overwintering of culex mosquitoes in sweden and their potential as reservoirs of human pathogens.1. culex pipiens l. and cx torrentium martini are suspected enzootic vectors in sweden of sindbis virus causing ockelbo disease in man. to estimate their potential as virus reservoirs over the winter, mosquitoes were collected from august to may from a cellar in a rural area, central sweden. the mosquitoes were dissected and examined for blood content, gonotrophic stage, parity and insemination, and tested for fructose. 2. cx pipiens, cx torrentium and cx territans walker constituted 94% of 887 ...19872856507
ockelbo disease: arthralgia 3-4 years after infection with a sindbis virus related agent. 19862871323
seasonal activity of mosquitoes in an ockelbo disease endemic area in central the sässman area, province of hälsingland, sweden, mosquitoes were sampled in 1983 from aquatic habitats, overwintering sites, cattle sheds, human bait, with uv-light traps, rabbit-, guinea-pig-, hen-, dove- and unbaited suction traps and similarly baited net traps. anopheles beklemishevi, an. messeae, aedes cantans, ae. cataphylla, ae. cinereus, ae. communis, ae. diantaeus, ae. excrucians, ae. hexodontus, ae. intrudens, ae. leucomelas, ae. pionips, ae. punctor, ae. vexans, culex pipiens, cx. ...19862906960
antigenic comparison of ockelbo virus isolates from sweden and russia with sindbis virus isolates from europe, africa, and australia: further evidence for variation among alphaviruses.the plaque-reduction neutralization test (prnt) was used to compare 15 isolates of ockelbo virus from sweden, one isolate of ockelbo virus from russia, the egyptian prototype sindbis virus, and sindbis-like viruses from slovakia, south africa, cameroon, and australia. strains from northern europe (sweden and russia) were indistinguishable by prnt. we observed some antigenic variation between isolates of sindbis virus from europe, africa, and australia. an australian strain (c-377) was shown to b ...19937902675
vector-borne viral diseases in sweden--a short review.ockelbo disease, caused by a sindbis-related virus transmitted to man by mosquitoes, was first described in the central part of sweden in the 1960s as clusters of patients with fever, arthralgia and rash. an average annual rate of 30 cases was recorded in the 1980s but no cases have been diagnosed during the last few years. nephropathia epidemica (ne) characterized by fever, abdominal pain and renal dysfunction has been known to cause considerable morbidity in sweden during the last 60 years but ...19968800805
association of a sindbis-like virus with ockelbo disease in alphavirus isolated from culiseta mosquitoes has been associated with ockelbo disease, an exanthema arthralgia syndrome occurring in sweden. the isolate was made from mosquitoes collected in edsbyn (central sweden), an area with considerable ockelbo disease morbidity. this isolate proved to be indistinguishable from sindbis virus by complement-fixation and hemagglutination-inhibition tests, and was antigenically related to sindbis in plaque reduction neutralization tests. patients with ockelb ...19846150655
ockelbo disease in sweden: epidemiological, clinical, and virological data from the 1982 outbreak of ockelbo disease, a syndrome with rash, arthralgia and moderate fever reactions, which occurred in sweden 1982 is described. a virus, designated edsbyn 5/82, isolated from mosquitoes and closely related to sindbis virus (togaviridae: alphavirus) is the probable etiologic agent. sixty-five patients with typical clinical manifestations of the disease became ill in august 1982 and exhibited antibody titer rises against both edsbyn 5/82 and sindbis viruses by indirect immunofluorescenc ...19846150654
ockelbo disease: epidemic arthritis-exanthema syndrome in sweden caused by sindbis-virus like agent. 19826121242
ecologic studies of mosquitoes and birds as hosts of ockelbo virus in sweden and isolation of inkoo and batai viruses from mosquitoes.field studies were conducted in central sweden from 1983 through 1985 to obtain information on the etiologic agent of ockelbo disease, described in sweden in the 1960s and probably identical to pogosta disease in finland and to karelian fever in the western ussr. mosquitoes (63,644) collected during this 3 year period yielded 21 virus strains. ockelbo virus isolations were from culiseta morsitans (5 strains), culex pipiens and/or cx. torrentium (6 strains), and aedes cinereus (3 strains). inkoo ...19892572178
diel activity patterns of blood-seeking anthropophilic mosquitoes in central sweden.1. blood-seeking diel activity cycles of mosquitoes are described from 24 h landing catches on human bait in a field and a forest habitat during june-august in central sweden. 2. daytime activity in the field was low or absent, whilst in the forest activity was relatively even throughout the diel. 3. in both habitats, activity peaks generally occurred about sunset and sunrise and were more distinct in the field than in the forest. 4. data from this and other studies show that, in general, aedes ...19882908783
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