applications of a sugar-based surveillance system to track arboviruses in wild mosquito populations.effective arbovirus surveillance is essential to ensure the implementation of control strategies, such as mosquito suppression, vaccination, or dissemination of public warnings. traditional strategies employed for arbovirus surveillance, such as detection of virus or virus-specific antibodies in sentinel animals, or detection of virus in hematophagous arthropods, have limitations as an early-warning system. a system was recently developed that involves collecting mosquitoes in co2-baited traps, ...201424359415
west nile virus (kunjin subtype) disease in the northern territory of australia--a case of encephalitis and review of all reported cases.west nile virus kunjin subtype (wnv/kunv) is enzootic across the tropical north of australia, with epizootic spread into other jurisdictions. the clinical spectrum of illness in humans is poorly described. we report a clinical case of wnv/kunv encephalitis and performed a retrospective chart audit of all cases of wnv/kunv notified in the northern territory from 1992 to 2010. thirteen cases of wnv/kunv disease were identified; case notes were available for 10 of these presentations. six of these ...201122049056
the viruses of australia and the risk to tourists.australia is a climatically diverse country varying from a tropical climate in the north to arid central desert and grassland regions, and to temperate climates in the south. there are many viral infections found in australia that are common to developed countries worldwide, but this article will focus on those that pose a special risk for travellers to australia, especially the mosquito-borne viruses. the commonest are the members of the alphavirus genus, particularly ross river virus and barma ...201121679887
sentinel chicken surveillance program in australia, july 2002 to june 2003.detection of flavivirus seroconversions in sentinel chicken flocks located throughout australia is used to provide an early warning of increased levels of murray valley encephalitis (mve) and kunjin (kun) virus activity in the region. during the 2002-2003 season low levels of flavivirus activity were detected in northern australia compared to previous years. mve and kun virus activity was detected in the kimberley and pilbara regions of western australia and the northern territory but not in nor ...200314510063
reappearance of human cases due to murray valley encephalitis virus and kunjin virus in central australia after an absence of 26 years.murray valley encephalitis (mve) and kunjin virus disease are endemic in the tropical parts of the northern territory and western australia, but have been absent from central australia since 1974. in 2000, 5 laboratory-confirmed cases of encephalitis occurred over a short period in the normally dry inland region of central australia. the sudden occurrence of cases in march and april 2000 followed unusually high rainfall in the preceding months and evidence of flavivirus activity in the endemic a ...200211950201
a new insect-specific flavivirus from northern australia suppresses replication of west nile virus and murray valley encephalitis virus in co-infected mosquito cells.recent reports of a novel group of flaviviruses that replicate only in mosquitoes and appear to spread through insect populations via vertical transmission have emerged from around the globe. to date, there is no information on the presence or prevalence of these insect-specific flaviviruses (isfs) in australian mosquito species. to assess whether such viruses occur locally, we used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and flavivirus universal primers that are specific to the ...201323460804
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