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viruses recovered from mosquitoes and wildlife serum collected in the murray valley of south-eastern australia, february 1974, during an epidemic of encephalitis.pools of mosquitoes collected in the murray valley in february, 1974, during an encephalitis epidemic yielded 239 isolates of 11 distinct viruses. these included 39 isolates of mve virus, an incriminated causative agent of encephalitis in man, and 111 isolates of kunjin virus, a probable causative agent. an additional isolate of mve virus was recovered from the serum of a white-faced heron, ardea novaehollandiae. the other 9 viruses comprised the alpha-viruses ross river and sindbis, the flavivi ...19826299258
variation in arbovirus infection rates in species of birds sampled in a serological survey during an encephalitis epidemic in the murray valley of south-eastern australia, february 1974.there was extensive and exuberant breeding of waterbirds before and during an epidemic of arboviral encephalitis in the murray valley of south eastern australia in 1974. as estimated by haemagglutination inhibition tests on 432 bird sera collected between 4th and 13th february, 1974, infection with murray valley encephalitis virus, kunjin virus and possibly other flaviviruses was concentrated in species of the order ciconiiformes (55% positive) and pelecaniformes (41%), compared with only 5% in ...19826299259
australian encephalitis in western australia, 1978-1991.to review the various clinical manifestations of murray valley encephalitis (mve) or kunjin virus encephalitis in patients in western australia.19938386796
communicable diseases network australia: national arbovirus and malaria advisory committee annual report 2004-05.this report describes the epidemiology of mosquito-borne disease in australia for the mosquito-borne disease season 1 july 2004 to 30 june 2005. ross river virus (rrv) infections (45%), barmah forest virus (bfv) infections (30%) and malaria (19%) were the most common mosquito-borne diseases reported in 2004-05. the northern territory had the highest rate of rrv notifications and the peak notification rate (in february 2005) was 54 per cent less than the previous season. the northern territory al ...200516465923
kunjin virus isolates of australia are genetically homogeneous.the genomes of 22 isolates of kunjin virus (kun) from australia were characterized and compared using rnase t1 oligonucleotide fingerprinting. the results show that all isolates belonged to one topotype, the distribution of which covered the entire australian continent. this finding is similar to that of murray valley encephalitis virus, but in contrast to the results reported for some other flaviviruses such as saint louis encephalitis virus.19892552010
murray valley encephalitis in australia, 1974: antibody response in cases and community.fifty-three patients accepted on clinical grounds as cases of murray valley encephalitis (mve) in australia in 1974 were examined for antibody to mve virus. only one (who died early in the disease and whose diagnosis was confirmed by virus isolation) did not develop antibody; 13 patients showed stationary or single convalescent titres not diagnostic of recent infection, but other evidence that infection was recent was obtained in eight; 39 showed significant rise or fall in titre confirming rece ...19761071876
arboviral diseases and malaria in australia, 2008-09: annual report of the national arbovirus and malaria advisory committee.the national notifiable diseases surveillance system received 8,677 notifications of diseases transmitted by mosquitoes in australia from 1 july 2008 to 30 june 2009. the alphaviruses, barmah forest and ross river, accounted for 6,574 (78%) of these notifications during 2008-09. there were 1,009 notifications of dengue virus infection locally-acquired in north queensland and 484 notified cases resulted from overseas travel. notification rates of dengue virus infection for 2008-09, regardless of ...201021090179
vector competence of australian mosquito species for a north american strain of west nile virus.since the establishment of west nile virus (wnv) into the united states, concern has arisen that this virus may also pose a serious threat to australian biosecurity. the vector competence of 19 australian mosquito species for a north american strain of wnv was evaluated. mosquitoes collected from cairns, brisbane, and sydney were exposed to blood containing 10(4.0+/-0.3) cell culture infectious dose(50)/mosquito wnv that was isolated from a crow during the 1999 new york outbreak. mosquitoes were ...200818973445
arboviral diseases and malaria in australia, 2007/08: annual report of the national arbovirus and malaria advisory committee.the national notifiable diseases surveillance system (nndss) received 8,671 notifications of diseases transmitted by mosquitoes in australia for the season 1 july 2007 to 30 june 2008. this represented a 39% increase from the annual average of 6,259 notifications for the previous 5 years. the alphaviruses, barmah forest and ross river, accounted for 7,760 (89%) of these notifications during the 2007/08 season and represents an increase when compared with the mean of the past 5 seasons. detection ...200919877534
communicable diseases network australia national arbovirus and malaria advisory committee annual report, 2005-06.this report describes the epidemiology of mosquito-borne disease in australia for the mosquito-borne disease season 1 july 2005 to 30 june 2006, in which the second largest number of notifications since 1995-96 was reported. ross river virus (rrv) infections (66%), barmah forest virus (bfv) infections (23%) and malaria (9%) were the most common mosquito-borne diseases reported in 2005-06. national rrv notifications were the fifth largest on record. the northern territory had the highest rate of ...200617330382
sentinel chicken surveillance program in australia, july 2003 to june 2004.detection of flavivirus seroconversions in sentinel chicken flocks located in four australian states are used to provide an early warning of increased levels of murray valley encephalitis virus (mvev) and kunjin virus (kunv) activity in the region. during the 2003-2004 season low levels of flavivirus activity were detected in northern australia with both mvev and kunv virus activity detected in the kimberley and pilbara regions of western australia and in the northern territory. a single case of ...200515966677
flavivirus isolations from mosquitoes collected from western cape york peninsula, australia, 1999-2000.after the 1st appearance of japanese encephalitis virus (je) on mainland australia in 1998, a study was undertaken to investigate whether je had become established in enzootic transmission cycles on western cape york peninsula. adult mosquitoes were collected during the late wet season from kowanyama and pormpuraaw in april 1999, and pormpuraaw and barr's yard in april 2000. despite processing 269,270 mosquitoes for virus isolation, no isolates of je were obtained. however, other flaviviruses co ...200314710742
sentinel chicken surveillance programme in australia, 1 july 2001 to 30 june 2002.detection of flavivirus seroconversions in sentinel chicken flocks located throughout australia is used to provide an early warning of increased levels of murray valley encephalitis (mve) and kunjin virus activity in the region. during the 2001/2002 season low levels of flavivirus activity were detected in northern australia compared to previous years. mve and kunjin virus activity was detected in the kimberley and pilbara regions of western australia and the northern territory but not in north ...200212416705
reappearance of human cases due to murray valley encephalitis virus and kunjin virus in central australia after an absence of 26 years.murray valley encephalitis (mve) and kunjin virus disease are endemic in the tropical parts of the northern territory and western australia, but have been absent from central australia since 1974. in 2000, 5 laboratory-confirmed cases of encephalitis occurred over a short period in the normally dry inland region of central australia. the sudden occurrence of cases in march and april 2000 followed unusually high rainfall in the preceding months and evidence of flavivirus activity in the endemic a ...200211950201
serological evidence of inter-epidemic infection of feral pigs in new south wales with murray valley encephalitis virus.the sera of 617 feral pigs, collected from three widely separated areas of northern and central new south wales, were examined for antibody to murray valley encephalitis (mve) virus and to ross river virus. haemagglutination-inhibition (hi) antibody was detected to mve in 58% of sera and to ross river virus in 15% of sera. neutralization tests suggested that the mve hi antibody resulted from infection with mve virus in the summers of 1971-1972 and 1972-1973 when the virus was not known to be act ...19761016127
australia's notifiable diseases status, 2001: annual report of the national notifiable diseases surveillance system.in 2001 there were 104,187 notifications of communicable diseases in australia reported to the national notifiable diseases surveillance system (nndss). the number of notifications in 2001 was an increase of 16 per cent of those reported in 2000 (89,740) and the largest annual total since the nndss commenced in 1991. in 2001, nine new diseases were added to the list of diseases reported to nndss and four diseases were removed. the new diseases were cryptosporidiosis, laboratory-confirmed influen ...200312725505
kunjin virus: an australian variant of west nile?kunjin (kun) is a flavivirus in the japanese encephalitis antigenic complex that was first isolated from culex annulirostris mosquitoes captured in northern australia in 1960. it is the etiological agent of a human disease characterized by febrile illness with rash or mild encephalitis and, occasionally, of a neurological disease in horses. kun virus shares a similar epidemiology and ecology with the closely related murray valley encephalitis (mve) virus, the major causative agent of arboviral e ...200111797773
early diagnosis of murray valley encephalitis by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction.a 4-year-old aboriginal boy developed encephalitis due to murray valley encephalitis virus (mve) following an earlier infection with kunjin virus (kun). the illness was severe, resulting in cerebral atrophy and profound physical and intellectual disability. the earlier kun infection complicated his serological profile and delayed antibody responses to mve. by contrast, the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assay detected mve in serum 3 days after the onset of illness and 4 ...200010740807
australian x disease, murray valley encephalitis and the french connection.epidemics of a severe encephalitis occurred in eastern australia between 1917 and 1925, in which over 280 cases were reported with a fatality rate of 68%. the disease had not been described previously and was called australian x disease. the next epidemic occurred in south-east australia in the summer of 1950-51. the disease was given its name of murray valley encephalitis as this was the area from which most cases were reported. a virus was isolated by eric french in victoria, and about the sam ...19958545982
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