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flavivirus isolations from mosquitoes collected from western cape york peninsula, australia, 1999-2000.after the 1st appearance of japanese encephalitis virus (je) on mainland australia in 1998, a study was undertaken to investigate whether je had become established in enzootic transmission cycles on western cape york peninsula. adult mosquitoes were collected during the late wet season from kowanyama and pormpuraaw in april 1999, and pormpuraaw and barr's yard in april 2000. despite processing 269,270 mosquitoes for virus isolation, no isolates of je were obtained. however, other flaviviruses co ...200314710742
virulence and evolution of west nile virus, australia, 1960-2012.worldwide, west nile virus (wnv) causes encephalitis in humans, horses, and birds. the kunjin strain of wnv (wnvkun) is endemic to northern australia, but infections are usually asymptomatic. in 2011, an unprecedented outbreak of equine encephalitis occurred in southeastern australia; most of the ≈900 reported cases were attributed to a newly emerged wnvkun strain. to investigate the origins of this virus, we performed genetic analysis and in vitro and in vivo studies of 13 wnvkun isolates colle ...027433830
deployable molecular detection of arboviruses in the australian outback.the most common causes of human infection from the arboviruses that are endemic in australia are the arthritogenic alphaviruses: ross river virus (rrv) and barmah forest virus (bfv). the most serious infections are caused by the neurotropic flaviviruses, murray valley encephalitis virus (mvev) and the kunjin subtype of west nile virus. the greatest individual risk of arbovirus infection occurs in tropical/subtropical northern australia because of the warm, wet summer conditions from december to ...201627402516
vector competence of australian mosquito species for a north american strain of west nile virus.since the establishment of west nile virus (wnv) into the united states, concern has arisen that this virus may also pose a serious threat to australian biosecurity. the vector competence of 19 australian mosquito species for a north american strain of wnv was evaluated. mosquitoes collected from cairns, brisbane, and sydney were exposed to blood containing 10(4.0+/-0.3) cell culture infectious dose(50)/mosquito wnv that was isolated from a crow during the 1999 new york outbreak. mosquitoes were ...200818973445
sentinel chicken surveillance program in australia, july 2002 to june 2003.detection of flavivirus seroconversions in sentinel chicken flocks located throughout australia is used to provide an early warning of increased levels of murray valley encephalitis (mve) and kunjin (kun) virus activity in the region. during the 2002-2003 season low levels of flavivirus activity were detected in northern australia compared to previous years. mve and kun virus activity was detected in the kimberley and pilbara regions of western australia and the northern territory but not in nor ...200314510063
natural exposure of horses to mosquito-borne flaviviruses in south-east queensland, australia.in 2011 an unprecedented epidemic of equine encephalitis occurred in south-eastern (se) australia following heavy rainfall and severe flooding in the preceding 2-4 months. less than 6% of the documented cases occurred in queensland, prompting the question of pre-existing immunity in queensland horses. a small-scale serological survey was conducted on horses residing in one of the severely flood-affected areas of se-queensland. using a flavivirus-specific blocking-elisa we found that 63% (39/62) ...201324048209
unforeseen costs of cutting mosquito surveillance budgets.a budget proposal to stop the u.s. centers for disease control and prevention (cdc) funding in surveillance and research for mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue and west nile virus has the potential to leave the country ill-prepared to handle new emerging diseases and manage existing ones. in order to demonstrate the consequences of such a measure, if implemented, we evaluated the impact of delayed control responses to dengue epidemics (a likely scenario emerging from the proposed cdc budget ...201021049010
isolation of arboviruses from mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) collected from the gulf plains region of northwest queensland, australia.as part of investigations into japanese encephalitis (je) virus and related flaviviruses in northern australia, 153,529 mosquitoes were collected and processed for virus isolation from the gulf plains region of northwest queensland. collections from within 30 km of each of the townships of croydon, normanton and karumba yielded 3,087 (2.0%), 66,009 (43.0%), and 84,433 (55.0%) mosquitoes, respectively, from which 16 viruses were isolated. four isolates of murray valley encephalitis (mve), two of ...200212349863
the viruses of australia and the risk to tourists.australia is a climatically diverse country varying from a tropical climate in the north to arid central desert and grassland regions, and to temperate climates in the south. there are many viral infections found in australia that are common to developed countries worldwide, but this article will focus on those that pose a special risk for travellers to australia, especially the mosquito-borne viruses. the commonest are the members of the alphavirus genus, particularly ross river virus and barma ...201121679887
the risk of dengue transmission by blood during a 2004 outbreak in cairns, australia.dengue virus (denv) is a flavivirus transmitted by the aedes mosquito. the related arbovirus, west nile virus, has been shown to be transfusion transmitted, which, added to the four recorded dengue transfusion-associated cases, indicates that denv is also transfusion transmitted. the purpose of this study was to assess the risk of transfusion-transmitted denv during a 2004 outbreak in the australian city of cairns.200919389025
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