Publications

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evaluation of a rapid dot-elisa as a field test for the diagnosis of cystic hydatid disease.a rapid dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-elisa) was developed as a field test for the diagnosis of cystic hydatid disease caused by echinococcus granulosus. the 30 min test was based on the detection of antibodies to antigen b of hydatid fluid and was carried out using 50 microliters of whole blood in a field assessment in the turkana region of north-west kenya. initial laboratory studies showed antigen b to be preferable to crude cyst fluid, with 94% sensitivity and 90.3% specificity ...19911801352
an active intermediate host role for man in the life cycle of echinococcus granulosus in turkana, kenya.hydatid material removed at operation from 97 turkana was compared for fertility and viability with hydatid material removed from camels, cattle, sheep, and goats. the results showed that the human material was extremely fertile and viable, as was material from the camels, goats, and sheep. cattle cysts were invariably sterile, and the protoscoleces, when present, were comparatively less viable. the high incidence and fertility of hydatid cysts in the turkana, together with the lack of burial cu ...19836837848
seroepidemiological survey of taenia saginata cysticercosis in kenya.a sero-epidemiological study of taenia saginata cysticercosis was carried out to determine the prevalence and distribution of the infection in three provinces of kenya. serum samples and meat inspection records were collected from cattle at slaughter at export and district abattoirs. cattle origin and the presence of t. saginata cysticerci were noted as was the prevalence of other helminths such as echinococcus granulosus and fasciola gigantica. serum samples were screened for circulating parasi ...19968888551
hydatid disease: research and control in turkana, kenya. 1. epidemiological observations.a brief account is given of the geographical features of the turkana area and of the events which led to the discovery that this part of kenya had the highest incidence of clinically recognized hydatid disease in man anywhere in the world. observations were made on the distribution of the disease following an aerial survey designed to determine the distribution of the people. it was found that the highest incidence of 198 surgical cases per 100,000 people per annum was in the north-western area ...19863787676
hydatid disease: research and control in turkana, iv. the pilot control programme.a pilot programme to control hydatid disease in north-west turkana district was started in october 1983 with an intensive educational campaign. this was followed by control and treatment of the dog population to reduce the prevalence of echinococcus granulosus, thereby reducing the infective pressure on man. surveillance is by mass annual sero-epidemiological and ultrascan surveys of the nomadic turkana within the control region and by arecoline purging of the dogs. some of the recent advances i ...19863787679
molecular evidence of the camel strain (g6 genotype) of echinococcus granulosus in humans from turkana, kenya.cystic echinococcosis (ce) is a zoonotic helminthic disease, which is widely distributed throughout the world. although g1 is the echinococcus granulosus genotype most commonly involved in ce in humans, the prevalence of infection with other genotypes, such as g6, may be higher than previously thought. we performed molecular analysis to identify which e. granulosus genotypes are the causative agents of ce in humans in kenya's turkana district. during a hydatid control programme in 1993-1994, 71 ...201019786289
hydatid disease in the turkana district of kenya. vi. man:dog contact and its role in the transmission and control of hydatidosis amongst the turkana.despite a hostile environment unsuited to parasite transmission, turkana district in northwestern kenya has the highest incidence of hydatid disease in the world. the prevalence of the disease varies ten-fold, being higher in the north than the south of the district. this study examined whether differences in man:dog contact and specific activities of dogs enhanced the transmission of echinococcus granulosus eggs to man. a total of 24,541 observation-minutes were completed, studying 31 dogs from ...19883252758
hydatid disease in the turkana district of kenya, vii: analysis of the infection pressure between definitive and intermediate hosts of echinococcus granulosus, 1979-1988.the rate of acquisition of echinococcus granulosus and taenia hydatigena was examined in dogs treated with praziquantel in northwestern turkana district of kenya. an attempt was also made to assess the effect of drought on the prevalence of e. granulosus. the infection pressure to dogs with the cestodes was shown to be high, and the prevalence returned to pretreatment levels within six months. the unreliability of arecoline purging in prevalence studies of dog cestodes is shown by mathematical c ...19902260900
canine echinococcosis in turkana (north-western kenya): a coproantigen survey in the previous hydatid-control area and an analysis of risk factors.a study of echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs, with risk-factor analysis, was carried out in the endemic area of northern turkana district, kenya, using necropsy on 42 strays and a coproantigen-elisa survey of 161 owned animals. during the post-mortem examinations, 14 (33%) of the necropsied dogs were found infected with e. granulosus, with a mean burden of 540 worms (range=two to 4080 worms). the 26 necropsied dogs that came from the north-western lokichoggio division--an area where, fro ...200616989686
hydatid disease in the turkana district of kenya, iv. the prevalence of echinococcus granulosus infections in dogs, and observations on the role of the dog in the lifestyle of the turkana.the prevalence of echinococcus granulosus in dogs in the turkana district of kenya was 39.4% of 695 examined. of these, 98 (35.8%) had heavy echinococcus worm burdens (10(3)-5 x 10(4) ), while 54 (19.7%) and 122 (44.5%) had medium (201-1000) and light (1-200) burdens. the possible sources of these infections are discussed. the prevalence rate differed in various parts of the district, ranging from 63.5% in the northwest, where the highest incidence of human hydatidosis also occurs, to nil along ...19853985706
a study of cystic echinococcosis in slaughter animals in three selected areas of northern turkana, kenya.in an attempt to establish the prevalence of cystic echinococcosis, a study was conducted in slaughter animals in three divisions of northern turkana, kenya. a total of 5752 goats, 588 sheep, 381 cattle and 70 camels were examined at slaughter. echinococcus granulosus metacestodes were found in 19.4% of the cattle, 3.6% of sheep, 4.5% of goats and 61.4% of camels. the prevalence of cystic echinococcosis in cattle, sheep and goats was higher in lokichogio than in either kakuma or central division ...200211779657
molecular examination of the sympatry and distribution of sheep and camel strains of echinococcus granulosus in kenya.previous studies have shown that camel and sheep strains of the cystic hydatid parasite echinococcus granulosus occur in kenya. we examined 208 larval isolates and 40 worm samples of e. granulosus from various hosts in kenya using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of a segment of ribosomal dna amplified by the polymerase chain reaction. this was in an effort to determine whether additional strains of e. granulosus occur in kenya, to examine the level of genetic heterogeneity with ...19938097619
review of surgical management of cystic hydatid disease in a resource limited setting: turkana, kenya.cystic hydatid disease is a zoonotic infection of humans caused by infection with the larval stage of echinococcus granulosus. the prevalence rate (5-10%) in turkana, northern kenya is among the highest worldwide. with an increase in foreign travel and migration of peoples, practitioners need to be aware of diseases common in these countries and their rarer manifestations. the objective of this study was to review the management of this disease in a poorly resourced high-prevalence area.200415489587
hydatid disease in the turkana district of kenya. iii. the significance of wild animals in the transmission of echinococcus granulosus, with particular reference to turkana and masailand in kenya.the results are given of a study on the role of wildlife in the transmission of echinococcus granulosus in the turkana and narok districts of kenya. a total of 76 wild carnivores belonging to three separate species was examined from turkana district. echinococcus adults were found in 11 of 38 silver-backed jackals (canis mesomelas) and in six of 22 golden jackals (canis aureus). this is the first record of golden jackals being infected with this parasite in kenya. none of 16 spotted hyaenas (cro ...19836882057
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