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epidemiology of alveolar echinococcosis with particular reference to china and europe.human alveolar echinococcosis (ae), caused by the metacestode of the fox tapeworm echinococcus multilocularis, is the most pathogenic zoonosis in temperate and arctic regions of the northern hemisphere. prospective collection of human cases in some areas and mass screenings using ultrasound imaging and confirmation with serological techniques have markedly improved our knowledge of the epidemiology of the disease in humans during the past two decades. transmission occurs when eggs of the tapewor ...200315027607
impact of overgrazing on the transmission of echinococcus multilocularis in tibetan pastoral communities of sichuan province, china.overgrazing was assumed to increase the population density of small mammals that are the intermediate hosts of echinococcus multilocularis, the pathogen of alveolar echinococcosis in the qinghai tibet plateau. this research tested the hypothesis that overgrazing might promote echinococcus multilocularis transmission through increasing populations of small mammal, intermediate hosts in tibetan pastoral communities.200717355829
development of three pcr assays for the differentiation between echinococcus shiquicus, e. granulosus (g1 genotype), and e. multilocularis dna in the co-endemic region of qinghai-tibet plateau, china.to investigate echinococcosis in co-endemic regions, three polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays based on the amplification of a fragment within the nadh dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nd1) mitochondrial gene were optimized for the detection of echinococcus shiquicus, echinococcus granulosus g1, and echinococcus multilocularis dna derived from parasite tissue or canid fecal samples. specificity using parasite tissue-derived dna was found to be 100% except for e. shiquicus primers that faintly detecte ...201323438764
dual infection of animal hosts with different echinococcus species in the eastern qinghai-tibet plateau region of china.the eastern qinghai-tibet plateau of china is a highly endemic region of echinococcosis where echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (sheep strain), echinococcus multilocularis, and echinococcus shiquicus are distributed sympatrically. we developed a polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (pcr-rflp) method for the identification of the three species in this region. the pcr-rflp showed the dual infection of animals with different echinococcus spp. the first case w ...200616896135
echinococcus shiquicus, a new species from the qinghai-tibet plateau region of china: discovery and epidemiological implications.in shiqu county of the qinghai-tibet plateau, many wild and domestic mammals are involved in the transmission cycles of echinococcus spp. echinococcus multilocularis and echinococcus granulosus genotype g1 (sheep strain) are sympatrically distributed in the plateau. in 1995, we identified a unique strobilate stage of echinococcus from the tibetan fox, vulpes ferrilata, but considered it to be a variant of e. multilocularis. subsequent molecular genetic studies revealed that a hydatid cyst from t ...200616337180
molecular study of echinococcus in west-central china.west-central china is an important endemic focus of both alveolar and cystic echinococcosis where several species of intermediate host are commonly infected with echinococcus granulosus and e. multilocularis . isolates of e. granulosus were collected from humans and other animals from different geographical areas of qinghai, ningxia, gansu and sichuan, and genotyped using the mitochondrial dna marker atp synthase subunit 6 gene (atp6). the sheep strain (g1 genotype) of e. granulosus was shown to ...200516174420
echinococcus shiquicus n. sp., a taeniid cestode from tibetan fox and plateau pika in china.the taeniid cestode echinococcus shiquicus n. sp. was found from the tibetan fox vulpes ferrilata and the plateau pika ochotona curzoniae in the qinghai-tibet plateau region of china. in the adult stage, e. shiquicus from the foxes is morphologically similar to echinococcus multilocularis. however, the new species is differentiated by its smaller rostellar hooks, fewer segments, distinct position of genital pore in the mature segment and fewer eggs in the gravid segment. hydatid cysts of e. shiq ...200515862582
interactions between landscape changes and host communities can regulate echinococcus multilocularis transmission.an area close to the qinghai-tibet plateau region and subject to intensive deforestation contains a large focus of human alveolar echinococcosis while sporadic human cases occur in the doubs region of eastern france. the current review analyses and compares epidemiological and ecological results obtained in both regions. analysis of rodent species assemblages within quantified rural landscapes in central china and eastern france shows a significant association between host species for the pathog ...200315027609
molecular identification of echinococcus species from eastern and southern qinghai, china, based on the mitochondrial cox1 gene.the qinghai-tibetan plateau (qtp, in western china), which is the largest and highest plateau on earth, is a highly epidemic region for echinococcus spp. we collected 70 echinococcus samples from humans, dogs, sheep, yaks, plateau pikas, and voles in eastern and southern qinghai and genotyped them using the mitochondrial dna marker cytochrome oxidase subunit i gene and maximum parsimony and bayesian reconstruction methods. based on the 792-bp sequence matrix, we recorded 124 variable sites, of w ...201222258080
surveillance of echinococcus isolates from qinghai, china.echinococcosis is highly endemic over large parts of the qinghai-tibet plateau (qtp), china. based on a large number of samples, we present data on the current presence, host distribution, and genetic diversity of echinococcus in the qinghai province, located in the northeastern corner of the qtp and constituting >25% of the area of the plateau. we used 521 samples (including 451 newly collected samples and 70 samples from our previous study) from humans, yaks, sheep, goats, dogs, fox, plateau p ...201525480467
survey on helminths in the small intestine of wild foxes in qinghai, china.the intestinal helminth fauna of tibetan sand foxes (vulpes ferrilata) and red foxes (vulpes vulpes) inhabiting in qinghai, china, was evaluated by conducting necropsy of hunted foxes and fecal egg examination of field-collected feces. in northeast and south qinghai, 36 foxes were necropsied, and the species of foxes and the parasites detected were identified by the dna barcoding. in 27 red foxes and 9 tibetan sand foxes examined, mesocestoides litteratus (total prevalence: 64%), toxascaris leon ...201323749034
parasite species associated with wild plateau pika (ochotona curzoniae) in southeastern qinghai province, china.a survey was conducted to determine the prevalence and seasonal abundance of egg, larval, and adult stages of helminths; oocyts of protozoans; and ectoparasites of plateau pikas (ochotona curzoniae) in seven areas of southeastern qinghai province, china, during august 2006 and may 2007. fecal samples collected from 430 plateau pikas were examined by the modified mcmaster technique, which revealed that 83% of the samples contained eggs from two or more helminth species. mean fecal egg counts were ...200919395738
cystic and alveolar echinococcosis: an epidemiological survey in a tibetan population in southeast qinghai, china.an epidemiological investigation on echinococcosis was made in jiuzhi county of qinghai province, western china. ultrasonography and an indirect hemagglutination test revealed a morbidity of 8.0% (124/1,549) and a seroprevalence of 25.8% (287/1,113), respectively, in the tibetan population. the morbidity in herdsmen (16.6%) and buddhist priests (15%) was significantly higher than that in other occupation groups (3.2%), and it was higher in females (9.8%) than in males (6.2%). the ultrasound imag ...200818503183
species identification of human echinococcosis using histopathology and genotyping in northwestern china.human cystic echinococcosis, caused by infection with the larval stage of echinococcus granulosus, and alveolar echinococcosis, caused by the larval form of e. multilocularis, are known to be important public health problems in western china. echinococcus shiquicus is a new species of echinococcus recently described in wildlife hosts from the eastern tibetan plateau and its infectivity and/or pathogenicity in humans remain unknown. in the current study, parasite tissues from various organs were ...200818396303
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