Publications

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parasitization of humans in west virginia by ixodes cookei (acari: ixodidae), a potential vector of lyme borreliosis.in 32 collections, two larvae, 33 nymphs, and one adult female ixodes cookei packard were collected from humans in west virginia from august 1987 to may 1990. most were attached. the ticks were found in 14 counties and were the most abundant ixodes found biting humans. one nymphal i. cookei was removed from the left axilla of a 39-yr-old woman who lives and works in monongalia and marion counties, w. va. the bite was the center of an expanding erythematous lesion reaching 4 cm in diameter, clear ...19912033612
lyme disease reporting for navy and marine corps (1997-2000).reported cases of lyme disease for navy and marine corps personnel during 1997-2000 are presented from data collected in the naval disease reporting system and the defense medical epidemiological database. naval disease reporting system identified 210 case subjects; 60% were men, 49% were family members, and 37% were active duty, and most originated in the second quarter of the calendar year. states reporting the greatest number of reports were connecticut (44%), north carolina (16%), rhode isla ...200314719627
new records of ixodes affinis (acari: ixodidae) parasitizing avian hosts in southeastern virginia.ixodes affinis neumann (acari: ixodidae) is a hard-bodied tick species distributed throughout much of the southeastern united states. although i. affinis does not parasitize humans, it is a competent vector of borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the causative-agent of lyme disease, and thus contributes to the enzootic maintenance of this pathogen. this study presents evidence of i. affinis parasitizing five new host passerine species. during 2012-2014, 1,888 birds were captured and examined for ...201626586535
high snp density in the blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis, the principal vector of lyme disease spirochetes.single-nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) are the most widespread type of sequence variation in genomes. snp density and distribution varies among different organisms and genes. here, we report the first estimates of snp distribution and density in the genome of the blacklegged tick (ixodes scapularis), an important vector of the pathogens causing lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis and human babesiosis in north america. we sampled 10 individuals from each of 4 collections from new jersey ...201323219364
variation in the microbiota of ixodes ticks with regard to geography, species, and sex.ixodes scapularis is the principal vector of lyme disease on the east coast and in the upper midwest regions of the united states, yet the tick is also present in the southeast, where lyme disease is absent or rare. a closely related species, i. affinis, also carries the pathogen in the south but does not seem to transmit it to humans. in order to better understand the geographic diversity of the tick, we analyzed the microbiota of 104 adult i. scapularis and 13 adult i. affinis ticks captured i ...201526150449
lyme disease, virginia, usa, 2000-2011.lyme disease, caused by the bacterium borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted in the eastern united states by the black-legged tick (ixodes scapularis), is increasing in incidence and expanding geographically. recent environmental modeling based on extensive field collections of host-seeking i. scapularis ticks predicted a coastal distribution of ticks in mid-atlantic states and an elevational limit of 510 m. however, human lyme disease cases are increasing most dramatically at higher elevations in ...201425272308
spatial and temporal emergence pattern of lyme disease in virginia.the emergence of infectious diseases over the past several decades has highlighted the need to better understand epidemics and prepare for the spread of diseases into new areas. as these diseases expand their geographic range, cases are recorded at different geographic locations over time, making the analysis and prediction of this expansion complicated. in this study, we analyze spatial patterns of the disease using a statistical smoothing analysis based on areal (census tract level) count data ...201425331806
distribution of borreliae among ticks collected from eastern states.lyme disease is the most commonly reported vector-borne disease in the united states and is transmitted by borrelia burgdorferi-infected ixodes species. the disease is typically characterized by an erythema migrans (em) rash at the site of tick feeding. em rashes have also been associated with feeding by amblyomma americanum ticks despite evidence suggesting that they are incompetent vectors for lyme disease. in 1996, a borrelia organism only recently cultivated in the laboratory was described i ...200516417434
the dog as a sentinel for human infection: prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi c6 antibodies in dogs from southeastern and mid-atlantic states.lyme disease is the most frequently reported human vector-associated disease in the united states. infection occurs after the bite of an ixodid tick that is infected with borrelia burgdorferi. dogs have often been reported to serve as effective sentinel animals to assess the risk of human b. burgdorferi infection. based on published data of human lyme disease case numbers and our clinical impressions, we hypothesized that canine exposure to b. burgdorferi would be lower in north carolina when co ...200516011425
the dog as a sentinel for human infection: prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi c6 antibodies in dogs from southeastern and mid-atlantic states.lyme disease is the most frequently reported human vector-associated disease in the united states. infection occurs after the bite of an ixodid tick that is infected with borrelia burgdorferi. dogs have often been reported to serve as effective sentinel animals to assess the risk of human b. burgdorferi infection. based on published data of human lyme disease case numbers and our clinical impressions, we hypothesized that canine exposure to b. burgdorferi would be lower in north carolina when co ...200415631067
reported distribution of ixodes scapularis and ixodes pacificus (acari: ixodidae) in the united states.lyme disease, caused by infection with borrelia burgdorferi, is the most frequently reported arthropod-borne disease in the united states. to develop a national map of the distribution of the vectors of b. burgdorferi to humans (ixodes scapularis say and ixodes pacificus cooley & kohls ticks), we sent questionnaires to acarologists, health officials, and lyme disease researchers; surveyed the 1966-1996 medline data base; and reviewed 1907-1995 national tick collection data. tick collection metho ...19989775584
borrelia burgdorferi in eastern virginia: comparison between a coastal and inland locality.in virginia, borrelia burgdorferi was more prevalent in a site along the atlantic ocean, near maryland, than in an inland site near williamsburg and yorktown. at the coastal site on assateague island, b. burgdorferi was isolated from 4.2% of 475 animals sampled, including four species of small mammals. serologic tests indicated that 25-37% of the small rodents assayed had been exposed to b. burgdorferi. immunofluorescence antibody assays specific for b. burgdorferi showed spirochete infection in ...19957677212
borrelia burgdorferi in ticks (acari: ixodidae) from coastal virginia.ixodid ticks removed from hosts and from vegetation during march-november 1987 at sites in coastal virginia and north carolina were examined for borrelia burgdorferi. b. burgdorferi was evident in nine (22%) ixodes cookei packard removed from rice rats (oryzomys palustris), a white-footed mouse (peromyscus leucopus), and raccoons (procyon lotor); four (6%) amblyomma americanum (l.) removed from raccoons; and two (3%) dermacentor variabilis (say) removed from a raccoon and a rice rat. b. burgdorf ...19911941936
prevalence and diversity of tick-borne pathogens in nymphal ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) in eastern national parks.tick-borne pathogens transmitted by ixodes scapularis say (acari: ixodidae), also known as the deer tick or blacklegged tick, are increasing in incidence and geographic distribution in the united states. we examined the risk of tick-borne disease exposure in 9 national parks across six northeastern and mid-atlantic states and the district of columbia in 2014 and 2015. to assess the recreational risk to park visitors, we sampled for ticks along frequently used trails and calculated the density of ...201628028138
population genetic structure of the lyme disease vector ixodes scapularis at an apparent spatial expansion front.modeling and empirical evidence suggests that lyme disease is undergoing geographic expansion from principal foci in the midwestern and northeastern united states. virginia is at the southern edge of the current expansion zone and has seen dramatic rise in human lyme disease cases since 2007, potentially owing to a recent increase in vector abundance. ixodes scapularis is known throughout the eastern us but behavioral or physiological variation between northern and southern lineages might lead n ...201424882702
ixodes affinis (acari: ixodidae) in southeastern virginia and implications for the spread of borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of lyme disease. 201122129422
lyme arthritis in 20 children residing in a non-endemic area.in non-endemic areas of the country, lyme disease may not be considered in children who present with arthritis. this report details the clinical features of lyme arthritis in 20 children residing in central virginia. all patients presented with transient, often recurrent oligoarthritis of large joints, particularly the knee. most patients were referred with a presumptive diagnosis of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (jra). this report reiterates the clinical presentation of lyme arthritis in childr ...200515965548
ticks and antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi from mammals at cape hatteras, nc and assateague island, md and va.results of a survey for ixodid ticks and/or serum antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi from 14 species of small to large mammals from eastern coastal areas of the united states are presented. most samples were obtained from july 1987 through june 1989 (excluding december-march) at 3 locales: assateague is. national seashore, worcester co., md., and accomack co., va. (approximately 38 degrees 05' n 75 degrees 10' w), and cape hatteras national seashore, dare co., nc (approximately 35 degrees 30' n ...199910534951
epidemiology of lyme disease in virginia.prior to january 1986, only one case of lyme disease was reported from virginia. in 1986-87, however, the virginia department of health observed an increase in reports of suspected lyme disease by physicians, despite the fact that ixodes dammini is not highly prevalent in the virginia tick population. twenty-eight cases of lyme disease were identified in virginia, of which eight cases occurred in 1986 and 20 in 1987. lyme disease appears to be increasing in frequency in virginia and moving south ...19902240015
lyme disease case studies.lyme disease is the commonest tick-borne disease in the united states. since the mill creek clinic opened in march 1991, we have diagnosed two cases of the total five cases of lyme disease reported in west virginia.19921574875
lyme carditis. severe conduction disorder.lyme disease in most cases occurs in the states of connecticut, wisconsin, oregon, california, missouri and parts of the northeastern coast. showing the exception to the rule, the authors discuss a case in which a patient acquired the disease on the eastern shore of virginia.19902304446
confirmation of borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and anaplasma phagocytophilum in ixodes scapularis, southwestern virginia.to determine the prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi and anaplasma phagocytophilum in a newly established population of ixodes scapularis in the mountainous region of southwestern virginia, questing adult ticks were collected and the identity and infection status of each tick was confirmed by pcr and sequencing. a total of 364 adult ticks were tested from three field sites. b. burgdorferi sensu stricto was identified in a total of 32/101 (32%) ticks from site a, 49/154 (32%) ticks from site b, an ...201425409274
seroprevalence of borrelia burgdorferi in horses presented for coggins testing in southwest virginia and change in positive test results approximately 1 year later.lyme disease can affect people, dogs, and horses, but it remains poorly understood, especially in the horse. determining the seroprevalence of borrelia burgdorferi in horses in different geographic areas will enable better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, thus improving diagnosis and treatment of affected animals.201627214745
an examination of the demographic and environmental variables correlated with lyme disease emergence in virginia.lyme disease is the united states' most significant vector-borne illness. virginia, on the southern edge of the disease's currently expanding range, has experienced an increase in lyme disease both spatially and temporally, with steadily increasing rates over the past decade and disease spread from the northern to the southwestern part of the state. this study used a geographic information system and a spatial poisson regression model to examine correlations between demographic and land cover va ...201526163019
lyme disease in west virginia: an assessment of distribution and clinicians' knowledge of disease and surveillance.lyme disease case misclassification, a top public health concern, may be attributed to the current disconnect between clinical diagnosis and surveillance. this study examines lyme disease distribution in west virginia (wv) and determines clinicians' knowledge of both disease and surveillance. lyme disease surveillance data for 2013 were obtained from the wv bureau for public health. a validated survey, distributed to clinicians at an academic medical center, assessed clinicians' knowledge of dis ...201627491103
using exploratory data analysis to identify and predict patterns of human lyme disease case clustering within a multistate region, 2010-2014.lyme disease is the most commonly reported vectorborne disease in the united states. the objective of our study was to identify patterns of lyme disease reporting after multistate inclusion to mitigate potential border effects. county-level human lyme disease surveillance data were obtained from kentucky, maryland, ohio, pennsylvania, virginia, and west virginia state health departments. rate smoothing and local moran's i was performed to identify clusters of reporting activity and identify spat ...201728137676
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