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an outbreak of gangrenous dermatitis in commercial broiler chickens.the present report describes an outbreak of gangrenous dermatitis (gd) infection in a commercial poultry farm in delaware involving 34-day-old broiler chickens. in addition to obvious clinical signs, some gd-affected broilers also showed severe fibrino-necrotic enteritis and large numbers of gram-positive rods in the necrotic tissue. histopathological findings included haemorrhage, degeneration and necrosis of parenchymatous cells, especially of skin, muscle, and intestine. immunofluorescence st ...201020706880
antigenic and molecular characterization of three infectious bursal disease virus field isolates.three infectious bursal disease field viruses, identified as u28, 3212, and miss and isolated in the early 1980s from the southeastern united states, were characterized both antigenically and genotypically. a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mabs) was utilized in an antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for antigenic characterization. the elisa data indicated that u28 and the delaware variants are antigenically related. the 3212 and the gls variants were more closely related a ...199910396632
antigenic and s-1 genomic characterization of the delaware variant serotype of infectious bronchitis virus.a previously unrecognized infectious bronchitis virus (ibv) serotype, referred to hereafter as the delaware variant (de var), was isolated from commercial broiler chickens during a severe, widespread respiratory disease epornitic in the delmarva peninsula region of the united states in january-march 1992. the de var serotype was found to be antigenically unrelated by virus-neutralization (vn) test to nine reference ibv serotypes from north america. additional vn tests indicated that the de var i ...19979356713
molecular characterization of infectious bursal disease virus from commercial poultry in the united states and latin america.from june 1999 to september 2001, 216 bursal samples from broiler farms in the united states and from countries of latin america were submitted to the poultry diagnostic and research center at the university of georgia for the purpose of genotyping field infectious bursal disease viruses (ibdvs). the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) was used to amplify a 248-bp product, encompassing the hypervariable region of vp2 gene. the genotyping was conducted by restriction fragment ...200312713162
antigenic characterization of an arkansas isolate of infectious bursal disease virus.the s977 strain of infectious bursal disease virus (ibdv) was isolated in northwest arkansas in 1977 from the bursae of young broilers with high maternal antibody titers to the moulthrop strain of ibdv (bursavac). the comparison of a plaque-purified isolate of s977 with other ibdv serotype 1 and serotype 2 strains using virus neutralization indicates that s977 is a subtype of serotype 1 vaccine viruses and the md variant strain of ibdv and has no relatedness to the delaware variant a (vara) viru ...19968883789
sequence comparisons of the variable vp2 region of eight infectious bursal disease virus isolates.the vp2 gene is part of the genomic segment a of infectious bursal disease virus (ibdv). it has been identified as the major host-protective antigen of ibdv and is known to contain conformationally dependent protective epitopes. a 643-base pair segment covering the hypervariable region of this gene from three recent serologic variant ibdv isolates from the southeastern united states, two variants from the delmarva peninsula, and three serologic standard viruses were amplified and sequenced using ...19979087318
history of infectious bursal disease in the u.s.a.--the first two decades.infectious bursal disease (ibd) emerged in 1957 as a clinical entity responsible for acute morbidity and mortality in broilers on the delmarva peninsula. the condition spread rapidly and was recognized throughout the u.s. broiler and commercial egg production areas by 1965. early attempts to isolate the etiologic agent were impeded by a lack of specific-pathogen-free (spf) eggs and by deficiencies in viral and serologic techniques. by 1967, the highly infectious nature of the agent was recognize ...19979087316
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