hematology, serum chemistry, and serology of galápagos penguins (spheniscus mendiculus) in the galápagos islands, ecuador.the galápagos penguin (spheniscus mendiculus) is an endangered species endemic to the galápagos islands, ecuador. in 2003 and 2004, 195 penguins from 13 colonies on the islands of isabela and fernandina in the galápagos archipelago were examined. genetic sexing of 157 penguins revealed 62 females and 95 males. hematology consisted of packed cell volume (n = 134), white blood cell differentials (n = 83), and hemoparasite blood smear evaluation (n = 114). microfilariae were detected in 22% (25/114 ...200617092893
hematology, plasma chemistry, and serology of the flightless cormorant (phalacrocorax harrisi) in the galapagos islands, ecuador.the flightless cormorant (phalacrocorax harrisi) is an endemic species of the galápagos islands, ecuador. health studies of the species have not previously been conducted. in august 2003, baseline samples were collected from flightless cormorant colonies on the islands of isabela and fernandina. seventy-six birds, from nestlings to adults, were evaluated. genetic sexing of 70 cormorants revealed 37 females and 33 males. hematology assessment consisted of packed cell volume (n=19), leukograms (n= ...200616699155
aedes taeniorhynchus vectorial capacity informs a pre-emptive assessment of west nile virus establishment in galápagos.increased connectivity with the mainland has led to the arrival of many invasive species to the galápagos islands, including novel pathogens, threatening the archipelago's unique fauna. here we consider the potential role of the mosquito aedes taeniorhynchus in maintaining the flavivirus west nile virus [wnv] should it reach the islands. we report on three components of vectorial capacity - vector competency, distributional abundance and host-feeding. in contrast to usa strains, galápagos a. tae ...023519190
west nile virus vector competency of culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in the galapagos islands.the mosquito-transmitted pathogen west nile virus (wnv) is not yet present in the galápagos archipelago of ecuador. however, concern exists for fragile endemic island fauna after population decreases in several north american bird species and pathology in certain reptiles. we examined wnv vector competency of a galápagos strain of mosquito (culex quinquefasciatus say). field specimens were tested for their capacity to transmit the wn02-1956 strain of wnv after incubation at 27°c or 30°c. rates o ...201121896799
evidence for regular ongoing introductions of mosquito disease vectors into the galapagos islands.wildlife on isolated oceanic islands is highly susceptible to the introduction of pathogens. the recent establishment in the galápagos islands of the mosquito culex quinquefasciatus, a vector for diseases such as avian malaria and west nile fever, is considered a serious risk factor for the archipelago's endemic fauna. here we present evidence from the monitoring of aeroplanes and genetic analysis that c. quinquefasciatus is regularly introduced via aircraft into the galápagos archipelago. genet ...200919675009
microsatellite markers characterized in the mosquito aedes taeniorhynchus (diptera, culicidae), a disease vector and major pest on the american coast and the galápagos islands.the black salt-marsh mosquito, aedes taeniorhynchus, plays an important role in the transmission of arboviruses such as west nile virus and other pathogens of concern for human and animal health in north and latin america. this mosquito is notably the only widely distributed mosquito species found in the galápagos islands, where its impact as disease vector has not yet been studied. the use of microsatellite markers can significantly improve our understanding of the population structure and dyna ...200919655436
invasive species. the galapagos islands kiss their goat problem goodbye. 200616973856
natural colonization and adaptation of a mosquito species in galapagos and its implications for disease threats to endemic wildlife.emerging infectious diseases of wildlife have been recognized as a major threat to global biodiversity. endemic species on isolated oceanic islands, such as the galápagos, are particularly at risk in the face of introduced pathogens and disease vectors. the black salt-marsh mosquito (aedes taeniorhynchus) is the only mosquito widely distributed across the galápagos archipelago. here we show that this mosquito naturally colonized the galápagos before the arrival of man, and since then it has evol ...200919502421
using avian surveillance in ecuador to assess the imminence of west nile virus incursion to galápagos.infectious disease emergence represents a global threat to human, agricultural animal and wildlife health. west nile virus (wnv) first emerged in the americas in 1999 following its introduction to new york from the old world. this flavivirus rapidly spread across much of north america, causing human, equine and avian mortalities and population declines of multiple wild bird species. it has now spread to central and south america, and there is concern that the virus will reach the galápagos islan ...201424796792
predicting pathogen introduction: west nile virus spread to galáipagos.emerging infectious diseases are a key threat to conservation and public health, yet predicting and preventing their emergence is notoriously difficult. we devised a predictive model for the introduction of a zoonotic vector-borne pathogen by considering each of the pathways by which it may be introduced to a new area and comparing the relative risk of each pathway. this framework is an adaptation of pest introduction models and estimates the number of infectious individuals arriving in a locati ...200616922238
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