update: west nile virus activity--eastern united states, reported to cdc through the west nile virus (wnv) surveillance system have shown an increase in the geographic range of wnv activity in 2000 compared with 1999, the first year that wnv was reported in the western hemisphere. in response to this occurrence of wnv, 17 states along the atlantic and gulf coasts, new york city, and the district of columbia conducted wnv surveillance, which included monitoring mosquitoes, sentinel chicken flocks, wild birds, and potentially susceptible mammals (e ...200011105767
a geospatial study of the potential of two exotic species of mosquitoes to impact the epidemiology of west nile virus in maryland.we used geospatial techniques to study the potential impact of 2 exotic mosquitoes, aedes albopictus and ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus, on the epidemiology of west nile virus in maryland. these 2 species have established populations in maryland over the past 15 years. larvae of both mosquito species are found in natural and artificial water-holding cavities and containers, particularly water in tires. therefore, we used locations of licensed tire dealers and of tire dumps scheduled for clean ...200314524539
west nile virus activity--united states, september 8-14, 2004.during september 8-14, a total of 195 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 26 states (alabama, arizona, arkansas, california, colorado, florida, georgia, idaho, illinois, iowa, kansas, maryland, minnesota, missouri, nebraska, nevada, new mexico, new york, north dakota, oklahoma, oregon, pennsylvania, south dakota, tennessee, texas, and wisconsin).200415371969
west nile virus activity--united states, october 13-19, 2004.during october 13-19, a total of 200 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 20 states (arizona, arkansas, california, colorado, illinois, indiana, iowa, kansas, maryland, michigan, mississippi, missouri, nevada, new mexico, north carolina, oklahoma, pennsylvania, south dakota, wisconsin, and wyoming).200415499683
rainfall influences survival of culex pipiens (diptera: culicidae) in a residential neighborhood in the mid-atlantic united states.measurement of the survival and dispersal rates of mosquito vectors is an important step in designing and implementing control strategies. vector survival plays a key role in determining the intensity of pathogen transmission, and vector movement determines the spatial scale on which control efforts must operate to be effective. we provide the first estimates of field survival and dispersal rates for culex pipiens l. in north america, an important enzootic and bridge vector for west nile virus ( ...022679852
west nile virus activity--united states, september 15-21, 2004.during september 15-21, a total of 218 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 21 states (arizona, california, florida, illinois, indiana, kansas, maryland, michigan, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, nebraska, nevada, new mexico, north dakota, oklahoma, south dakota, texas, utah, wisconsin, and wyoming).200415385920
avian roosting behavior influences vector-host interactions for west nile virus hosts.extensive work has shown that vectors almost never feed at random. often, a subset of individual hosts and host species are fed on much more frequently than expected from their abundance and this can amplify pathogen transmission. however, the drivers of variation in contact patterns between vectors and their hosts are not well understood, even in relatively well-studied systems such as west nile virus (wnv).201425167979
west nile virus activity--united states, august 11-17, 2004.during august 11-17, a total of 194 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 17 states (alabama, arizona, california, colorado, florida, illinois, louisiana, maryland, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, new mexico, ohio, south dakota, texas, utah, and virginia).200415318160
mosquito landing rates on nesting american robins (turdus migratorius).we measured mosquito landing rates on adult and nestling american robins at nests with infrared cameras in washington, d.c., and maryland, united states. mosquitoes landed on nesting robins almost exclusively between dusk and dawn. the mean number of mosquito landings per night was higher for adults (123.3 +/- se 32.8) than nestlings (37.26 +/- 14.8). the fraction of mosquitoes landing at a nest on nestlings increased with decreases in adult brooding. oral swabs from nestlings at these and 13 ot ...200717767414
serosurvey for selected pathogens in free-ranging american black bears (ursus americanus) in maryland, usa.american black bears (ursus americanus) in maryland, usa, live in forested areas in close proximity to humans and their domestic pets. from 1999 to 2011, we collected 84 serum samples from 63 black bears (18 males; 45 females) in five maryland counties and tested them for exposure to infectious, including zoonotic, pathogens. a large portion of the bears had antibody to canine distemper virus and toxoplasma gondii, many at high titers. prevalences of antibodies to zoonotic agents such as rabies ...201425075540
discovering spatio-temporal models of the spread of west nile virus.emerging infectious diseases are characterized by complex interactions among disease agents, vectors, wildlife, humans, and the environment. since the appearance of west nile virus (wnv) in new york city in 1999, it has infected over 8,000 people in the united states, resulting in several hundred deaths in 46 contiguous states. the virus is transmitted by mosquitoes and maintained in various bird reservoir hosts. its unexpected introduction, high morbidity, and rapid spread have left public heal ...200616573630
west nile virus activity--united states, august 25-31, 2004.during august 25-31, a total of 210 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 14 states (arizona, california, florida, illinois, indiana, kansas, maryland, minnesota, montana, nevada, new mexico, north dakota, oklahoma, and pennsylvania).200415343148
aseptic meningitis epidemic during a west nile virus avian epizootic.while enteroviruses have been the most commonly identified cause of aseptic meningitis in the united states, the role of the emerging, neurotropic west nile virus (wnv) is not clear. in summer 2001, an aseptic meningitis epidemic occurring in an area of a wnv epizootic in baltimore, maryland, was investigated to determine the relative contributions of wnv and enteroviruses. a total of 113 aseptic meningitis cases with onsets from june 1 to september 30, 2001, were identified at six hospitals. wn ...200314519244
west nile virus activity--united states, september 22-28, 2004.during september 22-28, a total of 180 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported in the district of columbia (dc) and 24 states (alabama, arizona, california, georgia, illinois, iowa, kansas, kentucky, louisiana, maryland, michigan, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, montana, nebraska, nevada, new mexico, ohio, pennsylvania, texas, utah, wisconsin, and wyoming).200415457147
analysis of mosquito vector species abundances in maryland using geographic information systems. 200111797801
ochlerotatus j. japonicus in frederick county, maryland: discovery, distribution, and vector competence for west nile virus.ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus is reported for the 1st time south of the mason-dixon line, in frederick county, maryland. fifty-seven oviposition trap samples were collected throughout the county between june 30 and august 24, 2000. from 971 larvae reared from the oviposition traps, 5 species were identified: ochlerotatus triseriatus (45%), oc. j. japonicus (43%), aedes albopictus (7%), culex pipiens (4%), and toxorynchites ritulus septentrionalis (<1%). ochlerotatus j. japonicus was found wid ...200111480822
a tiger tale. 200212202788
vector competence of three north american strains of aedes albopictus for west nile evaluate the potential for north american (na) aedes albopictus to transmit west nile virus (wn), mosquito strains derived from 3 na sources (frederick county, maryland, fred strain; cheverly, md, chev strain; chambers and liberty counties, texas, tamu strain) were tested. these strains were tested along with a previously tested strain from a hawaiian source (oahu strain). mosquitoes were fed on 2- to 3-day-old chickens previously inoculated with a new york strain (crow 397-99) of wn. all of ...200212542184
west nile virus emergence and large-scale declines of north american bird populations.emerging infectious diseases present a formidable challenge to the conservation of native species in the twenty-first century. diseases caused by introduced pathogens have had large impacts on species abundances, including the american chestnut, hawaiian bird species and many amphibians. changes in host population sizes can lead to marked shifts in community composition and ecosystem functioning. however, identifying the impacts of an introduced disease and distinguishing it from other forces th ...200717507930
west nile virus activity--united states, november 3-8, 2004.during november 3-8, a total of 41 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from seven states (california, maryland, minnesota, new mexico, oregon, tennessee, and texas).200415538322
climate-based models for west nile culex mosquito vectors in the northeastern us.climate-based models simulating culex mosquito population abundance in the northeastern us were developed. two west nile vector species, culex pipiens and culex restuans, were included in model simulations. the model was optimized by a parameter-space search within biological bounds. mosquito population dynamics were driven by major environmental factors including temperature, rainfall, evaporation rate and photoperiod. the results show a strong correlation between the timing of early population ...201120821026
pathogenicity of west nile virus and response to vaccination in sandhill cranes (grus canadensis) using a killed vaccine.west nile virus was introduced into the united states in the vicinity of new york, new york, usa in 1999. the virus has since killed large numbers of birds nationwide, especially, but not limited to, crows (corvus brachyrhinchos). one sandhill crane (grus canadensis) at the bridgeport zoo (bridgeport, connecticut, usa) reportedly died from west nile virus, so sandhill cranes and endangered whooping cranes (grus americana), both in the wild and in captive breeding colonies at united states geolog ...200919569472
west nile virus activity--united states, november 9-16, 2004.during november 9-16, a total of 31 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from eight states (arizona, georgia, maryland, michigan, missouri, new york, pennsylvania, and texas).200415549023
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