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attribution of malnutrition to cause-specific diarrheal illness: evidence from a prospective study of preschool children in mirpur, dhaka, bangladesh.we examined whether malnutrition (underweight [waz] < -2) increased the risk of diarrhea equally for all enteropathogens. the study was conducted prospectively between january 1999 and july 2002 in mirpur, an urban slum in dhaka. two hundred eighty-nine bangladeshi children (147 male and 142 female) 2-5 years of age were included in the study. malnutrition was present in 39% of the children at the time of enrollment. the parents and children were visited and interviewed every other day by health ...200919407131
association of malnutrition with amebiasis.observation of a cohort of preschool children in dhaka, bangladesh, is beginning to reveal the contributions of environment, host, and parasite to amebiasis. reviewed here are the associations and interactions of malnutrition, iga and interferon-gamma, human leukocyte antigen alleles, and parasite genotypes to the outcome of infection. future efforts aimed at understanding the mechanisms of these effects are described.200919906225
cognitive effects of diarrhea, malnutrition, and entamoeba histolytica infection on school age children in dhaka, bangladesh.cognitive function was assessed in 191 bangladeshi children 6-9 years of age using verbal and nonverbal tests. these scores were added to a health surveillance database that was compiled over the four previous years that includes incidence of diarrhea and entamoeba histolytica infection and nutritional status. the associations of diarrhea, malnutrition, and social factors with cognitive scores were analyzed statistically, and associations between diarrhea and test scores were controlled for the ...200616525109
prospective case-control study of the association between common enteric protozoal parasites and diarrhea in bangladesh.the parasitic causes of diarrhea have historically been identified by use of microscopy; however, the use of this technique does not allow one to distinguish between subspecies or genotypes of parasites. our objective was to determine, by use of modern diagnostic methods, the proportion of diarrhea cases in bangladesh attributable to cryptosporidium hominis, cryptosporidium parvum, entamoeba histolytica, and giardia lamblia assemblages a and b.200919323634
innate and acquired resistance to amebiasis in bangladeshi children.entamoeba histolytica infection and colitis occurred in 55% and 4%, respectively, of a cohort of bangladeshi preschool children observed for 2 years. dna typing demonstrated that infecting e. histolytica isolates were genetically diverse. innate resistance to infection in children was linked to the absence of serum anti-trophozoite igg. most children who lacked serum anti-trophozoite igg failed to develop it in response to a new infection. the serum anti-trophozoite igg response clustered in fam ...200212195383
prevalence and immune response to entamoeba histolytica infection in preschool children in bangladesh.entamoeba histolytica infection was present in 5% and e. dispar in 13% of asymptomatic 2-5-year-old children from an urban slum of dhaka, bangladesh. entamoeba dispar-infected children were no more likely than uninfected children to have serum antibodies to lectin. in contrast, all children infected with e. histolytica had serum antibodies to lectin. this anti-lectin response included antibodies against the carbohydrate recognition domain, which have been demonstrated in animal models to confer ...199910403338
intestinal parasites in university of dacca students.nine hundred and thirty three students of dacca university were examined: mean haemoglobin levels were 80.5 per cent for men and 70.0 per cent for women. five hundred and thirty three (57.3%) of the students had single or multiple intestinal parasitic infections, of which ascaris lumbricoides (366), entamoeba histolytica (113) and trichuris trichiura (99) were the commonest. it is suggested that chronic nutritional deficiencies are compounded by these parasites, leading to low weights, and low h ...19751214308
detection of entamoeba histolytica dna from liver abscess aspirate using polymerase chain reaction (pcr): a diagnostic tool for amoebic liver abscess.amoebic liver abscess is common in bangladesh. it is usually diagnosed by suggestive clinical features, ultrasound findings and positive serology. however, none of these are definitive and the picture overlaps with pyogenic liver abscess. it is critical to differentiate amoebic liver abscess from pyogenic liver abscess as the treatment are different. this study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of using polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for detection of entamoeba histolytica (e.histolytica) ...200718246730
comparison of pcr, isoenzyme analysis, and antigen detection for diagnosis of entamoeba histolytica infection.the diagnosis of amebiasis by microscopic identification of the parasite in stool is insensitive and unable to distinguish the invasive parasite entamoeba histolytica from the commensal parasite e. dispar. in this study, we have tested a pcr technique for the detection of e. histolytica and compared it with isoenzyme analysis and the techlab e. histolytica-specific antigen detection test. the nested-pcr test we used is based on amplification of the small subunit rrna gene of e. histolytica and e ...19989466756
zymodemes of entamoeba histolytica in dhaka, bangladesh.stool samples containing entamoeba histolytica were obtained from two sources: an urban hospital and an urban slum. using the enzyme patterns of three enzymes (e.c.2.7.1.1 hexokinase, e.c.5.3.1.9 glucose phosphate isomerase and e.c.2.7.5.1 phosphoglucomutase) stained after cellulose acetate electrophoresis, four zymodemes (i, ii, xiv and xvi) were identified in 71 isolates. zymodemes considered to be pathogenic (ii and xiv) were identified from 31 of 34 isolates from the urban hospital, and thes ...19902150165
parasitic, bacterial and viral pathogens isolated from diarrhoeal and routine stool specimens of urban bangladeshi children.few data exist in bangladesh on longitudinal, community-based studies of bacterial or parasitic pathogens identified in routine and diarrhoeal stools of urban dwelling children. we undertook the following study on 343 children of age less than 6 years who resided in one of 51 slum settings in dhaka, bangladesh, between october 1984 and february 1986. specimens from diarrhoeal episodes and from routine stools obtained at 3-monthly intervals were examined for parasites, rotavirus and pathogenic ba ...19892537431
entamoeba histolytica infection in children and protection from subsequent amebiasis.the contribution of amebiasis to the burden of diarrheal disease in children and the degree to which immunity is acquired from natural infection were assessed in a 4-year prospective observational study of 289 preschool children in an urban slum in dhaka, bangladesh. entamoeba histolytica infection was detected at least once in 80%, and repeat infection in 53%, of the children who completed 4 years of observation. annually there were 0.09 episodes/child of e. histolytica-associated diarrhea and ...200616428733
epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of acute diarrhea with emphasis on entamoeba histolytica infections in preschool children in an urban slum of dhaka, bangladesh.the epidemiology, clinical features, nutritional status, and causative agents of diarrhea were studied in 289 bangladeshi children (147 boys and 142 girls) 2-5 years old. the use of improved diagnostic tests for amebiasis enabled for the first time analysis of the contribution of entamoeba histolytica to total diarrheal illness in this community setting. the average incidence rate of diarrhea was 1.8/child-year, and the average number of diarrheal days was 3.7 days/child-year over an average obs ...200314640500
correlation of interferon-gamma production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells with childhood malnutrition and susceptibility to amebiasis.the contribution of interferon-gamma (ifn-gamma) to immunity from amebiasis was assessed in a three-year prospective study of children 2-5 years of age in an urban slum of dhaka, bangladesh. ifn-gamma produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with soluble amebic antigen was measured upon enrollment. thirty-one of the 209 enrolled children had entamoeba histolytica-associated diarrhea. children who produced higher than the median level of ifn-gamma (median = 580 pg/ml) had longer ...200717297046
case-control study of enteropathogens associated with childhood diarrhea in dhaka, bangladesh.the international centre for diarrhoeal disease research, bangladesh, is a major center for research into diarrheal diseases. the center treats more than 100,000 patients a year. to obtain useful information representative of all patients, a surveillance system in which a 4% systematic sample of all patients is studied in detail, including etiological agents of diarrhea, was installed in october 1979. the first paper on etiology for the surveillance patients was published in 1982, which identifi ...199910523534
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