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west nile encephalitis in israel, 1999: the new york connection.we describe two cases of west nile (wn) encephalitis in a married couple in tel aviv, israel, in 1999. reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction performed on a brain specimen from the husband detected a wn viral strain nearly identical to avian strains recovered in israel in 1998 (99.9% genomic sequence homology) and in new york in 1999 (99.8%). this result supports the hypothesis that the 1999 wn virus epidemic in the united states originated from the introduction of a strain that had bee ...200111585528
west nile fever in israel 1999-2000: from geese to humans.west nile virus (wnv) caused disease outbreaks in israel in the 1950s and the late 1970s. in 1998 an outbreak of wnv in goose farms and evidence of infection in dead migratory birds were reported. consequently, human diagnostic services for wnv were resumed, including virus isolation, serology, and rt-pcr. risk factors for infection were assessed by a serological survey in 1999, which revealed a seroprevalence of (a) 86% in people who had close contact with sick geese, (b) 28% in people in areas ...200111797770
surveillance of west nile virus disease, tel aviv district, israel, 2005 to 2010.we present the findings of a six-year surveillance period (2005ôçô2010) of human west nile virus (wnv) infection in tel aviv district, israel. initial notifications of positively identified patients received from the central virology laboratory were followed by epidemiological investigations of the local district health office. during 2005ôçô2010, 104 patients, 79 with wnv neuroinvasive and 25 with wnv non-neuroinvasive disease were reported. the median age of the patients with a neuroinvasive d ...201121722612
molecular identification of bloodmeals from sand flies and mosquitoes collected in israel.in israel, sand flies are the vectors of leishmania ross and mosquitoes are the vectors of west nile virus. in the judean desert and tiberias, the sand fly phlebotomus sergenti parrot is the vector of leishmania tropica (wright) and the rock hyrax (procavia capensis pallas) is considered the main reservoir animal. the main vectors of west nile virus are culex pipiens l. and culex perexiguus theobald. bloodmeals of engorged field-caught female sand flies and mosquitoes are an important source for ...201424897862
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