entomological and rodent surveillance in plague-suspected areas during september 1994 and thereafter.studies carried out in the states of maharashtra, gujarat, uttar pradesh and union territory of delhi after the bubonic plague outbreak during 1994 revealed the presence of seven species of rodents, viz. rattus rattus, r. norvegicus, mus. musculus, tatera indica, suncus murinus, bandicoota bengalensis and b. indica. the flea species encountered were xenopsylla cheopis and x. astia. the x. cheopis and x. astia index recorded in different areas of beed district of maharashtra; surat, vadodra and b ...19979556751
plague that never was: a review of the alleged plague outbreaks in india in 1994.judging by who criteria, there was not a single case in india in 1994 that could be taken as a confirmed case of plague. both clinical and epidemiological features of the illness alleged to be plague were not at all compatible with those of plague-both bubonic and pneumonic types. the bacteriologic and serological evidence was limited to a few cases, and doubtful. pcr is a highly sensitive test, but the specificity of pcr for plague was not verified under field conditions in india. just by the d ...19989670701
entomological and rodent surveillance of suspected plague foci in agro-environmental and feral biotopes of a few districts in maharashtra and gujarat states of india.studies carried out on entomological and rodent surveillance in agroclimatic and feral biotopes of five districts of maharashtra and two districts of gujarat revealed that the terrain features of the seven districts surveyed were conducive to wild rodent species, tatera indica, a natural reservoir of plague and vector flea species, xenopsylla cheopis. a total of 214 tatera indica and three bandicoota bengalensis were collected from burrows by the digging method and 89 rat fleas were retrieved. t ...19979789784
plague: a decade since the 1994 outbreaks in india.the severe 1994 plague outbreaks in surat and beed drew attention to plague as a continuing source of both natural and potentially manmade disease. this article written a decade later reviews various aspects of plague not only as a disease but also as an infectious disaster.200516124356
virulence markers of lcr plasmid in indian isolates of yersinia pestis.presence of 10 important yop genes in yersinia pestis isolates (18 in number) of indian origin from 1994 plague outbreak regions of maharashtra (6 rattus rattus & tetera indica rodents) and gujarat (11 from human patients, 1 from r. rattus) and from plague endemic regions of the deccan plateau (8 from t. indica) was located by pcr and specific enzyme immunoassay. pcrs were standardized for six effector yops (yope, yoph, yopj, yopm, yopo and yopt), three translocator yops (yopb, yopd and yopk) an ...200616499656
quick control of bubonic plague outbreak in uttar kashi, india.a localized outbreak of bubonic plague occurred in village dangud (population 332), district uttar kashi, uttaranchal, india in the second week of october 2004. 8 cases were considered outbreak associated based on their clinical and epidemiological characteristics; 3 (27.3%) of them died within 48 hours of developing illness. all the 3 fatal cases and five surviving cases had enlargement of inguinal lymph nodes. none of them had pneumonia. the age of the cases ranged from 23-70 years and both se ...200416506545
surat plague of 1994 re-examined.a plague episode in surat in 1994, and its spread to other cities in india, lasted only a little over 2 weeks, but it created an unprecedented panic that had global repercussions. at first, the surat hospital doctors could not diagnose the disease, but when they did, immediate intervention, in the form of preventation and treatment (administration of antibodies) prevented the disease from spreading beyond surat, delhi, calcutta, bombay and their vicinities. fewer than 1,200 people were diagnosed ...200617121302
genotyping of indian yersinia pestis strains by mlva and repetitive dna sequence based pcrs.india experienced two plague outbreaks in gujarat and maharastra during 1994 and then in the shimla district of himachal pradesh during 2002. yersinia pestis strains recovered from rodents and pneumonic patients during the 1994 outbreaks, pneumonic patients from the 2002 shimla outbreak and rodents trapped on the deccan plateau during a surveillance activity carried out in 1998 were characterized by mlva, eric-pcr and eric-box-pcr. mlva genotyping of indian y. pestis strains revealed strains of ...200919449123
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