquito aedes albopictus (skuse) was first detected in new jersey in 1995 during mosquito surveillance operations in monmouth county. we tracked statewide changes in populations of the asian tiger mosquito and its association with west nile virus from 2003 to 2007. ae. albopictus population abundance has increased in new jersey since 2003, primarily along the urban corridor between new york city and philadelphia, and they are now expanding their range further into suburban and r ...200919769057
declining mortality in american crow (corvus brachyrhynchos) following natural west nile virus infection.the american crow (corvus brachyrhynchos) is known to suffer 100% mortality from infection with the new york 1999 strain of west nile virus (wnv). following the initial detection of wnv in north america in 1999, we measured prevalence of wnv-reactive antibodies ("seroprevalence") in free-ranging american and fish crows (corvus ossifragus) of central new jersey after each transmission season through 2005. in 2002, seroprevalence in american crow juveniles increased to 14% from the 5% of the previ ...200919848089
effector functions of camelid heavy-chain antibodies in immunity to west nile virus.three classes of igg have been described for camelids. igg1 has a conventional four-chain structure, while igg2 and igg3 do not incorporate light chains. the structures and antigen-binding affinities of the so-called heavy-chain classes have been studied in detail; however, their regulation and effector functions are largely undefined. the aim of this study was to examine the participation of conventional and heavy-chain igg antibodies in the camelid immune defense directed against west nile vir ...201019955323
arrival and establishment of aedes japonicus japonicus (diptera: culicidae) in iowa.the arrival and establishment of aedes (finlaya) japonicus japonicus (theobald) (diptera: culicidae) in iowa are reported. in total, 518 wild adult specimens were collected through the statewide mosquito and mosquito-borne virus surveillance program in 2007 and 2008. specimens were collected with new jersey light traps, co2-baited cdc light traps, grass infusion-baited gravid traps, and mosquito magnet traps located in 12 counties in central and eastern iowa specimens were identified morphologic ...200919960671
climate-based models for west nile culex mosquito vectors in the northeastern us.climate-based models simulating culex mosquito population abundance in the northeastern us were developed. two west nile vector species, culex pipiens and culex restuans, were included in model simulations. the model was optimized by a parameter-space search within biological bounds. mosquito population dynamics were driven by major environmental factors including temperature, rainfall, evaporation rate and photoperiod. the results show a strong correlation between the timing of early population ...201120821026
molecular diagnostics in the public health laboratories.at the new jersey department of health and senior services laboratory, clinical laboratory scientists receive specimens from various health care facilities and clinics in the state, and identify and confirm organisms of particular health concern in a rapid and timely manner. most of the assays performed are specialized tests that are not done routinely in the clinical laboratories. identifying and monitoring infectious agents such as west nile virus, influenza 2009 a (h1n1) pdm, mycobacterium tu ...201021140800
temporal and spatial patterns of west nile virus transmission in saginaw county, michigan, 2003-2006.the dynamics of west nile virus (family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus, wnv) infection in mosquitoes, sentinel pheasants, and wild dead birds were evaluated during 2003-2006 in saginaw co., mi. mosquitoes were collected by new jersey light traps at 22 sites during may-september, pooled by species and sample location, and tested for presence of wnv rna by using a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay. oral swabs from wild dead birds submitted by the public were tested by ...201121936324
diverse host feeding on nesting birds may limit early-season west nile virus amplification.arboviral activity tracks vector availability, which in temperate regions means that transmission ceases during the winter and must be restarted each spring. in the northeastern united states, culex restuans theobald resumes its activity earlier than culex pipiens l. and is thought to be important in restarting west nile virus (wnv) transmission. its role in wnv amplification, however, is unclear, because viral levels commonly remain low until the rise of cx. pipiens later in the season. because ...201424745370
isolations of cache valley virus from aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae) in new jersey and evaluation of its role as a regional arbovirus vector.the asian tiger mosquito, aedes albopictus (skuse), is an invasive species and a major pest problem in urban and suburban locales in new jersey. to assess its potential role as an arbovirus vector, we sampled ae. albopictus from two new jersey counties over a 3-yr period and estimated the prevalence of virus infection by vero cell culture and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays. three virus isolates were obtained from 34,567 field-collected ae. albopictus, and all were identif ...201324843937
insecticide resistance alleles in wetland and residential populations of the west nile virus vector culex pipiens in new jersey.in spite of the extensive use of insecticides to control culex pipiens in the aftermath of west nile virus, knowledge of the spatial distribution and frequency of insecticide resistance in this species is poorly understood in the united states. this paper reports on the occurrence of upregulated esterases that detoxify organophosphates (ops) and mutations conferring resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in natural and developed areas of new jersey.201625809655
unexpected spatiotemporal abundance of infected culex restuans suggest a greater role as a west nile virus vector for this native species.difficulties in correctly differentiating culex restuans mosquitoes from culex pipiens have left the spatiotemporal mechanisms underlying the epidemiology of west nile virus (wnv) in the northeastern united states largely unresolved. we performed weekly surveys across a natural to urban gradient of sites in central new jersey (usa) and used a rapid and cheap dna extraction and a species-specific pcr assay to create single species pools for wnv testing. to assess seasonal trends we combined these ...201525599877
drought-induced amplification of local and regional west nile virus infection rates in new jersey.abstract this study looked at the influence of interannual variations in temperature and precipitation on seasonal mosquito abundances, the prevalence of west nile virus (family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus, wnv) in the northeastern united states, and the capacity for local mosquito communities to maintain and transmit wnv, defined as vector community competence. vector and virus surveillance took place within middlesex county in new jersey over two transmission seasons (2010 and 2011). drough ...201323427670
west nile virus infection in blood donors in the new york city area during the 2010 seasonal epidemic.a uniform threshold strategy for converting from minipool (mp)-nucleic acid testing (nat) to individual donation (id)-nat screening for acute west nile virus (wnv) infection among blood donors is lacking. we report on wnv screening at the new york blood center during the 2010 seasonal wnv epidemic, the most severe epidemic in that state since the original outbreak in 1999.201222486471
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