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genotype analysis of human blood isolates of campylobacter jejuni in england and wales.genomic profiles were obtained for 76 strains of campylobacter jejuni isolated from bacteraemic patients in england and wales over the period 1981-94. genotyping was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis using a random cloned dna probe, and by ribotyping with a pcr-generated c. jejuni 16s ribosomal dna probe. phenotypic characterization was achieved by heat-stable (hs) and heat-labile (hl) serogrouping, and preston phagetyping and biotyping. the blood isolates wer ...19979129583
serotyping scheme for campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli based on direct agglutination of heat-stable antigens.campylobacter is now the most frequently reported cause of gastrointestinal disease in england and wales, yet few isolates are characterized beyond the genus level. the majority of isolates are campylobacter jejuni (90%), with most of the remainder being campylobacter coli. we describe an adaptation of the penner serotyping scheme in which passive hemagglutination has been replaced by detection of heat-stable antigens by direct bacterial agglutination; absorbed antisera are used where appropriat ...19989466737
phage typing of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli and its use as an adjunct to serotyping.campylobacter is the most commonly reported cause of gastro-intestinal infection in england and wales, with over 50,000 reported cases in 1997. the majority of human campylobacter isolates in england and wales are c. jejuni (c. 90%) with most of the remainder being c. coli. we describe the use of phage typing as an extension to serotyping for more detailed characterization within these two species. the scheme was piloted during a study of 2407 c. jejuni and 182 c. coli strains isolated in wales ...199910487641
drug resistance in campylobacter jejuni, c coli, and c lari isolated from humans in north west england and wales, 1997.to test the sensitivity of strains of campylobacter species isolated from humans in england and wales against a range of antimicrobial agents for the purpose of monitoring therapeutic efficacy and as an epidemiological marker.199910690169
a case-case comparison of campylobacter coli and campylobacter jejuni infection: a tool for generating hypotheses.preventing campylobacteriosis depends on a thorough understanding of its epidemiology. we used case-case analysis to compare cases of campylobacter coli infection with cases of c. jejuni infection, to generate hypotheses for infection from standardized, population-based sentinel surveillance information in england and wales. persons with c. coli infection were more likely to have drunk bottled water than were those with c. jejuni infection and, in general, were more likely to have eaten pâté. im ...200212194770
risk factors for campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in young cattle on english and welsh farms.campylobacter jejuni and c. coli are the most prevalent causes of bacterial diarrhoea in most of the western world. in great britain, the source remains unknown for the majority of cases, though poultry is considered the main source of infection. molecular typing methods identify cattle as a potential source of a proportion of the non-source-attributed cases, mainly through direct contact, environmental contamination or milk, but little is known about the epidemiology of campylobacter in cattle. ...200918835052
temporal patterns and risk factors for escherichia coli o157 and campylobacter spp, in young cattle.escherichia coli o157 and campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli are zoonotic pathogens originating from farm animals. cattle are the main reservoir for e. coli o157 and also contribute to human cases of campylobacteriosis through contaminated milk, direct contact, and environmental contamination. thirty groups of young cattle on 30 farms were observed for 7 months and sampled on 4 to 6 separate occasions for e. coli o157 and c. jejuni/coli to characterize shedding patterns and identify ris ...200919343935
prevalence of campylobacter spp. in raw retail poultry on sale in northern ireland.a year-long survey of fresh, retail poultry products on sale in northern ireland was undertaken to define the prevalence of campylobacter spp. by using protocols based on iso (standard) 10272-1:2006. incubation at 37 and 42 degrees c was undertaken to increase the diversity of isolates obtained. overall, 652 isolates were identified as campylobacter spp. by using pcr and amplified fragment length polymorphic typing. phenotyping wrongly identified 21% of isolates. prevalences of campylobacter fou ...200919777882
is campylobacter jejuni enteritis a weekend disease? 200515780425
public health implications of campylobacter outbreaks in england and wales, 1995-9: epidemiological and microbiological investigations.although campylobacter has been the most commonly recognized bacterial cause of gastrointestinal infection in england and wales since 1981, there are few reported campylobacter outbreaks. of the 2374 general outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease reported to cdsc between 1995 and 1999, for which an aetiological agent was identified, campylobacter accounted for only 50 (2%). foodborne transmission was identified in 35 outbreaks and the majority took place in commercial catering establishments ...200212002527
an outbreak of campylobacter food poisoning at a university campus.twelve cases of campylobacter jejuni infection were identified on a university campus in the first 12 days of november 1997. consumption of food from a single outlet, where poor food handling practices were identified, was statistically associated with infection. the epidemiological evidence suggested that what presented as a point source outbreak was a series of small cross contamination incidents associated with multiple strain types. the nature of this outbreak suggests that current surveilla ...199910462894
campylobacter bacteraemia in england and wales, 1981-91.routine surveillance of infection in england and wales detected 394 cases of campylobacter bacteraemia in 11 years. this represented an average incidence of 1.5 per 1000 intestinal campylobacter infections, with a range of 0.3/1000 in children aged 1-4 years to 5.9/1000 in patients aged 65 years or more. definitive identification of 257 isolates showed that 89% were campylobacter jejuni or c. coli; other species were c. fetus (8.6%), c. lari (0.8%), c. upsaliensis (0.8%), helicobacter (campyloba ...19938519321
comparison of pfge, ribotyping and phage-typing in the epidemiological analysis of campylobacter jejuni serotype hs2 infections.in this study we have evaluated the ability of three typing methods, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (pfge), phage-typing and ribotyping, to discriminate not only between strains of differing serotypes but also between strains within a single serotype, heat stable serotype 2 (hs2). forty-five isolates derived from cases of campylobacter enteritis occurring in the cardiff area were examined. these included 18, mostly hs2, strains associated with an outbreak. the typing results for these and a fu ...19957589261
an outbreak of campylobacter jejuni enteritis associated with failed milk pasteurisation.this paper describes an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness affecting at least 110 people, of whom 41 had microbiological confirmation of campylobacter jejuni infection. the outbreak of infection was found to have been associated with consumption of inadequately pasteurised milk from a local dairy. the problem of enforcement of food and safety regulations when milk from dairies fails the phosphatase test is discussed. the prevalence of seroconversion to campylobacter in the community is estimat ...19958666844
outbreak of campylobacter enteritis in a residential school associated with bird pecked bottle tops.an outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by campylobacter infection was identified in may 1995 in a residential school in gloucestershire for children with special needs. eight primary and four secondary cases were identified, mostly confined to one house in the school; faecal specimens from three cases grew campylobacter jejuni. a retrospective cohort study showed that drinking pasteurised milk from bottles with damaged tops was associated with illness in primary cases (p = 0.01). bird pecking of ...19979080727
milk-borne campylobacter infection.the common factor in 13 recent outbreaks of campylobacter jejuni enteritis was the consumption of unpasteurised or incompletely pasteurised milk. c jejuni is a common commensal in the alimentary tract of milking cows, but it is not clear how the milk becomes contaminated with the organism. pasteurisation will readily eliminate the organism from milk. in england and wales 3% of milk retailed is still unpasteurised, and in the light of these findings it is suggested that only pasteurised milk shou ...19816786504
a campylobacter outbreak associated with stir-fried food.an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness affecting 12 of 29 customers of a 'hawaiian' theme restaurant specializing in stir-fried food occurred in cardiff, wales in february 1997. campylobacter jejuni serotype hs50 phage type 49 (pt49) was isolated from 5 cases. a total of 47 isolates of c. jejuni hs50 pt49 were identified from wales during 1997, of which 11 were isolated in late february or early march and from the cardiff area. in the outbreak, illness was associated with eating stir-fried chic ...19989825777
family clusters of campylobacter infection.possible family clusters of campylobacter infection among isolates referred to a single, large public health laboratory were reviewed to determine the proportion of clusters associated with more than one strain of campylobacter. a total of 23 clusters, each made up of members of a single household infected within two months of each other, were identified between september 1996 and january 1999. these accounted for about 5% of all campylobacter infections confirmed during the study period. thirte ...200011280258
bird attack on milk bottles: possible mode of transmission of campylobacter jejuni to man.a case-control study was carried out to test the hypothesis that the rise in the rate of campylobacter jejuni infection in the brigend area of south wales during may was due to the consumption or handling of milk from bottles that had been attacked by birds. 32 of 36 cases meeting the case definition were interviewed, along with 2 controls per case, matched for age, sex, and area of residence. there were strong associations between campylobacter infection and doorstep delivery of milk bottles, a ...19901978882
campylobacter surveillance. 19921285113
investigating vomiting and/or bloody diarrhoea in campylobacter jejuni infection.campylobacter jejuni infection frequently presents as acute enteritis with diarrhoea, malaise, fever and abdominal pain. vomiting and bloody diarrhoea are reported less frequently. to investigate potential host, micro-organism or environmental factors that might explain the different clinical presentations, the features of laboratory-confirmed campylobacter jejuni cases presenting with vomiting and/or bloody diarrhoea were compared with cases who did not report either clinical manifestation. sin ...200616687593
a community outbreak of campylobacter jejuni infection from a chlorinated public water supply.an outbreak of campylobacter jejuni infection occurred in a south wales valleys housing estate. illness in estate residents was associated with tap water consumption [population attributable risk (par) 50%, relative risk (rr) 2.53, 95% confidence interval (ci) 1.9-3.37] and residence in the upper estate (par 49%, rr 2.44, 95% ci 1.83-3.24). amongst upper estate residents, rates of diarrhoeal illness increased with rates of water consumption (or 18, 95% ci 3.5-92.4 for heaviest consumers, chi2 tr ...200717288640
point source outbreaks of campylobacter jejuni infection--are they more common than we think and what might cause them?despite being the commonest bacterial cause of infectious intestinal disease (iid) in england and wales, outbreaks of campylobacter infection are rarely reported. however, data from the campylobacter sentinel surveillance scheme suggested that outbreaks might be more common than was previously suspected, since a high proportion of cases reported other illness in the home or in the community at the same time as their illness. to identify factors that might lead to these apparent outbreaks, the ex ...200312825720
a milk-borne campylobacter outbreak following an educational farm visit.after a nursery school trip to a dairy farm, 20 (53%) of 38 children and 3 (23%) of 13 adult helpers developed gastrointestinal infection. campylobacter jejuni was isolated from 15 primary cases and from 3 of 9 secondary household cases. a cohort study of the school party found illness to be associated with drinking raw milk (relative risk 5.4, 95% confidence interval 1.4-20.4, p = 0.001). there was a significant dose response relationship between amount of raw milk consumed and risk of illness ...19968972669
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