epidemiological patterns of cutaneous leishmaniasis in panama. iii. endemic persistence of the disease.endemic persistence of cutaneous leishmaniasis is described in el aguacate, a community established in the forest of central panama about 75 years ago. physiographic pecularities partially isolate el aguacate from other villages in the region. some of the original forest environment has been preserved and man-biting species of phlebotomine sandflies were abundant as was the two-toed sloth, choloepus hoffmanni, the principal reservoir host of leishmania braziliensis in panama. the inhabitants, as ...1976816214
natural cutaneous leishmaniasis among dogs in panama.a search for cutaneous leishmaniasis among dogs was conducted in several forest settlements of central panama from 1968 to 1973. a total of 11 (3.3%) of 333 animals examined was found infected and, in 9 of these, parasites were isolated in culture and characterized as leishmania braziliensis. infected dogs occurred in three settlements, one of which was free of human leishmaniasis. in the latter case, infections were acquired in the nearby forest during hunting excursions. ulcerated skin lesions ...1976943961
epidemiological patterns of cutaneous leishmaniasis in panama. i. epidemics among small groups of settlers.epidemic of cutaneous leishmanniasis among a small group of people established in a panamanian forested area was studied. the first settlers arrived in june 1971, and by june 1973 there were 37 persons, 33 of whom had no previous history of the disease. epidemiological surveys were made in june 1973 and march 1974. the disease developed in 14 (42.4%) of the 33 susceptible persons by june 1973, with an exposure time ranging from one to 14 months. the last case occurred in april 1973, and no new c ...19761267510
epidemiological patterns of cutaneous leishmaniasis in panama. ii. incidental occurrence of cases in non-endemic settlements.epidemiological studies on cutaneous leishmaniasis were carried out in a settlement in the bayano region, republic of panama, during 1971-72. this settlement was established about 12 years earlier for the purpose of cattle raising by small groups of settlers. the primary forest was cut and cleared and the area planted with grass. the presence of active cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis among humans and animals, both domestic and ferals, was investigated. in addition, phlebotomine sandflies were c ...19761267511
epidemiologic investigation of an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a defined geographic focus of outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis occurred in a unit of 608 puerto rican national guardsmen conducting jungle warfare training in the panama canal area in july 1984. an epidemiologic investigation of reported nonhealing, ulcerating skin lesions was conducted among 540 (89%) unit members in november and december 1984. fifteen (88%) of 17 individuals with chronic, ulcerating skin lesions were confirmed as cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis by culture or histopathology. twelve cases yielded posi ...19921636883
cutaneous leishmaniasis after expedition to panama. 19901975877
leishmania mexicana complex: human infections in the republic of panama.parasites of the genus leishmania responsible for human cutaneous leishmaniasis in the new world form 2 major taxonomic divisions: the leishmania braziliensis and the l. mexicana complexes. we report the isolation and characterization of the l. mexicana complex among humans in the republic of panama. characterization was based on parasite morphology, pathogenesis in infected golden hamsters, cellulose acetate isoenzyme electrophoretic mobilities, and membrane-specific monoclonal antibodies using ...19902267966
leishmania braziliensis isolated from sloths in panama.two edentates, the twotoed sloth choloepus hoffmanni and the three-toed sloth bradypus infuscatus, infected with leishmania were found in panama. the rates of infection were 14.1 and 1.3 percent in choloepus and bradypus, respectively. leishmania braziliensis sensu lato was cultured from skin, blood, spleen, liver, or bone marrow of 13 sloths often from two or more tissues from the same animal. this strain is indistinguishable from leishmania strains isolated from hunmanis in panama.19695783717
experimental inoculation of panamanian mammals with leishmania braziliensis. 19655857288
the tree-buttress biotope: a pathobiocenose of leishmania braziliensis.a total of 52,033 sandflies, comprising 33 species, was collected in tree buttresses in panama. of the 18,025 females collected, 1,592 (8.8%) engorged phlebotomines of 18 species contained sufficient blood for identification of their vertebrate hosts by the microcapillary precipitin method. lutzomyia ylephiletor and lu. trapidoi, vectors of leishmania braziliensis, had fed predominantly on sloths (47.0% and 65.1%, respectively). lutzomyia shannoni, a common non-anthropophilic sandfly in tree but ...19827072887
experimental infection of mystromys albicaudatus with leishmania braziliensis: pathology.thirty-four mystromys albicaudatus were injected intradermally with leishmania braziliensis promastigotes and examined and killed during a 12-week period. all animals developed single cutaneous lesions at the sites of inoculation that began as a papular thickening in the dermis and progressed to a 2.0 cm crateriform ulcer. the histopathology of these lesions was characterized by granuloma formation and diffuse infiltrates of lymphocytes and plasma cells. parasites were most frequently observed i ...19807435783
leishmania braziliensis in the panamanian two-toed sloth, choloepus hoffmanni.a total of 498 two-toed sloths, choloepus hoffmanni, collected in central panama was examined for leishmania braziliensis over a 10-year period. isolations of the parasite from 96 (19.3%) of the animals were confirmed by culture and inoculation of golden hamsters. improved culture techniques developed toward the end of the study assisted in determining a greater prevalence of the disease. infectins were completely cryptic in all animals, and the parasite was isolated from skin, blood, liver, spl ...19807446811
american cutaneous leishmaniasis.we present 3 cases of american cutaneous leishmaniasis occurring in soldiers of a unit of us army rangers who parachuted into the jungles of panama. shortly after returning to the united states, these 3 soldiers each developed a crusted, indurated papule, which slowly enlarged during the following 6 weeks. routine microscopy of skin biopsies revealed a dermal granulomatous inflammation and a predominantly lymphoid infiltrate. numerous histiocytes contained small oval organisms with bar-shaped pa ...200211900576
evaluation of serological assays based on a novel excreted antigen preparation for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in panama.the objective of the present study was to determine the efficacy of prototype diagnostic serological assays for american cutaneous leishmaniasis (acl) in panama. as such, we prospectively sampled 100 cutaneous leishmaniasis case-patients and tested their sera in two serological assays based upon novel soluble antigen preparations made from propagating the parasites in a protein-free, serum free media. using serum and a leishmania mexicana antigen preparation to sensitize plates, the assay correc ...200415134886
lutzomyia sand fly diversity and rates of infection by wolbachia and an exotic leishmania species on barro colorado island, panama.sand flies (diptera, psychodidae, phlebotominae) in the genus lutzomyia are the predominant vectors of the protozoan disease leishmaniasis in the new world. within the watershed of the panama canal, the cutaneous form of leishmaniasis is a continuous health threat for residents, tourists and members of an international research community. here we report the results of screening a tropical forest assemblage of sand fly species for infection by both leishmania and a microbe that can potentially se ...201020231892
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