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update: investigation of anthrax associated with intentional exposure and interim public health guidelines, october 2001.on october 4, 2001, cdc and state and local public health authorities reported a case of inhalational anthrax in florida. additional cases of anthrax subsequently have been reported from florida and new york city. this report updates the findings of these case investigations, which indicate that infections were caused by the intentional release of bacillus anthracis. this report also includes interim guidelines for postexposure prophylaxis for prevention of inhalational anthrax and other informa ...200111686472
recognition of illness associated with the intentional release of a biologic agent.on september 11, 2001, following the terrorist incidents in new york city and washington, d.c., cdc recommended heightened surveillance for any unusual disease occurrence or increased numbers of illnesses that might be associated with the terrorist attacks. subsequently, cases of anthrax in florida and new york city have demonstrated the risks associated with intentional release of biologic agents. this report provides guidance for health-care providers and public health personnel about recogniz ...200111686473
bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax: the first 10 cases reported in the united states.from october 4 to november 2, 2001, the first 10 confirmed cases of inhalational anthrax caused by intentional release of bacillus anthracis were identified in the united states. epidemiologic investigation indicated that the outbreak, in the district of columbia, florida, new jersey, and new york, resulted from intentional delivery of b. anthracis spores through mailed letters or packages. we describe the clinical presentation and course of these cases of bioterrorism-related inhalational anthr ...200111747719
detection of the sentinel anthrax case in the united states.first-hand knowledge of the detection of the first bioweapon in modern united states history is described in this article. the method by which the presumptive diagnosis of anthrax meningitis was made within 13 hours of the patient presenting to the emergency department is described using pre-analytic, analytic, and post-analytic phases. the lessons learned from this process are briefly presented so that other laboratories may learn from our experience: how to prepare; how to quickly analyze a po ...200314531222
from the centers for disease control and prevention. investigation of bioterrorism-related anthrax and interim guidelines for clinical evaluation of persons with possible anthrax. 200111759667
determination of serum igg antibodies to bacillus anthracis protective antigen in environmental sampling workers using a fluorescent covalent microsphere immunoassay.to evaluate potential exposure to bacillis anthracis (ba) spores in sampling/decontamination workers in the aftermath of an anthrax terror attack.200415258278
first case of bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax, florida, 2001: north carolina investigation.the index case of inhalational anthrax in october 2001 was in a man who lived and worked in florida. however, during the 3 days before illness onset, the patient had traveled through north carolina, raising the possibility that exposure to bacillus anthracis spores could have occurred there. the rapid response in north carolina included surveillance among hospital intensive-care units, microbiology laboratories, medical examiners, and veterinarians, and site investigations at locations visited b ...200212396911
anthrax case timeline. 200314692564
collaboration between public health and law enforcement: new paradigms and partnerships for bioterrorism planning and response.the biological attacks with powders containing bacillus anthracis sent through the mail during september and october 2001 led to unprecedented public health and law enforcement investigations, which involved thousands of investigators from federal, state, and local agencies. following recognition of the first cases of anthrax in florida in early october 2001, investigators from the centers for disease control and prevention (cdc) and the federal bureau of investigation (fbi) were mobilized to as ...200212396931
from the centers for disease control and prevention. update: investigation of bioterrorism-related anthrax and interim guidelines for exposure management and antimicrobial therapy, october 2001. 200111757528
from the centers for disease control and prevention. investigation of anthrax associated with intentional exposure and interim public health guidelines, october 2001. 200111757496
first case of bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax in the united states, palm beach county, florida, 2001.on october 4, 2001, we confirmed the first bioterrorism-related anthrax case identified in the united states in a resident of palm beach county, florida. epidemiologic investigation indicated that exposure occurred at the workplace through intentionally contaminated mail. one additional case of inhalational anthrax was identified from the index patient's workplace. among 1,076 nasal cultures performed to assess exposure, bacillus anthracis was isolated from a co-worker later confirmed as being i ...200212396910
investigation of bioterrorism-related anthrax, united states, 2001: epidemiologic findings.in october 2001, the first inhalational anthrax case in the united states since 1976 was identified in a media company worker in florida. a national investigation was initiated to identify additional cases and determine possible exposures to bacillus anthracis. surveillance was enhanced through health-care facilities, laboratories, and other means to identify cases, which were defined as clinically compatible illness with laboratory-confirmed b. anthracis infection. from october 4 to november 20 ...200212396909
on the front lines. anthrax scare, jittery public put focus on the healthcare industry. 200111808414
anthrax attacks, hurricanes and flu shot shortage test agwunobi's skills. 200515732813
update: investigation of bioterrorism-related anthrax and interim guidelines for clinical evaluation of persons with possible anthrax.since october 3, 2001, cdc and state and local public health authorities have been investigating cases of bioterrorism-related anthrax. this report updates findings as of october 31, and includes interim guidelines for the clinical evaluation of persons with possible anthrax. a total of 21 cases (16 confirmed and five suspected) of bioterrorism-related anthrax have been reported among persons who worked in the district of columbia, florida, new jersey, and new york city (figure 1). until the sou ...200111708591
examining the cdcynergy event assessment tool: an investigation of the anthrax crisis in boca raton, florida.this paper examines the dependability of the event assessment tool over time. the latter is part of a cd-rom--emergency risk communication cdcynergy--distributed primarily to public information officers in the united states by the centers for disease control and prevention. the event assessment tool is designed to aid emergency professionals in identifying the magnitude of a crisis event and to suggest appropriate actions to confront such a situation. applied twice during the 2001 anthrax bioter ...200616911433
a second anthrax genome project. 200111729280
the impact of anthrax attacks on the american public.incidents involving anthrax (bacillus anthracis) through the mail in 4 metropolitan areas have raised concerns about the public's response nationally and locally.200212145561
update: investigation of bioterrorism-related anthrax and interim guidelines for exposure management and antimicrobial therapy, october 2001.since october 3, 2001, cdc and state and local public health authorities have been investigating cases of bioterrorism-related anthrax. this report updates previous findings, provides new information on case investigations in two additional areas, presents the susceptibility patterns of bacillus anthracis isolates, and provides interim recommendations for managing potential threats and exposures and for treating anthrax.200111699843
responding to a bioterrorism attack-one scenario: part 2.this article continues the discussions introduced in the earlier article submitted to the health care manager that is titled epidemic simulation for syndromic surveillance, where a format for analysis of the incidence of a bioterrorist attack was presented. part 2 of this series provides a discussion of the observed outcomes from the simulation techniques. this simulation was conducted as part of a federal grant award administered through the center for biological defense at the university of so ...200819011411
update: investigation of bioterrorism-related anthrax, 2001.this report updates the investigation of bioterrorism-related anthrax and the provision of antimicrobial prophylaxis to exposed persons and highlights cdc assistance to other countries investigating cases of bioterrorism-related anthrax. since november 7, 2001, cdc and state and local public health agencies have identified no new cases of bioterrorism-related anthrax. as of november 14, a total of 22 cases of anthrax has met the cdc case definition; 10 were confirmed inhalational anthrax, and 12 ...200111724158
update: investigation of bioterrorism-related anthrax and adverse events from antimicrobial prophylaxis.cdc and state and local public health authorities continue to investigate cases of bioterrorism-related anthrax. as of november 7, a total of 22 cases of anthrax have been identified according to the cdc surveillance case definition; 10 were confirmed inhalational anthrax cases and 12 cases (seven confirmed and five suspected) were cutaneous anthrax (table 1). the majority of cases have occurred in persons working at postal facilities in new jersey (nj) and the district of columbia (dc) in which ...200111724150
changes in ciprofloxacin utilization as shown in a large pharmacy claims database: effects of proximity to criminal anthrax exposure in october 2001.identify, during the period of criminal anthrax exposures in october 2001, changes in utilization of ciprofloxacin and geographic patterns of any identified variations.200312836787
index case of fatal inhalational anthrax due to bioterrorism in the united states. 200111704685
responding to a bioterrorism attack--one scenario: part 1.this article continues the discussions introduced in an earlier article submitted to the health care manager entitled "epidemic simulation for syndromic surveillance," wherein a format for analysis of the incidence of a bioterrorist attack was presented. this article outlines a simulation conducted as part of a federal grant award administered through the center for biological defense at the university of south florida. the disease entity simulated was an attack of anthrax introduced into the ce ...200818695399
anthrax, united states of america (update). 200111697083
bacillus acidiceler sp. nov., isolated from a forensic specimen, containing bacillus anthracis px02 genes.research at the center for biological defense identified plasmid-borne forms of bacillus anthracis pxo2 genes in a gram-positive, endospore-forming rod, isolated from a forensic specimen considered a credible threat of harbouring anthrax. conventional, commercial and molecular-based methods indicated that the isolate (cbd 119(t)) was not b. anthracis and considered not to be a member of the bacillus cereus group. based on the 16s rrna gene sequence similarities, strain cbd 119(t) was most closel ...200717766868
us fear of bioterrorism spreads as anthrax cases increase. 200111668122
first things first: a practice-academic collaboration to develop and deliver a competency-based series of applied epidemiology trainings.the florida center for public health preparedness in the university of south florida college of public health and the florida department of health (fdoh) collaborated to design, develop, and deliver two competency-based epidemiology training programs aimed at increasing the epidemiologic preparedness and response capability of the fdoh workforce. they were also designed to meet the requirements of the national incident management system and recommendations or needs identified in national studies ...200818497019
logistics modelling: improving resource management and public information strategies in florida.one of the most time-sensitive and logistically-challenging emergency response operations today is to provide mass prophylaxis to every man, woman and child in a community within 48 hours of a bioterrorism attack. to meet this challenge, federal, state and local public health departments in the usa have joined forces to develop, test and execute large-scale bioterrorism response plans. this preparedness and response effort is funded through the us centers for disease control and prevention's cit ...201122130343
broadway: anthrax threat intensifies focus on disaster preparedness. 200212119826
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