west nile virus activity--united states, october 27-november 2, 2004.during october 27-november 2, a total of 10 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from eight states (arizona, georgia, iowa, michigan, new mexico, ohio, oklahoma, and pennsylvania).200415525902
west nile virus detection in the organs of naturally infected blue jays (cyanocitta cristata).blue jays (cyanocitta cristata) are an effective indicator species for west nile virus (wnv) and may be regionally important in surveillance efforts. the sites of wnv replication and sensitivity of virus detection techniques are undefined for blue jays. the objectives of this study were to describe the gross and microscopic pathology associated with natural wnv infection in blue jays, as well as determine the most appropriate tissues to be used for virus isolation, reverse transcription-nested p ...200516107670
west nile virus infection in organ donor and transplant recipients--georgia and florida, 2002.on august 23, 2002, the georgia division of public health (gdph) and cdc were notified of two cases of unexplained fever and encephalitis in recipients of organ transplants from a common donor. an investigation has identified illness in two other recipients from the same donor: one with encephalopathy and the other with febrile illness. cdc, the food and drug administration, gdph, and the florida department of health are conducting the investigation. this duster could possibly represent the firs ...200212227442
organ transplants and blood transfusions may transmit west nile virus. 200212228130
west nile virus activity--united states, august 18-24, 2004.during august 18-24, a total of 154 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 18 states (alabama, arizona, california, colorado, connecticut, florida, georgia, illinois, kentucky, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, nevada, new mexico, north carolina, south dakota, tennessee, and wisconsin).200415329654
west nile virus activity--united states, september 29-october 5, 2004.during september 29-october 5, a total of 81 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 18 states (alabama, arizona, arkansas, california, florida, georgia, illinois, iowa, kansas, kentucky, minnesota, missouri, ohio, oklahoma, pennsylvania, south dakota, texas, and virginia).200415470326
west nile virus viremia in wild rock pigeons.feral rock pigeons were screened for neutralizing antibodies to west nile virus (wnv) during late winter/spring and summer of 2002 and 2003. additionally, virus isolation from serum was attempted from 269 birds collected during peak transmission periods. the observed viremia levels and seroprevalence indicate that this species could be involved in amplifying wnv in urban settings.200415663876
seroprevalence of west nile virus in nonhuman primates as related to mosquito abundance at two national primate research centers.west nile virus (wnv) surfaced as an emerging infectious disease in the northeastern united states in 1999, gradually spread across the continent, and is now endemic throughout north america. outdoor-housed nonhuman primates at the tulane national primate research center (tnprc) in louisiana were documented with a relatively high prevalence (36%) of antibodies to west nile virus. we examined the prevalence of antibodies to wnv in a nonhuman primate population housed in outdoor colonies at the ye ...200717348299
pathology and epidemiology of natural west nile viral infection of raptors in georgia.carcasses from 346 raptors found between august 2001 and december 2004 were tested for west nile virus (wnv) using virus isolation and immunohistochemistry; 40 were positive for wnv by one or both methods. of these 40 birds, 35 had histologic lesions compatible with wnv infection, one had lesions possibly attributable to wnv, and four had no histologic evidence of wnv. the most common histologic lesions associated with wnv infection were myocardial inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis; skeletal ...200717495305
necropsy findings and arbovirus surveillance in mourning doves from the southeastern united states.mourning doves (zenaida macroura) are the most abundant and widespread native member of the columbid family, as well as a major migratory game species, in the united states. however, there is little information on mortality factors in mourning doves. records of necropsy accessions at the southeastern cooperative wildlife disease study (scwds) from 15 southeastern states, from 1971 through 2005, were reviewed. one hundred thirty-five mourning doves were submitted from nine states during the 35-yr ...200717347403
evidence for west nile virus spillover into the squirrel population in atlanta, the united states, spillover of west nile virus (wnv) into wild mammal populations has been reported since the introduction of the virus into the new world in 1999. eastern gray squirrels (sciurus carolinensis) exhibit a high seroprevalence for wnv in urban settings where high virus circulation and human spillover have been reported. in atlanta, georgia, human cases of wnv are uncommon despite high infection rates in birds and mosquitoes. in this study, we evaluated wnv exposure of eastern gr ...201525988439
wild bird mortality and west nile virus surveillance: biases associated with detection, reporting, and carcass persistence.surveillance targeting dead wild birds, in particular american crows (corvus brachyrhynchos), plays a critical role in west nile virus (wnv) surveillance in the united states. using crow decoy surrogates, detection and reporting of crow carcasses within urban and rural environments of dekalb county, georgia were assessed for potential biases that might occur in the county's wnv surveillance program. in each of two replicated trials, during july and september 2003, 400 decoys were labeled with re ...200616699152
west nile virus antibodies in avian species of georgia, usa: 2000-2004.west nile virus (wnv) was first isolated in the state of georgia in the summer of 2001. as amplifying hosts of wnv, avian species play an important role in the distribution and epidemiology of the virus. the objective of this study was to identify avian species that are locally involved as potential amplifying hosts of wnv and can serve as indicators of wnv transmission over the physiographic and land use variation present in the southeastern united states. avian serum samples (n=14,077) from 83 ...200616584328
urban land use predicts west nile virus exposure in songbirds.urbanization is a widespread phenomenon that is likely to influence the prevalence and impact of wildlife pathogens, with implications for wildlife management and public health policies toward zoonotic pathogens. in this study, wild songbird populations were sampled at 14 sites along an urban rural gradient in the greater metropolitan atlanta (georgia, usa) area and tested for antibodies to west nile virus (wnv). the level of urbanization among sites was quantitatively assessed using a principal ...200818686573
west nile virus antibody decay rate in free-ranging birds.antibody duration, following a humoral immune response to west nile virus (wnv) infection, is poorly understood in free-ranging avian hosts. quantifying antibody decay rate is important for interpreting serologic results and for understanding the potential for birds to serorevert and become susceptible again. we sampled free-ranging birds in chicago, illinois, us, from 2005 to 2011 and atlanta, georgia, us, from 2010 to 2012 to examine the dynamics of antibody decay following natural wnv infecti ...201525919465
commercial mosquito trap and gravid trap oviposition media evaluation, atlanta, georgia.field trials evaluating the effectiveness of selected gravid trap oviposition media and commercially available mosquito traps were conducted in southern fulton county (atlanta), ga, from june 9 to june 18 and june 24 to july 4, 2002, respectively. total number of mosquitoes and number of each species captured during the tests were compared using a latin square design. for the gravid trap infusion media, significant differences were found for total number of mosquitoes collected where sod > or = ...200415532919
antibodies to west nile virus in feral swine from florida, georgia, and texas, usa.west nile virus (wnv) exposure has not yet been reported in feral swine (sus scrofa) despite the broad geographic range and population density of this species. the objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of antibodies to wnv in feral pigs, and to evaluate serologic diagnostics as applied to this species. feral pig serum from three states was evaluated for antibodies to wnv. the overall wnv seroprevalence rate for 222 samples collected in 2001-2004 was 22.5%. seroprevalence rate ...200616989565
the risk of west nile virus infection is associated with combined sewer overflow streams in urban atlanta, georgia, present, the factors favoring transmission and amplification of west nile virus (wnv) within urban environments are poorly understood. in urban atlanta, georgia, the highly polluted waters of streams affected by combined sewer overflow (cso) represent significant habitats for the wnv mosquito vector culex quinquefasciatus. however, their contribution to the risk of wnv infection in humans and birds remains unclear.201020529765
west nile virus activity--united states, november 9-16, 2004.during november 9-16, a total of 31 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from eight states (arizona, georgia, maryland, michigan, missouri, new york, pennsylvania, and texas).200415549023
metro atlanta responds to west nile virus: a coordinated public health response.three and a half million people live in metropolitan atlanta, in multiple counties with varying population bases, resources, issues and separate boards of health. historically, public health issues have been managed within each county, with very little sharing of information among counties. the 1999 west nile virus (wnv) outbreak in the northeast caused public health officials in atlanta to recognize the potential for the disease to spread to georgia and the need to develop a coordinated, multi- ...200515822839
west nile virus activity--united states, september 8-14, 2004.during september 8-14, a total of 195 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 26 states (alabama, arizona, arkansas, california, colorado, florida, georgia, idaho, illinois, iowa, kansas, maryland, minnesota, missouri, nebraska, nevada, new mexico, new york, north dakota, oklahoma, oregon, pennsylvania, south dakota, tennessee, texas, and wisconsin).200415371969
limited spillover to humans from west nile virus viremic birds in atlanta, georgia.west nile virus (wnv) is a mosquito-borne pathogen that impacts the health of its passerine bird hosts as well as incidentally infected humans in the united states. intensive enzootic activity among the hosts and vectors does not always lead to human outbreaks, as is the situation throughout much of the southeastern united states. in georgia, substantial yearly evidence of wnv in the mosquito vectors and avian hosts since 2001 has only led to 324 human cases. although virus has been consistently ...201324107200
a temperature-limited assessment of the risk of rift valley fever transmission and establishment in the continental united states of america.the rapid spread of west nile virus across north america after its introduction in 1999 highlights the potential for foreign arboviruses to become established in the united states of america. of particular concern is rift valley fever virus (rvfv), which has been responsible for multiple african epidemics resulting in death of both humans and livestock, as well as major economic disruption due to livestock loss and trade restrictions. modern globalization, travel, and commerce allow viruses to e ...201222639118
quantifying the potential pathways and locations of rift valley fever virus entry into the united states.the global invasion of west nile virus, chikungunya virus and zika virus in the past two decades suggests an increasing rate of mosquito-borne virus (arbovirus) dispersal. rift valley fever virus (rvfv) is an arbovirus identified as a high-consequence threat to the united states (usa) because of the severe economic and health consequences associated with disease. numerous studies demonstrate that the usa is receptive to rvfv transmission based on the widespread presence of competent mosquito spe ...201728191786
arboviruses in georgia. emergence of west nile virus. 200212189963
avian species diversity and transmission of west nile virus in atlanta, georgia.the dilution effect is the reduction in vector-borne pathogen transmission associated with the presence of diverse potential host species, some of which are incompetent. it is popularized as the notion that increased biodiversity leads to decreased rates of disease. west nile virus (wnv) is an endemic mosquito-borne virus in the united states that is maintained in a zoonotic cycle involving various avian host species. in atlanta, georgia, substantial wnv presence in the vector and host species h ...201728159002
climatic, ecological, and socioeconomic factors associated with west nile virus incidence in atlanta, georgia, u.s.a.the integrated effects of the many risk factors associated with west nile virus (wnv) incidence are complex and not well understood. we studied an array of risk factors in and around atlanta, ga, that have been shown to be linked with wnv in other locations. this array was comprehensive and included climate and meteorological metrics, vegetation characteristics, land use / land cover analyses, and socioeconomic factors. data on mosquito abundance and wnv mosquito infection rates were obtained fo ...201627860011
use, location, and timeliness of clinical microbiology testing in georgia for select infectious diseases.although clinical microbiology testing facilitates both public health surveillance of infectious diseases and patient care, research on testing patterns is scant. we surveyed hospital laboratories in georgia to assess their diagnostic testing practices.201622635201
a multiagency approach to reducing west nile virus risk in richmond county, georgia, in 2015.the richmond county mosquito control program's mission statement is to incorporate strategies of integrated mosquito control management that are effective, practical, and environmentally safe and protect the health of richmond county residents, as well as promote public education, in order to prevent large mosquito populations and the diseases that they transmit. to this end, the program coordinates efforts with other county agencies in order to provide better service. this is a small program wi ...201627613204
culex flavivirus and west nile virus in culex quinquefasciatus populations in the southeastern united states.little is known of the interactions between insect-only flaviviruses and other arboviruses in their mosquito hosts, or the potential public health significance of these associations. the specific aims of this study were to describe the geographic distribution, prevalence, and seasonal infection rates of culex flavivirus (cxfv) and west nile virus (wnv) in culex quinquefasciatus say in the southeastern united states, investigate the potential association between cxfv and wnv prevalence in cx. qui ...201222308785
factors affecting the geographic distribution of west nile virus in georgia, usa: 2002-2004.the distribution of west nile virus (wnv) is dependent on the occurrence of both susceptible avian reservoir hosts and competent mosquito vectors. both factors can be influenced by geographic variables such as land use/landcover, elevation, human population density, physiographic region, and temperature. the current study uses geographic information systems (gis) and logistic regression analyses to model the distribution of wnv in the state of georgia based on a wild bird indicator system, and t ...200616584329
west nile virus among hospitalized, febrile patients: a case for expanding diagnostic georgia, most individuals reported with west nile virus (wnv) disease have been diagnosed with west nile neuroinvasive disease (wnnd). relatively few cases of west nile fever (wnf) are reported, and the burden of illness due to wnv is likely underestimated. from july through october 2003, wnv serologic testing was performed on enrolled patients>or=18 years of age with fever admitted to a large, urban hospital in atlanta, georgia through the emergency department (ed). patients' history, clinic ...200616584326
west nile virus epizootiology in the southeastern united states, 2001.we investigated mosquito and bird involvement in west nile virus (wnv) transmission in july 2001 in jefferson county, fl, and lowndes county, ga. we detected 16 wnv-infected pools from culex quinquefasciatus, cx. salinarius, cx. nigripalpus, and culiseta melanura. in florida, 11% of 353 bird sera neutralized wnv. antibody prevalence was greatest in northern cardinal (cardinalis cardinalis, 75%), northern mockingbird (mimus polyglottus, 50%), common ground-dove (columbina passerina, 25%), common ...200515815153
evolutionary dynamics of west nile virus in georgia, 2001-2011.from 1999-2001, west nile virus (wnv) spread throughout the eastern united states (us) and was first detected in georgia in 2001. to date, the virus has been detected in over 2,500 dead wild bird and mosquito samples from across georgia. we sequenced the premembrane (prem) and envelope gene (e) (2004 bp) from 111 isolates collected from 2001 to 2011. to assess viral gene flow from other geographic regions in the us, we combined our data with wnv sequences available at the national center for bio ...201424691819
long term impacts of combined sewer overflow remediation on water quality and population dynamics of culex quinquefasciatus, the main urban west nile virus vector in atlanta, ga.combined sewers are a significant source of urban water pollution due to periodic discharges into natural streams. such events (called combined sewer overflows, or csos) contribute to the impairment of natural waterways and are associated with increased mosquito productivity and elevated risk of west nile virus transmission.201424528998
west nile virus antibody prevalence in american crows (corvus brachyrhynchos) and fish crows (corvus ossifragus) in georgia, usa.crows have been the centerpiece of avian west nile virus (wnv) surveillance and research in north america. this work has demonstrated variation in susceptibility to wnv infection between american (cor vus brachyrhynchos) andfish crows (corvus ossifragus). the higher wnv-associated mortality rate in american crows compared with fish crows suggests that wnv antibody prevalence would be greater in the fish crow population. the objectives of this study were to 1) determine whether fish crows had hig ...200717461278
reexamination of culex pipiens hybridization zone in the eastern united states by ribosomal dna-based single nucleotide polymorphism markers.mosquitoes in the culex pipiens complex are important vectors of several disease-causing pathogens, including west nile virus. in north america, the complex consists of cx. pipiens pipiens form pipiens, cx. pipiens pipiens form molestus, cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus, and their hybrids that exhibit substantial diversity in physiology, behavior, and geographic range. hybridization among these mosquitoes is of concern because of potential implications for disease transmission. currently, several mo ...201121896800
from the centers for disease control and prevention. west nile virus infection in organ donor and transplant recipients--georgia and florida, 2002. 200212353502
investigation of blood transfusion recipients with west nile virus investigation conducted by cdc, the food and drug administration (fda), the american red cross, and state health departments in georgia and florida has confirmed transmission of west nile virus (wnv) from a single organ donor to four organ recipients. during treatment for injuries that eventually proved fatal, the organ donor received numerous transfusions of blood products. however, the source of the organ donor's infection remains unknown.200212269472
west nile virus activity--united states, september 22-28, 2004.during september 22-28, a total of 180 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported in the district of columbia (dc) and 24 states (alabama, arizona, california, georgia, illinois, iowa, kansas, kentucky, louisiana, maryland, michigan, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, montana, nebraska, nevada, new mexico, ohio, pennsylvania, texas, utah, wisconsin, and wyoming).200415457147
possible dialysis-related west nile virus transmission--georgia, october 2003, the georgia division of public health (dph) was notified of two patients from the same county with confirmed west nile virus (wnv) disease who had received hemodialysis on the same day and on the same dialysis machine. the two dialysis patients (patients a and c) had the only confirmed cases of human wnv disease reported in their county in 2003. review of the dialysis center's records indicated that another patient (patient b) had received dialysis on the same machine between th ...200415318158
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