phylogenetic analysis of west nile virus isolated in italy in italy the first occurrence of west nile virus (wnv) infection was reported in tuscany region during the late summer of 1998. in august 2008, the wnv infection re-emerged in italy, in areas surrounding the po river delta, and involving three regions lombardy, emilia romagna and veneto. wnv was isolated from blood and organs samples of one horse, one donkey, one pigeon (columba livia) and three magpies (pica pica). the phylogenetic analysis of the isolates, conducted on 255 bp in the region cod ...200819040827
west nile virus transmission with human cases in italy, august - september 2009, to date 16 human cases of west nile neuroinvasive disease (wnnd) have been reported in italy, in three regions: veneto, emilia-romagna and lombardia. the number of cases is higher compared with last year when nine cases were identified (eight cases of wnnd and one case of west nile fever) and the geographical distribution indicates spread from east to west.200919822123
west nile virus transmission in 2008 in north-eastern italy.after 10 years, west nile virus (wnv) re-emerged in italy in august 2008. as on 31 december 2008, the infection affected eight provinces in three regions (emilia romagna, veneto, lombardy), where a total of 794 cases of wnv infection in 251 equine stables were detected on the basis of the clinical signs and as a result of a serological screening in horses living in the area. only 4.0% (32/794) of the serologically positive animals showed clinical signs, and the 32 clinical cases were reported in ...201020042066
arboviral survey of mosquitoes in two northern italian regions in 2007 and 2008.recently, italy-particularly the emilia-romagna region-was the location of consecutive outbreaks of human diseases caused by the arboviruses chikungunya virus and west nile virus. the two outbreaks, spread by different species of mosquitoes, were not related, but pointed out the lack of an arboviral surveillance program in this region. beginning in 2007 entomological surveillance was initiated in the emilia-romagna region, and in 2008 the program was improved and extended at lombardia region. us ...201020370434
west nile virus circulation in veneto region in 2008-2009.summarywest nile virus (wnv) was detected in italy, in late summer 2008 in horses and birds in the po valley. as a consequence, an intense wnv surveillance was implemented in that area involving emilia-romagna, veneto and lombardy. this paper presents the results of the september 2008-november 2009 surveillance on equines, mosquitoes, wild birds, dogs and cattle in veneto. wnv was detected in equines and dogs, and, to a lesser extent in cattle and wild birds. simultaneous circulation of usutu vi ...201120670469
west nile transmission in resident birds in italy.migratory birds are considered one of the main sources for west nile virus (wnv) introduction into european countries. following the wnv epidemic in the late summer of 1998 in a marshy area of tuscany (padule of fucecchio), an extensive ornithological surveillance programme was carried out in the infected areas from 2006 to 2008. several species of migratory and resident birds were trapped, sampled and serologically tested. the results of this surveillance programme gave a useful indication of p ...201122212727
surveillance of mosquitoes and selected arthropod-borne viruses in the context of milan expo 2015.from 1 may 2015 to 31 october 2015 over 20 million visitors from all over the world visited the universal exhibition (expo) hosted by milan (lombardy region, italy), raising concerns about the possible introduction of mosquito-borne diseases from endemic countries. the entomological surveillance protocol performed in lombardy over the last three years was implemented in the expo area and in the two major regional airports using both center for disease control co₂ and biogents sentinel traps. thi ...201627399756
co-circulation of two usutu virus strains in northern italy between 2009 and 2014.usutu virus is an arbovirus closely related to west nile virus (genus flavivirus), which circulates between mosquitoes and wild birds. this virus has been increasingly reported in europe, raising concerns for its possible pathogenic potential for wild birds and humans. this study reports the whole genome sequences of 15 strains of usuv, isolated between 2010 and 2014 from mosquitoes and wild birds in the course of west nile virus surveillance in the emilia-romagna and lombardy regions of norther ...201728341546
west nile virus surveillance in the lombardy region, northern 2013, the circulation of west nile virus (wnv) was detected in the lombardy region and the following year a surveillance programme was activated with the aim of early identification of the viral distribution in mosquitoes and wild birds. a total of 50 959 culex spp. mosquitoes grouped in six hundred and forty-seven pools as well as 1400 birds were screened by rt-pcr for the presence of west nile virus leading to the identification of the viral genome in 32 mosquito pools and 13 wild birds. th ...201525958924
west nile virus outbreak in the lombardy region, northern italy, summer the summer of 2013, an outbreak of west nile virus (wnv) infection occurred in the lombardy, a region of northern italy to the west of districts affected by wnv in previous years. eighteen cases of human wnv infection were diagnosed--10 cases of acute wnv neuroinvasive disease and eight of wnv fever. in the same period, wnv was detected in birds (one crow) in horses (11 cases) and from mosquitoes (six pools).201525897815
new incursions of west nile virus lineage 2 in italy in 2013: the value of the entomological surveillance as early warning system.west nile virus (wnv) is one of the most serious public health threats that europe and the mediterranean countries are currently facing. in italy, wnv emerged in 1998 and has been circulating since 2008. to tackle its continuous incursions, italian national and regional institutions set up a surveillance program, which includes the serological screening of sentinel horses, sentinel-chickens and backyard poultry flocks and the surveillance on all equine neurological cases, resident captured and w ...201324002939
reconstructing the recent west nile virus lineage 2 epidemic in europe and italy using discrete and continuous phylogeography.west nile virus lineage 2 (wnv-2) was mainly confined to sub-saharan africa until the early 2000s, when it was identified for the first time in central europe causing outbreaks of human and animal infection. the aim of this study was to reconstruct the origin and dispersion of wnv-2 in central europe and italy on a phylodynamic and phylogeographical basis. to this aim, discrete and continuous space phylogeographical models were applied to a total of 33 newly characterised full-length viral genom ...201728678837
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