statistical estimation of parameters in a disease transmission model: analysis of a cryptosporidium outbreak.population dynamic models, commonly used tools in the study of epidemics and other complex population processes, are implicit non-linear mathematical equations. inference based on such models can be difficult due to the problems associated with high dimensional parameters that may be non-identified and complex likelihood functions that are difficult to maximize. to address a problem of non-identifiability due to collinearity of parameter estimates in a mathematical model of the 1993 milwaukee cr ...200212436460
enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot analysis of a cryptosporidiosis outbreak on a united states coast guard cutter.symptoms consistent with an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis (diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, and abdominal cramps) occurred on a u.s. coast guard cutter within 0-18 days after the cutter filled its tanks with milwaukee, wisconsin city water in march 1993. at three-weeks postdocking (pd), the suspected water was removed, and serum samples and stool specimens were collected from 47 of the 58 crew members, as well as questionnaire data on their water consumption and symptoms aboard the cutter. at 10-week ...19989452301
[cryptosporidiosis--a typical environmental parasitosis].the article reviews the problems on epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis and gives a detailed description of the massive waterborne outbreak in milwaukee (wisconsin, usa) associated with a break in filtration capacity of a public water supply. the authors emphasize the need for high-quality diagnostic procedures as current coprodiagnostic microscopical techniques seemed to fail to detect cryptosporidium oocysts.19957571632
cryptosporidiosis: a recreational water threat that hasn't gone away. 200717583299
evidence supporting zoonotic transmission of cryptosporidium spp. in wisconsin.cryptosporidium hominis and cryptosporidium parvum are the primary species of cryptosporidium that infect humans. c. hominis has an anthroponotic transmission cycle, while c. parvum is zoonotic, infecting cattle and other ruminants, in addition to humans. most cryptosporidiosis outbreaks in the united states have been caused by c. hominis, and this species is often reported as the primary cause of cryptosporidiosis in this country. however, outbreaks account for only 10% of the overall cryptospo ...200617005736
molecular surveillance of cryptosporidium spp. in raw wastewater in milwaukee: implications for understanding outbreak occurrence and transmission dynamics.six cryptosporidium spp. were found in 50 of 179 milwaukee wastewater samples collected weekly over a year. of the eight subtypes of cryptosporidium hominis and cryptosporidium parvum present, allele ib was found in 14 of 16 samples, and its sequence was identical to that of the subtype in human samples from the 1993 milwaukee outbreak of cryptosporidiosis.200314605176
cryptosporidium parvum-specific antibody responses among children residing in milwaukee during the 1993 waterborne outbreak.a major gastroenteritis outbreak among >400,000 residents of milwaukee, wisconsin, in april 1993 was attributed to cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in drinking water. plasma specimens obtained from children (6 months to 12 years old) for routine blood lead level surveillance march-may 1993 were assayed by elisa for levels of igg antibody against the immunodominant triton-17 and 27-kda c. parvum antigens. over a 5-week period, the seroprevalence for antibodies to the 2 antigens increased from 15% t ...200111294669
testing methods for detection of cryptosporidium spp in water samples.a large waterborne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in milwaukee, wisconsin, usa in 1993 prompted a search for ways to prevent large-scale waterborne outbreaks of protozoan parasitoses. methods for detecting cryptosporidium parvum play an integral role in strategies that lead to appropriate treatment of surface water, but are criticized because they produce results that are highly variable. the us environmental protection agency developed a set of criteria to evaluate detection methods for protozoa ...200112041588
active, multisite, laboratory-based surveillance for cryptosporidium parvum.cryptosporidium parvum leaped to the attention of the united states following the 1993 outbreak in milwaukee, wisconsin, which sickened 400,000 people. other outbreaks in the united states have been associated with drinking and recreational water, consumption of contaminated foods, contact with animals, and childcare attendance. despite its public health importance, the number of people who become infected each year is not known. in 1997, active surveillance for c. parvum was added to the foodbo ...200011037779
an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis associated with a resort swimming outbreak of cyptosporidiosis occurred in late april 1993 among resort hotel guests which was temporally associated with, but geographically distant from, a massive waterborne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in milwaukee, wisconsin, that occurred in late march and early april of 1993. a case-control study was performed among groups with members who reported illness and among a systemic sample of groups who stayed at the resort hotel during the risk period. of 120 persons interviewed, 51 (43%) me ...19958557087
cryptosporidiosis in children during a massive waterborne outbreak in milwaukee, wisconsin: clinical, laboratory and epidemiologic findings.during the spring of 1993 an estimated 403000 residents of the greater milwaukee, wisconsin area experienced gastrointestinal illness due to infection with the parasite cryptosporidium parvum following contamination of the city's water supply. to define the clinical, laboratory and epidemiologic features of outbreak-associated cryptosporidiosis in children, medical and laboratory records for all children submitting stool samples to the microbiology laboratory of the children's hospital of wiscon ...19979287944
evidence that cryptosporidium parvum populations are panmictic and unstructured in the upper midwest of the united states.cryptosporidium parvum is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that causes cryptosporidiosis, an infectious diarrheal disease primarily affecting humans and neonatal ruminants. understanding the transmission dynamics of c. parvum, particularly the specific contributions of zoonotic and anthroponotic transmission, is critical to the control of this pathogen. this study used a population genetics approach to better understand the transmission of c. parvum in the upper midwest united states. a total of 25 ...201222983961
the wisconsin state laboratory of hygiene and emerging enteric the turn of the 20th century, typhoid fever was common in wisconsin, and was a major impetus for the establishment of the wisconsin state laboratory of hygiene (wslh) in 1903. by the 1940s, typhoid was virtually eliminated in the united states due to public health measures such as disinfection of drinking water, sewage treatment, pasteurization, and shellfish bed sanitation. however, new food and waterborne pathogens have emerged to take the place of salmonella typhi. infections with non-typh ...200314658567
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