comparison of borrelia burgdorferi isolated from humans and ixodid ticks in hokkaido, japan.four spirochetal isolates (jem1 to jem4) were obtained from cutaneous lesions of patients manifesting erythema chronicum migrans in hokkaido, japan. in the protein profiles by sds-page and the reactivities with monoclonal antibodies (h5332 and h9724) by immunoblotting, all the human isolates were identical with the tick isolates from ixodes persulcatus. these data indicate that i. persulcatus is an important vector of lyme disease for humans in japan.19921283437
questionnaire surveys of cases of tick bite and lyme borreliosis in hunters in hokkaido with reference to detection of anti-borrelia burgdorferi epidemic of lyme borreliosis on hokkaido island, japan, was surveyed by questionnaire in 587 hunters. the 308 returns (52.4%) revealed episodes of tick bite (usually 2 or more) in 210 cases. skin rashes appeared in 164 cases. associated itching, pain, etc., but not skin rash, were more frequent after 2 or more tick bite. previous determinations of anti-borrelia burgdorferi antibody titers in these subjects and in controls suggested an association with outdoor activities other than hunting, an ...19921286220
[study of the anti borrelia burgdorferi antibody of hunters in hokkaido].we examined the sera of 587 hunters in hokkaido (japan's northernmost island) for the antibody to borrelia burgdorferi (b. burgdorferi) by enzyme immunoassay, clarified the conditions related to antibody positivity in these subjects according to region, and studied the effects of factors such as age and lifestyle on the antibody titer. in contrast with an anti-b. burgdorferi antibody positive rate of 7.1% in control sera, that in the hunters' sera was 16.0%. among those positive for the anti-b. ...19921402062
seroepidemiological survey for antibody to borrelia burgdorferi in cows.antibody to borrelia burgdorferi was examined in 380 healthy and 38 clinical cases of cows from hokkaido and shizuoka in japan. in healthy animals, igg and igm antibody to b. burgdorferi ho14 strain were found in 44 cows (14.6%) and 24 cows (8.0%) from hokkaido. in contrast, antibody-positive case was not observed except for only 1 case which was igm positive (1/79: 1.3%) in cows from shizuoka. mean antibody levels of healthy animals in hokkaido and shizuoka were 0.651 and 0.263 (igg antibody to ...19921479959
prevalence of lyme borreliosis spirochetes in ixodid ticks of japan, with special reference to a new potential vector, ixodes ovatus (acari: ixodidae).to determine the vectors of lyme borreliosis in japan, the ixodid ticks taken in hokkaido, fukushima, nagano, ehime, and kochi prefectures were examined individually for spirochetal infections by culturing their midgut tissues in bsk medium. the cultivable spirochetes identified as borrelia burgdorferi were detected in ixodes persulcatus schulze adults (15.5% of 634), nymph (6.7% of 15) and ixodes ovatus neumann adult (9.6% of 188) from hokkaido, i. ovatus adults (25.5% of 47) from fukushima, an ...19921495032
isolation of lyme disease spirochetes from an ixodid tick in hokkaido, japan. 19911678577
antigenic properties of borrelia burgdorferi isolated from ixodes ovatus and ixodes persulcatus in hokkaido, japan.spirochete strains hp3 and ho14, isolated from ixodes persulcatus and i. ovatus in hokkaido in 1989, were the first isolates of borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of lyme disease, to be recognized in japan. antigenic properties of the japanese strains were compared with those of the strains isolated in the united states (b31 and 297) and europe (irs, p/gau, p/bi, 2/b45, and 3/b56) by western blotting (immunoblotting), by using monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against strains b31 and p/bi. t ...19911761676
serological survey for lyme disease in sika deer (cervus nippon yesoensis) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa).seventy-six wild sika deer (cervus nippon yesoensis) from areas endemic for borrelia burgdorferi during 1988 to 1989 had the igg antibody to the bacteria in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. the percentage of seropositive deer was 25.0% to strain ho14 and 22.4% to strain hp3, respectively. specific igg antibody titers were high in summer but low in winter. in summer, seropositive deer were 75.0%. similar results were obtained in serum specimens obtained monthly from 4 farmed deer. it was sugges ...19911808467
lyme borreliosis--a review and present situation in japan.the skin diseases erythema (chronicum) migrans (ecm, em), lymphadenosis benigna cutis (labc), and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (aca) have long been described in northern europe, and dermatologists are very familiar with these manifestations, which have been successfully treated with penicillin for about 40 years without the causative agent being known. certain neurologic symptoms could be linked to tickbites during the 1920's and later also to em. in 1977, steere et al. reported a new for ...19911885848
antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in dogs in hokkaido.during 1985 to 1990, serum samples were obtained from 229 healthy dogs. the dogs lived in hokkaido, known to be infested with ticks. an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was used to detect igg and igm antibodies against borrelia burgdorferi ho14 and hp3, which were isolated from ixodes ovatus and i. persulcatus in the area. igg antibody to b. burgdorferi ho14 was detected in 8.8% (1985), 16.4% (1987) and 18.5% (1990). igm antibody to the bacteria was detected in 1.8% (1987) and 2.5% (199 ...19902098630
mixed infection of different borrelia species among apodemus speciosus mice in hokkaido, japan.the wood mouse (apodemus speciosus) serves as a wildlife reservoir for lyme disease spirochetes in hokkaido, japan. to isolate borrelia species, we captured 34 wood mice in an area where borrelia species are endemic during october 1993. the earlobes (right and left), heart, spleen, and urinary bladder from each mouse were used as culture sources. as a result of culture 73 isolates from 21 mice were classified by rrna gene restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. ribotype groups iii (bo ...19957536218
evaluation of genetic divergence of borrelial isolates from lyme disease patients in hokkaido, japan, by rrna gene probes.eight spirochetal isolates (jem1 to jem8) were obtained from cutaneous lesions of patients with lyme disease in hokkaido, japan, and were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, reactivities with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies, and southern blot hybridization. the protein profiles of these borrelial isolates were variable and differed markedly from that of borrelia burgdorferi b31. the 41-kda flagellin protein was present in all isolates, but the outer surfac ...19937690368
prevalence of antibodies against borrelia species in patients with unclassified uveitis in regions in which lyme disease is endemic and nonendemic.we studied 93 patients with unclassified uveitis from two regions in japan (hokkaido and kanagawa) to assess the contribution of borrelia species to this condition. the seroprevalence of antibody to borrelia species was higher in patients from hokkaido than in those from kanagawa. the unclassified uveitis of seropositive patients was probably a complication of lyme borreliosis since (i) the antibody titers were as high as those in clinically diagnosed lyme disease patients, (ii) healthy controls ...19957719913
infectivity and early antibody response to borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolated in japan in outbred mice.borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolated from ixodes ovatus (b. japonica), i. persulcatus and patients with erythema migrans (em) in japan were determined on infectivity and arthritis induction-activity in outbred mice. infectivity of b. japonica was weak and did not induce the development of footpad swelling by subcutaneous (s.c.) inoculation into the footpad. challenged strain, no129-m of b. japonica, to ddy mice were reinoculated to the mice at various cell numbers (1 x 10-1 x 10(6) cells/mou ...19947799835
lyme disease spirochetes in japan: enzootic transmission cycles in birds, rodents, and ixodes persulcatus ticks.the ixodid tick, ixodes persulcatus, serves as a vector of borrelia species associated with lyme disease in hokkaido, japan. the migratory birds of genera emberiza and turdus and the woodland rodents of genera apodemus and clethrionomys are the wildlife reservoirs. to systemize the enzootic transmission cycles, borreliae isolates were classified by ribosomal rna gene restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis. most (> 60%) isolates from the bird-feeding i. persulcatus larvae belong ...19947930730
comparative studies on borrelia afzelii isolated from a patient of lyme disease, ixodes persulcatus ticks, and apodemus speciosus rodents in japan.the genospecies borrelia afzelii was isolated from a patient of lyme disease in hokkaido, japan, for the first time, by culturing the minced erythema lesion in bsk ii medium. two analytical methods, rrna gene restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) using the specific primer set to amplify the 16s rrna gene, revealed that this clinical isolate belongs to the group of b. afzelii. in our culture collection of spirochetes, part of the isolates from ixodes ...19947968670
canine lyme disease: clinical and serological evaluations in 21 dogs in japan.of 21 dogs from sapporo, hokkaido that had been recognised as having been bitten by ticks, 16 were seropositive to borrelia burgdorferi by elisa. thirteen of the seropositive dogs showed signs such as fever, astasia, convulsions, anorexia, fatigue, abnormal gait, nervous signs, diarrhoea, corneal opacity and conjunctivitis. these signs subsided as a result of antibiotic treatment within five days. the plasma concentrations of creatinine in the 21 dogs were higher than in control dogs. seven tick ...19948009799
serological survey for borrelia burgdorferi infection in cattle in southern means of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi were examined in 970 cattle from southern hokkaido, japan. the seropositivity rate in the cattle less than 2 years old differed significantly from that in those 3 years old or more. a seasonal variation was also observed in the rate of seropositivity to b. burgdorferi. high levels of anti-b. burgdorferi antibody were detected even in sera from a healthy group of cattle, indicating that there are likely ...19938117816
antigenic and genetic characterization of borrelia species isolated from ixodes persulcatus in hokkaido, japan.ten characteristic strains of spirochetes (ht2, ht7, ht10, ht15, ht17, ht19, ht20, ht22, ht32, and ht59) isolated from ixodes persulcatus adult ticks in hokkaido, japan, were selected and analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies, and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. the protein profiles of the borrelial isolates were variable and markedly different from that of the type strain borrelia burgdorferi b31. the 41-kda flagellin protein was present ...19938501250
in vitro and in vivo antibiotic susceptibility of lyme disease borrelia isolated from the ixodid tick in japan.antimicrobial susceptibility of the lyme disease borrelia, strain hp1 vi, isolated from the tick ixodes persulcatus in hokkaido, japan, was determined in vitro and in vivo. a broth dilution technique was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (mics) and minimum borreliacidal concentrations (mbcs) of five antimicrobial agents. strain hp1 vi was most susceptible to minocycline (mbc, 0.2 micrograms/ml). the other antimicrobial agents tested, aspoxicillin, cefmetazole sodium, imipen ...19958648001
borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in an endemic environment: wild sika deer (cervus nippon yesoensis) with infected ticks and antibodies.ticks and blood samples were collected from wild sika deer (cervus nippon yesoensis) during a hunting season (august to october) of 1991 at a selected location in hokkaido, japan. ixodes persulcatus (adult and nymph) and i. ovatus (adult) were the common ticks on sika deer. spirochetes were detected in the midgut of the ticks by the indirect peroxidase-conjugated antibody staining method and by dark-field microscopy after cultivation. by the reactive pattern of monoclonal antibodies, isolates we ...19968871523
a phylogenetic analysis of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates associated with lyme disease in japan by flagellin gene sequence determination.we determined nearly complete flagellin gene sequences for borrelia burdgdorferi sensu lato isolates (11 isolates obtained from ixodes persulcatus ticks and patients in hokkaido, japan, and 1 european isolate) representing six different restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) ribotype groups following cloning of the pcr-amplified genes. these sequences were aligned with those of representatives of the three borrelia species associated with lyme disease, and a phylogenetic tree was constr ...19968934900
characterization of borrelia spp. isolated from the tick, ixodes tanuki and small rodents in japan.spirochetes were isolated from the tick, ixodes tanuki, as well as wood mice (apodemus speciosus) and voles (clethrionomys rufocanus and eothenomys smithii), caught in fukui, tokushima, and hokkaido, japan, from 1991 to 1993. spirochetes were characterized on the basis of protein profiles, reactivities with monoclonal antibodies (mabs), outer surface protein a gene (ospa) and outer surface protein b gene (ospb) amplification analysis, rrna gene and flagellin gene restriction fragment length poly ...19969359053
seroprevalence of anti-borrelia antibodies among patients with confirmed sarcoidosis in a region of japan where lyme borreliosis is endemic.sarcoidosis is a multisystemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology, while lyme borreliosis is a multisystemic disorder caused by borrelia burgdorferi. the purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between sarcoidosis and lyme borreliosis in a region of japan where lyme borreliosis is endemic.19989561361
genetic diversity and the absence of regional differences of borrelia garinii as demonstrated by ospa and ospb gene sequence analysis.unfed adult ixodes persulcatus ticks were collected from four locations of nagano and hokkaido in japan. infected borrelia garinii were investigated by pcr-rflp of the ospa and ospb gene sequences. the primer set amplified an approximately 1.6-kb dna fragment (0.7-kb in some strains), and bsri, bstyi, or nlaiii digestion of the product resulted in six distinctively different pcr-rflp groups and two independent borrelial strains. the representatives in each pcr-rflp group and individuals from the ...199910656177
detection of ehrlichial dna in small rodents captured in a woodland area of hokkaido, the northernmost island of japan, where lyme disease is endemic.the ehrlichial gene was detected in small rodents trapped in a lyme disease-endemic area in hokkaido, the northernmost island of japan. primer pairs of 16s rdna targeting the genus ehrlichia and other regions of the 16s rdna specific for e. chaffeensis and e. muris were used for identification. the dna fragment specific for 16s rdna of ehrlichia spp. was detected in 4 of 94 apodemus speciosus mice (positive rate: 4.3%) and 5 of 73 clethrionomys rufocanus bedfordiae mice (positive rate: 6.8%). th ...200516249629
detection of borrelia garinii, borrelia tanukii and borrelia sp. closely related to borrelia valaisiana in ixodes ticks removed from dogs and cats in japan.ticks removed from 1136 dogs and 134 cats all over japan were examined for borrelia infection by pcr and sequencing. the 5s-23s rdna intergenic spacer of borrelia was detected from two ixodes persulcatus ticks from two dogs and two unidentified ixodes spp. from another two dogs in hokkaido, and two ixodes granulatus ticks from two cats in okinawa. additional 2 i. granulatus from the same cats also showed positive. sequence analysis of the pcr products revealed that the one from hokkaido was simi ...200717049744
serological survey of five zoonoses, scrub typhus, japanese spotted fever, tularemia, lyme disease, and q fever, in feral raccoons (procyon lotor) in japan.we investigated the seroprevalence of five tick- or mite-borne zoonoses, scrub typhus (orientia tsutsugamushi), japanese spotted fever (rickettsia japonica), tularemia (francisella tularensis), lyme disease (borrelia afzelii and borrelia garinii), and q fever (coxiella burnetii), in feral raccoons (procyon lotor) captured in hokkaido and kanagawa prefectures in japan. of the 559 raccoons captured in hokkaido, 8 (1.4%), 3 (0.5%), 1 (0.2%), and 1 (0.2%) carried antibodies against o. tsutsugamushi ...201120553108
tick surveillance for relapsing fever spirochete borrelia miyamotoi in hokkaido, japan.during 2012-2013, a total of 4325 host-seeking adult ticks belonging to the genus ixodes were collected from various localities of hokkaido, the northernmost island of japan. tick lysates were subjected to real-time pcr assay to detect borrelial infection. the assay was designed for specific detection of the relapsing fever spirochete borrelia miyamotoi and for unspecific detection of lyme disease-related spirochetes. overall prevalence of b. miyamotoi was 2% (71/3532) in ixodes persulcatus, 4.3 ...201425111141
prevalence of lyme borrelia in ixodes persulcatus ticks from an area with a confirmed case of lyme this study, the prevalence of borrelia infections in ixodes ticks from a site in hokkaido, japan, with confirmed cases of lyme disease was determined by a pcr method capable of detecting and differentiating between strains of pathogenic borrelia, with particular emphasis on borrelia garinii (b. garinii) and borrelia afzelli (b. afzelli), using tick-derived dna extracts as template. a total of 338 ticks, inclusive of 284 ixodes persulcatus (i. persulcatus), were collected by flagging vegetatio ...201323047332
borrelia miyamotoi infections among wild rodents show age and month independence and correlation with ixodes persulcatus larval attachment in hokkaido, clarify how borrelia miyamotoi is maintained in the environment in hokkaido, we examined ixodes persulcatus for its prevalence among wild rodents and its tick vector by detecting a portion of the borrelial flab gene in rodent urinary bladder and blood samples, and from whole ticks. we compared b. miyamotoi infection rates to borrelia garinii and borrelia afzelii, which are human lyme disease pathogens also carried by wild rodents, and which are transmitted by the same vector tick. whereas b. ...201323210636
differential tick burdens may explain differential borrelia afzelii and borrelia garinii infection rates among four, wild, rodent species in hokkaido, japan.the ecologies of lyme disease borrelia spp. are very specific to location, as they are dependent upon the spirochete species and genotypes, the vectors and the host vertebrates present. in hokkaido, japan, where two human pathogenic, lyme disease borrelia spp. are present, and human cases are reported annually, the ecologies have been poorly studied. our goal was to determine whether variation in borrelial infection rates among rodent species sharing an environment, is due to immunological or ec ...201323391510
astasia and pyrexia related to borrelia garinii infection in two dogs in hokkaido, japan.two dogs that exhibited sudden astasia, anorexia and fever higher than 40°c were suspected of having lyme disease in july 2011. clinical symptoms gradually improved with antibiotic treatment in both cases. polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis revealed borrelia garinii dna fragments in the peripheral blood in the acute disease phase. serological tests, including enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and western blot analysis, showed an increased igg antibody titer against borrelia pathogen ...201323428777
[a case of lyme disease requiring over 1 year to diagnose at an infectious-disease clinic].a 42-year-old woman presenting with years of fever and vague symptoms could not be satisfactorily diagnosed in physical examination or conventional workups. she was presumptively diagnosed with chronic fatigue syndrome and treated symptomatically. fourteen months after the initial visit, she developed left facial palsy. lyme disease serology was positive. four weeks of oral amoxicillin ameliorated symptoms. only 5 to 15 cases of lyme disease are reported annually in japan, mostly from the northe ...201323484378
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