virulence and evolution of west nile virus, australia, 1960-2012.worldwide, west nile virus (wnv) causes encephalitis in humans, horses, and birds. the kunjin strain of wnv (wnvkun) is endemic to northern australia, but infections are usually asymptomatic. in 2011, an unprecedented outbreak of equine encephalitis occurred in southeastern australia; most of the ≈900 reported cases were attributed to a newly emerged wnvkun strain. to investigate the origins of this virus, we performed genetic analysis and in vitro and in vivo studies of 13 wnvkun isolates colle ...027433830
the human and animal health impacts of introduction and spread of an exotic strain of west nile virus in australia.vector-borne diseases can have substantial impacts on human and animal health, including major epidemics. west nile virus (wnv) is of particular international importance due to its recent emergence and impact in the western hemisphere. despite the presence of a sub-type of wnv (kunjin virus, kun) in australia, a potential ecological niche could be occupied by an exotic strain of wnv of the north american type. this study assesses the probability an exotic strain of wnv enters australia via an in ...201323098914
characterization of virulent west nile virus kunjin strain, australia, determine the cause of an unprecedented outbreak of encephalitis among horses in new south wales, australia, in 2011, we performed genomic sequencing of viruses isolated from affected horses and mosquitoes. results showed that most of the cases were caused by a variant west nile virus (wnv) strain, wnv(nsw2011), that is most closely related to wnv kunjin (wnv(kun)), the indigenous wnv strain in australia. studies in mouse models for wnv pathogenesis showed that wnv(nsw2011) is substantially m ...022516173
vector competence of australian mosquito species for a north american strain of west nile virus.since the establishment of west nile virus (wnv) into the united states, concern has arisen that this virus may also pose a serious threat to australian biosecurity. the vector competence of 19 australian mosquito species for a north american strain of wnv was evaluated. mosquitoes collected from cairns, brisbane, and sydney were exposed to blood containing 10(4.0+/-0.3) cell culture infectious dose(50)/mosquito wnv that was isolated from a crow during the 1999 new york outbreak. mosquitoes were ...200818973445
sentinel chicken surveillance program in australia, july 2002 to june 2003.detection of flavivirus seroconversions in sentinel chicken flocks located throughout australia is used to provide an early warning of increased levels of murray valley encephalitis (mve) and kunjin (kun) virus activity in the region. during the 2002-2003 season low levels of flavivirus activity were detected in northern australia compared to previous years. mve and kun virus activity was detected in the kimberley and pilbara regions of western australia and the northern territory but not in nor ...200314510063
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