breast-feeding protects against respiratory syncytial virus infections.eight out of 115 infants admitted to hospital with respiratory syncytial (rs) virus infection had been breast-fed compared with 46 out of 167 controls; this difference was statistically significant. twenty-one specimens of human colostrum were examined, and all contained rs virus neutralising activity. specific iga and igg were detected in 18 specimens, whereas igm was detected in none. the titre of iga antibody was usually higher and correlated more closely to the titre of neutralising activity ...1976953560
respiratory syncytial virus epidemic. 19664287020
virus isolations from patients in general practice, 1961-71.during the period 1961-71 of 1785 viruses isolated from patients in the general population 503 (28%) were rhinoviruses, 465 (26%) influenza viruses, 248 (14%) enteroviruses, 234 (13%) herpes simplex virus, 132 (7%) parainfluenza viruses, 129 (7%) adenoviruses and 49 (3%) respiratory syncytial virus. also isolated were 18 strains of mumps virus, 7 coronaviruses and 295 streptococci of groups a, c or g.fluctuations were observed in the frequency with which respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenz ...19744362413
rapid virus diagnosis in paediatric units by postal service. respiratory syncytial virus infection in cumberland. 19744605010
indirect haemagglutination test for the detection and assay of antibody to bovine respiratory syncytial indirect haemagglutination (iha) test was used for the rapid assay of antibody to bovine respiratory syncytial virus. antigens for the sensitisation of formalised tanned erythrocytes were prepared by treatment of virus infected cells with non-ionic detergent. a close serological relationship was shown by the iha test between the strain of bovine respiratory syncytial virus used and the a2 strain of human respiratory syncytial virus. the iha test was sensitive and reproducible. a linear correl ...19836636489
an outbreak of respiratory syncytial virus infection in an old people's least 20 of the 50 residents of an old people's home suffered from an acute respiratory infection and four of them died. respiratory syncytial virus was isolated from two of the patients. the importance of this virus in the elderly is probably underestimated.19846736667
a two year prospective study of hospital-acquired respiratory virus infection on paediatric wards.over a 24 month period on six paediatric wards of different designs 169 cases of possible hospital-acquired respiratory virus infection were investigated. a variety of viruses was isolated from 82 cases, the most common being respiratory syncytial virus, influenza, parainfluenza, adenoviruses and rhinoviruses. a further 73 children developed respiratory symptoms between 3 and 300 days after administration but viruses were not demonstrable by the techniques used. these children were thought to ha ...19817240735
causes of pneumonia presenting to a district general hospital.the incidence of bacterial, viral, mycoplasma, and rickettsial infections has been assessed prospectively in 210 adult patients with pneumonia who presented to a district hospital over a six-year period. one hundred and thirteen infective agents were detected in 103 patients. the agent most frequently detected was mycoplasma pneumoniae which accounted for 30 infections. a bacterial pathogen was found in 43 patients. streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common of these (24 patients); staphylococ ...19817314031
outbreak of respiratory syncytial virus infection in the elderly. 19807427656
community-acquired infections among children in an urban environment: a 2-year prospective study in liverpool, infections are an important cause of admission of children to hospital. we have made a 2-year prospective study of 1,599 children admitted with infection to the royal liverpool children's hospital in order to determine the pattern of infections, their seasonal distribution and the role of the laboratory in isolating causative agents. respiratory infections (32% cases) and gastroenteritis (28% cases) were the principal causes of admission. of all admissions, 64% were children a ...19957636287
nosocomial spread of rsv infection. 19937693189
respiratory syncytial virus activity and flu-like illness. 19968581119
bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection in lactating cows. 19979342090
prevalence of antibodies to bovine virus diarrhoea virus and other viruses in bulk tank milk in england and wales.bulk tank milk samples from 1070 dairy herds in england and wales were tested by elisa for antibodies to bovine virus diarrhoea virus (bvdv). a subset of 341 herds was tested by elisa for antibodies to bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) and bovine coronavirus (bcv). none of the herds had less than 40 dairy cows and none had been vaccinated against bvdv. the prevalence of bvdv antibody-positive herds in the national population was estimated at 95 per cent and ...19989586130
long-term viral serology of semi-free-living and captive ungulates.between 1973 and 1994, blood samples were collected at whipsnade wild animal park (uk) from three ungulate species kept in enclosures, including 28 european bison (bison bonasus), 37 scimitar-horned oryx (oryx dammah), and 49 père david's deer (elaphurus davidianus), and also from 144 semi-free-living chinese water deer (hydropotes inermis). these samples were tested for the presence of antibodies against three bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv)-like strains, three alpha-herpesvirus strains, enz ...19989732031
influenza surveillance in england and wales: october 1996 to june 1997.this report summarises information collected for the surveillance of influenza in england and wales during the winter of 1996/97. consultations for 'influenza and influenza-like illness' with sentinel general practitioners in england and wales began to increase towards the end of november and peaked at the start of january. in england, consultations for 'aggregated respiratory disease' (ard) began to increase a little earlier, perhaps as a result of increased respiratory syncytial virus activity ...19979447787
acute viral infections of upper respiratory tract in elderly people living in the community: comparative, prospective, population based study of disease evaluate the disease burden of upper respiratory infections in elderly people living at home.19979366736
outbreaks of influenza and a rise in respiratory syncytial virus: winter has arrived. 19968990578
influenza surveillance in england and wales: october 1995 to june 1996.this report summarises information collected for the surveillance of influenza virus infection in england and wales from october 1995 to june 1996 (weeks 40/95 to 25/96). total respiratory disease' activity, as reported by the birmingham research unit of the royal college of general practitioners, rose to peaks in weeks 48/95, 51/95, and 01/96. the first peak coincided with a peak in "influenza and flu-like illness'. the subsequent peaks were accounted for by an increase in reports of acute bron ...19968972979
respiratory syncytial virus infection and meningococcal disease.although viral respiratory tract infections may predispose to meningococcal disease, strong evidence that they do so exists only for influenza. data on laboratory reported cases of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infections and meningococcal disease in england and wales from mid-1989 to mid-1994 were analysed. although the rise in rsv cases preceded the rise in meningococcal disease cases each winter, the interval between the rise and fall of the two diseases was inconsistent, no association w ...19968760957
deprivation and test the hypothesis that socioeconomic deprivation is associated with an increased risk of admission with clinically suspected bronchiolitis.19968660048
influenza and respiratory syncytial virus surveillance. 19948640280
impact of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus on mortality in england and wales from january 1975 to december 1990.the effects of influenza a and b and rsv on mortality in england and wales were assessed by regression analysis for the period 1975-90. morbidity data from sentinel practices were used to calculate 4-weekly rates of aggregated upper respiratory tract infections (urti); phls laboratory reports were used as indices of infection, and 4-weekly death rates from all causes, excluding childbirths, were used to study relationships with mortality. deaths correlated strongly with influenza a and b reports ...19968626004
influenza surveillance in england and wales: october 1994 to june 1995.this report summarises the information obtained by surveillance of influenza in england and wales from october 1994 to june 1995 (weeks 40/94 to 25/95). influenza b viruses were responsible for most infections, with moderate activity occurring throughout the winter, peaking in february. influenza a became more active towards the end of the winter, and laboratory reports reached a peak in may (week 21/95). influenza activity was seen first in wales, then england, followed by scotland. an increase ...19958556105
incidence of episodes of acute asthma and acute bronchitis in general practice 1976-87.the incidence of episodes of acute asthma and acute bronchitis was analysed for an 11-year period and studied in relation to epidemiological data on viral illness and virus isolation data. between 1976 and 1987, the weekly returns service estimates of the incidence of acute asthmatic episodes in england and wales increased from 10.2 to 27.1 per 100,000 patients per week (all ages). the increase was most marked in children up to the age of 14 years. acute bronchitis attack rates (all ages) increa ...19938251231
analysis of respiratory syncytial virus strain variation in successive epidemics in one city.the variability of respiratory syncytial virus isolates from five successive epidemics in an urban population was determined. a total of 187 isolates of respiratory syncytial virus from the southern part of birmingham, united kingdom, were classified into subgroups a and b and were then further assigned to genetic lineages. allocation of isolates into lineages was achieved by reverse transcription of infected cell rna and then pcr amplification of selected regions of the genome; pcr products wer ...19948126162
the prediction of epidemics of respiratory infection.experience from 25 years of clinical monitoring of influenza and related illnesses has been considered in relation to the prediction of epidemics of influenza. the monitoring has taken place in a network of sentinel practices in england and wales who report new episodes of illness weekly as they occur. the practice data are aggregated at the birmingham research unit of the royal college of general practitioners and weekly rates per 100,000 population are published in age-specific groups. major e ...19947843362
current respiratory infections. 19957532521
respiratory syncytial virus infection in the elderly 1976-82. 19836416524
a survey of antibodies to respiratory syncytial virus in the population. 196414120831
a prospective study of chlamydial, mycoplasmal, and viral infections in a neonatal intensive care a prospective study of non-bacterial infection in a neonatal intensive care unit in north west london, chlamydia trachomatis infection was identified in 4 of 280 babies (1.4%) and was the most common cause of neonatal ophthalmia. one of the four developed pneumonitis. ureaplasma urealyticum was found to colonise the nasopharynx in 53 of 235 babies (22.6%), with mycoplasma hominis present in 6 of 235 babies (2.6%). there was a statistically significant association between u urealyticum colonis ...19846322705
clinical significance of respiratory syncytial virus. 196414163254
influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and pneumonia in glasgow, 1962-5. 19676017521
an outbreak of respiratory syncytial virus infection in a continuing-care geriatric ward.a small outbreak of respiratory syncytial virus infection in a continuing-care geriatric ward during the period december 1982 to march 1983 is reported. it demonstrates that respiratory syncytial virus infection can cause serious lower respiratory tract infection even in patients without any previous history of chest disease.19854013906
comparative virulence of respiratory syncytial virus subgroups a and b. 19892564579
dogs, distemper and osteitis deformans: a further epidemiological study.there is extensive evidence linking paramyxoviruses, notably measles and respiratory syncytial virus, with paget's disease of bone. the epidemiology of paget's disease does not fit with that of known human paramyxovirus infections and it is possible that the disease is a zoonosis with domestic animals acting as host. canine distemper, a paramyxovirus of the morbillovirus family (closely related to measles) is therefore a potential candidate. we have surveyed previous pet ownership in 150 paget's ...19902268748
acute upper respiratory tract viral illness and influenza immunization in homes for the elderly.occupants of 482 long-stay and 33 short-stay beds in 11 leicester city council homes for the elderly were studied during a 30-week period from september 1988 to march 1989 to determine the incidence, aetiology, morbidity, and mortality of acute upper respiratory tract viral infections and the use of influenza vaccine. influenza immunization rates by home ranged from 15.4 to 90% (mean 45%). there were no differences in the distribution of medical conditions by home. the highest immunization rates ...19902249724
rsv outbreak in a paediatric intensive care unit.the royal liverpool children's hospital-alder hey paediatric intensive care unit (picu) usually has a low rate of nosocomial respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection. we report and analyse a major outbreak of nosocomial (acquired) rsv infection on the picu during a rsv season. all children admitted to the picu were studied during the six-month winter period 1 october 2002 to 31 march 2002. nasopharyngeal aspirates were tested using an in vitro enzyme-linked immunoassay (elisa) membrane test f ...200415236847
acute respiratory infections. 19911669902
surveillance of respiratory syncytial virus infection: england and wales 1988-91. 19911669860
respiratory syncytial virus infection in north-east england.during a period covering four winter epidemics 987 respiratory syncytial (rs) virus infections were identified in the children's wards that served a total population of about 875 000 in north-east england. the incidence of admission to hospital with rs virus infection tended to be twice as high among children in tyneside as that among children from the rest of the catchment area. the risk of hospital admission with rs virus infection in the first year of life for city children was about 1 in 50. ...1976990783
comparison of immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase methods for viral diagnosis at a distance: a who collaborative study.nasopharyngeal secretions collected in newcastle were examined in both newcastle and stockholm for the presence of influenza virus type a and respiratory syncytial (rs) virus by immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase techniques. a total of 139 specimens were examined in this way and the agreement between the two centres for immunofluorescence was 94% for influenza virus a, 95% for respiratory syncytial virus, and 95% for negative specimens. this technique can therefore be used for examining spe ...1978352565
phls overview of communicable diseases 1997: results of a priority setting early 1997, the phls overview of communicable diseases (ovcd) committee carried out a consultation exercise to inform the development of phls priorities in communicable diseases for the years 1997 to 1999. the views of phls senior staff and scientific committees and consultants in communicable disease control in district health authorities were sought by postal questionnaire, and several organisations of health professionals were asked for their views on the initial findings. the main finding ...19989830790
the association of respiratory syncytial virus infection and influenza with emergency admissions for respiratory disease in london: an analysis of routine surveillance data.the importance of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection in adults is not well known, because laboratory testing for rsv infection is not routine. both rsv infection and influenza are seasonally related, and it is difficult to disentangle one from the other and to disentangle infection from the season and the cold.200616447109
climate change and the end of the respiratory syncytial virus season.the seasons associated with laboratory isolation of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) (for 1981-2004) and rsv-related emergency department admissions (for 1990-2004) ended 3.1 and 2.5 weeks earlier, respectively, per 1 degrees c increase in annual central england temperature (p=.002 and .043, respectively). climate change may be shortening the rsv season.200616447114
respiratory viruses in adult liver transplant recipients.the contribution of respiratory viruses to respiratory disease in adult liver transplant (lt) recipients has not been studied. we performed a prospective audit to document the incidence of respiratory syncytial viruses ([rsvs], parainfluenza virus, influenza virus, and adenovirus) after lt, and to determine their contribution to respiratory disease in this setting.199910532538
respiratory syncytial virus: an underestimated cause of respiratory infection, with prospects for a vaccine.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infects most people by the time they are 2 years old and reinfects throughout life. rsv is best recognised for causing bronchiolitis in infants--it is one of the most important respiratory pathogens in childhood in industrialised countries. the clinical manifestations of rsv infection in adults and elderly people, from upper respiratory tract infection to pneumonia, are less well known. part of the burden of winter mortality in elderly people is attributable to ...199910598379
respiratory syncytial virus infection in high risk infants and the potential impact of prophylaxis in a united kingdom cohort.bronchiolitis caused by respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is an important cause of morbidity in ex-premature infants. in a randomised placebo controlled trial monoclonal antibody prophylaxis showed a 55% reduction in relative risk of hospital admission for these high risk infants, against a background incidence of 10.6 admissions per 100 high risk infants.200010999865
rationalised prescribing for community acquired pneumonia: a closed loop audit the management of community acquired pneumonia before and after the introduction of a protocol. to determine the aetiology of pneumonia using routine investigations and polymerase chain reaction (pcr).200010999868
molecular epidemiology of outbreak of respiratory syncytial virus within bone marrow transplantation unit.during the winter of 1995-1996, eight of nine bone marrow transplantation (bmt) unit patients were infected with the same strain of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). this rsv strain was not detected in 20 hospitalized patients from the community, suggesting that the bmt unit infections did not occur by independent incidents of transmission from the community.200111158157
influenza surveillance in england and wales: october 1999 to may 2000.the period of increased influenza activity in england and wales in the winter of 1999/2000 was associated with considerable morbidity and mortality and well-publicized pressure on hospital services. the influenza activity coincided with the regular annual increase in respiratory syncytial virus infections and the christmas and new year holiday period. consultation rates with general practitioners for influenza-like illness did not reach 'epidemic' levels but were higher than seen in many winters ...200011280255
prophylaxis for respiratory syncytial virus infection: missing the target. 200111280353
significant rising antibody titres to influenza a are associated with an acute reduction in milk yield in cattle.sporadic cases of an acute fall in milk production, "milk drop", were investigated in a holstein friesian dairy herd in devon. the investigation was a case control study with two controls per case. paired blood samples demonstrated that rising antibody titres to human influenza a/england/333/80 (h1n1) and human influenza a/eng/427/88 (h3n2) were associated with an acute fall in milk production. rising titres to bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv), bovine virus diarrhoea virus (bvd), infect ...200817851097
respiratory viruses, symptoms, and inflammatory markers in acute exacerbations and stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.the effects of respiratory viral infection on the time course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (copd) exacerbation were examined by monitoring changes in systemic inflammatory markers in stable copd and at exacerbation. eighty-three patients with copd (mean [sd] age, 66.6 [7.1] yr, fev(1), 1.06 [0.61] l) recorded daily peak expiratory flow rate and any increases in respiratory symptoms. nasal samples and blood were taken for respiratory virus detection by culture, polymerase chain reacti ...200111719299
a touch of the 'flu. 200211970940
human metapneumovirus as a cause of community-acquired respiratory illness.human metapneumovirus (hmpv) is a recently identified paramyxovirus first isolated from hospitalized children with acute respiratory tract infections (arti). we sought evidence of hmpv infection in patients who had visited general practitioners, had influenzalike illnesses (ili), and had negative tests for influenza and human respiratory syncytial virus (hrsv). as part of national virologic surveillance, sentinel general practices in england and wales collected samples from patients of all ages ...200212194763
contribution of rsv to bronchiolitis and pneumonia-associated hospitalizations in english children, april 1995-march 1998.estimates of the number of hospitalizations attributable to specific pathogens are required to predict the potential impact of vaccination. all hospital admissions for lower respiratory tract infection (lri) in children < 5 years in england in 1995-8 were reviewed. most admissions (76.8%) were not associated with specific organisms. seasonality in pathogens that cause bronchiolitis and pneumonia was used to predict the proportion of cases with unspecified aetiology attributable to different orga ...200212211603
severe and unrecognised: pertussis in uk diagnose pertussis using culture, polymerase chain reaction, and serology, in children admitted to intensive care units (picus) and some paediatric wards in london, and in their household contacts to determine the source of infection.200312937105
respiratory syncytial virus infection in the north west of england. 196314011008
school age outcome of hospitalisation with respiratory syncytial virus infection of prematurely born infants.hospitalisation due to respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection in the first 2 years after birth has been associated with increased healthcare utilisation and associated costs up to 5 years of age in children born prematurely at less than 32 weeks of gestation who developed bronchopulmonary dysplasia (bpd). a study was undertaken to determine whether hospitalisation due to rsv infection in the first 2 years was associated with increased morbidity and lung function abnormalities in such childr ...200919213770
serological evidence of infection by respiratory syncytial virus in outbreak of acute bronchiolitis. 196414133606
influenza a community-acquired pneumonia in east london infants and young pneumonia (cap) is common in young children, but there are few data in europe on influenza a virus as a cause of childhood cap. the aim of this study was to determine the relative contributions of different etiologic agents to cap in children.200314551480
burden on uk secondary care of rotavirus disease and seasonal infections in children.rotavirus is a common infection affecting children under 5 years, which leads to a significant disease burden. this burden is potentially exacerbated by the seasonality of rotavirus, particularly in the context of the seasonality of other common childhood infections. the primary study objective was to describe the pattern and burden of seasonal infections amongst children under 5 years of age with particular attention placed on rotavirus and other gastrointestinal infections.201020818925
influenza-related hospitalizations among young children in leicestershire.population-based data on influenza hospitalizations are unavailable in the united kingdom, but they represent an essential component of health economic analyses that could support the use of vaccines and antiinfluenza drugs in healthy children. we collected data on hospitalizations for influenza infections among young children in leicester, uk.200314551481
the clinical and health economic burden of respiratory syncytial virus disease among children under 2 years of age in a defined geographical describe the clinical and health economic impact of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) disease in children under 2 years of age.200314670770
invited commentary to supplement hot topics in neonatology.the very interesting and varied collection of papers from the uk hot topics meeting held at egham, surrey, uk on 27 september 2002 (chaired by professor anne greenough of king's college hospital, london and sponsored by abbott laboratories limited) has been reviewed. conclusion: the scientific value and clinical implications for neonatal intensive care of the papers presented reflect the status of a meeting that has grown to be head and shoulders above comparable uk neonatology gatherings.200415046266
measurement of antibody against contemporary virus lineages of human respiratory syncytial virus sub-group a in infants and their mothers.human respiratory syncytial virus (hrsv) infects the majority of infants in their first year of life. maternal antibodies offer some protection although a small proportion of infected infants develop bronchiolitis and require admission to hospital. a number of lineages of the virus co-circulate in the population and the prevalent virus lineage changes from epidemic to epidemic. the effect of antigenic variation between virus lineages upon the protection offered by maternal antibodies has not bee ...200415072758
cardiac troponin t levels and myocardial involvement in children with severe respiratory syncytial virus lung determine the prevalence of myocardial damage in severe respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) disease as evident from elevated cardiac troponin t (ctnt) levels. to assess the nature of the myocardial involvement as manifested in electro- and echocardiographic abnormalities. to compare severity of disease with and without myocardial involvement as evident from duration of ventilation, inotrope requirements and death.200415303802
the transmission dynamics of groups a and b human respiratory syncytial virus (hrsv) in england & wales and finland: seasonality and cross-protection.human respiratory syncytial virus (hrsv) transmission dynamics are inherently cyclical, and the observed genetic diversity (between groups a and b) also appears to have a repeating pattern. a key unknown is the extent to which genetic variants interact immunologically, and thus impact on epidemiology. we developed a novel mathematical model for hrsv transmission including seasonal forcing of incidence and temporary intra- and inter-group partial immunity. simultaneous model fits to data from two ...200515816153
respiratory illness associated with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus estimate excess morbidity during periods of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) activity.200515855178
high incidence of pulmonary bacterial co-infection in children with severe respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) bronchiolitis.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is the most common cause of viral lower respiratory tract infections (lrti). viral lrti is a risk factor for bacterial superinfection, having an escalating incidence with increasing severity of respiratory illness. a study was undertaken to determine the incidence of pulmonary bacterial co-infection in infants and children with severe rsv bronchiolitis, using paediatric intensive care unit (picu) admission as a surrogate marker of severity, and to study the impa ...200616537670
the burden of seasonal respiratory infections on a national telehealth service in england.seasonal respiratory illnesses present a major burden on primary care services. we assessed the burden of respiratory illness on a national telehealth system in england and investigated the potential for providing early warning of respiratory infection. we compared weekly laboratory reports for respiratory pathogens with telehealth calls (nhs 111) between week 40 in 2013 and week 29 in 2015. multiple linear regression was used to identify which pathogens had a significant association with respir ...201728413995
modelling hospital admissions for lower respiratory tract infections in the elderly in england.despite the importance of lower respiratory-tract infection (lri) in causing hospitalizations in elderly patients (>or=65 years of age) and recent advances in vaccine development, a complete picture of the causative organisms is not available. all hospital discharge diagnoses (icd-10 code) for lri in elderly patients in england during 1995-1998 were reviewed. using known seasonality in potential causative agents of lri, the contribution of different respiratory pathogens to hospitalizations code ...200616729903
modelling the unidentified mortality burden from thirteen infectious pathogenic microorganisms in infants.official statistics routinely underestimate mortality from specific microorganisms and deaths are assigned to non-specific syndromes. here we estimate mortality attributed to specific pathogens by modelling non-specific infant deaths from laboratory reports and codes on death certificates for these pathogens, 1993-2000 in england and wales using a generalized linear model. in total, 22.4-59.8% of non-specific deaths in infants (25-66 deaths a year) are attributable to specific pathogens. yearly ...200716740187
morbidity profiles of patients consulting during influenza and respiratory syncytial virus active periods.we compared the burden of illness due to a spectrum of respiratory diagnostic categories among persons presenting in a sentinel general practice network in england and wales during periods of influenza and of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) activity. during all periods of viral activity, incidence rates of influenza-like illness, bronchitis and common cold were elevated compared to those in baseline periods. excess rates per 100,000 of acute bronchitis were greater in children aged <1 year (me ...200717291381
ten years of viral and non-bacterial serology in adults with cystic fibrosis.viral infections are associated with pulmonary exacerbations in children with cystic fibrosis (cf), but few studies have addressed the frequency in adults. this paper investigates the frequency and impact of viral infections in adults with cf receiving intravenous antibiotics. pre- and post-treatment spirometry, inflammatory markers and antibody titres against influenza a, influenza b, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, mycoplasma pneumoniae, chlamydia psittaci, and coxiella burnetti were ...200817352838
respiratory syncytial virus infection in infants admitted to paediatric intensive care units in london, and in their families.we carried out a study in five london paediatric intensive care units (picus), with the objectives of describing a cohort of infants with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection, comparing hospital diagnosis with pcr results and investigating the spread of rsv in families. eligible infants were under 5 months old and admitted betweem november 1998 and october 1999 with respiratory failure, apnoea and/or bradycardia or acute life threatening episodes (alte). we diagnosed rsv by pcr analysis o ...200817541638
the contribution of respiratory pathogens to the seasonality of nhs direct calls.primary care is thought to bear half the cost of treating infections in the uk. we describe the seasonal variation in nhs direct respiratory calls (a new source of primary care data) and estimate the contribution of specific respiratory pathogens to this variation.200717582503
influenza a and respiratory syncytial virus hospital burden in young children in east london.epidemiological studies have demonstrated high hospitalization rates attributable to influenza and rsv in children aged 6 months and those aged <12 months, respectively (43 and 92.5/10 000 person-months, respectively). in conclusion, these high paediatric rsv and influenza incidence rates can be used to inform uk policy on childhood influenza immunization and subsequent rsv immunization in the future.200817903316
glycemic level in mechanically ventilated children with evaluate in children with bronchiolitis requiring mechanical ventilation the association between blood glucose level and duration of mechanical ventilation and pediatric intensive care unit (picu) stay.200717906595
lessons from 40 years' surveillance of influenza in england and wales.the influenza virus continues to pose a significant threat to public health throughout the world. current avian influenza outbreaks in humans have heightened the need for improved surveillance and planning. despite recent advances in the development of vaccines and antiviral drugs, seasonal epidemics of influenza continue to contribute significantly to general practitioner workloads, emergency hospital admissions, and deaths. in this paper we review data produced by the royal college of general ...200818047750
pre-existing disease is associated with a significantly higher risk of death in severe respiratory syncytial virus infection.600,000 deaths worldwide are estimated to be directly or indirectly attributable to respiratory syncytial virus (rsv).200918653625
fewer colds, less asthma? a hypothesis to explain the fall in childhood asthma in the asthma prevalence fell significantly between 1993 and 2000. in children aged <5 years hospital admissions for asthma fell by 52% and primary care presentations in children under 14 years by over 40%. from 1994 to 2000, primary care consultations for acute respiratory infections in all age groups fell by 36%, and for the common cold by 46%. isolates for respiratory syncytial virus notified to the health protection agency voluntary reporting scheme fell by 56% between 1993 and 2003. falls in uk ...200818791051
immunoprophylaxis against respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) with palivizumab in children: a systematic review and economic systematically review the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of palivizumab for the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) in children and examine prognostic factors to determine whether subgroups can be identified with important differences in cost-effectiveness.200819049692
infection-related mortality in children with malignancy in england and wales, 2003-2005.infections are an important component of treatment-related mortality in children with malignancy. infection-related mortality is potentially preventable and it is important to identify areas where prevention and treatment can be improved such as through vaccination, early diagnosis and aggressive management. the aim of this study is to describe the infections contributing to deaths in children under 15 years with malignancy in england and wales in the period 2003-2005.200919415733
meeting report: a celebration of the work of professor tony hart, liverpool, united kingdom, 7 march 2009.over 300 delegates participated in this scientific meeting to celebrate the career of the late professor tony hart, who was head of department of medical microbiology, university of liverpool, from 1986 until his death in september 2007. the meeting, which was opened by professor james stewart (head, school of infection and host defence, university of liverpool) and closed by professor bernard brabin (head of the child health group, liverpool school of tropical medicine), captured some of the ma ...201020207719
the effects of hourly differences in air pollution on the risk of myocardial infarction: case crossover analysis of the minap investigate associations between air pollution levels and myocardial infarction (mi) on short timescales, with data at an hourly temporal resolution.201121933824
a new laboratory-based surveillance system (respiratory datamart system) for influenza and other respiratory viruses in england: results and experience from 2009 to 2012.during the 2009 influenza a(h1n1) pandemic, a new laboratory-based virological sentinel surveillance system, the respiratory datamart system (rdms), was established in a network of 14 health protection agency (now public health england (phe)) and national health service (nhs) laboratories in england. laboratory results (both positive and negative) were systematically collected from all routinely tested clinical respiratory samples for a range of respiratory viruses including influenza, respirato ...201424480060
mortality attributable to influenza in england and wales prior to, during and after the 2009 pandemic.very different influenza seasons have been observed from 2008/09-2011/12 in england and wales, with the reported burden varying overall and by age group. the objective of this study was to estimate the impact of influenza on all-cause and cause-specific mortality during this period. age-specific generalised linear regression models fitted with an identity link were developed, modelling weekly influenza activity through multiplying clinical influenza-like illness consultation rates with proportio ...201324348993
critical care surveillance: insights into the impact of the 2010/11 influenza season relative to the 2009/10 pandemic season in 2010/11, the influenza season in england was marked by a relative increase in impact on the population compared to that seen during the 2009/10 pandemic, with the same influenza subtype, a(h1n1)pdm09, circulating. the peaks in critical care bed occupancy in both seasons coincided with peaks in influenza a(h1n1)pdm09 activity, but onset of influenza in 2010/11 additionally coincided with notably cold weather, a comparatively smaller peak in influenza b activity and increased reports of bacteri ...201323787130
the potential impact of prophylaxis against bronchiolitis due to the respiratory syncytial virus in children with congenital cardiac determine the number of infants in the mersey and north west regions with congenital cardiac disease for whom palivizumab may be appropriate, and to examine the potential impact of introducing prophylaxis with palivizumab on these patients and their economic management.200515865826
mortality in children from influenza and respiratory syncytial quantify mortality attributable to influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection in children.200515965143
estimating the burden of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) on respiratory hospital admissions in children less than five years of age in england, 2007-2012.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is a leading cause of hospital admission in young children. with several rsv vaccines candidates undergoing clinical trials, recent estimates of rsv burden are required to provide a baseline for vaccine impact studies.201728058797 england last year, nearly 40,000 babies and young children with bronchiolitis were admitted to hospital. this infection is usually caused by the respiratory syncytial virus, and in most cases symptoms are mild and last only a few days. however, a quality standard published in the summer by the national institute for health and care excellence (nice) states that admissions for bronchiolitis are rising. nice quality standards describe high-priority areas for improvement in a defined field of ca ...201627712322
epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed respiratory syncytial virus infection in young children in england, 2010-2014: the importance of birth month.the epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infections in young children has not recently been described in england, and is an essential step in identifying optimal target groups for future licensed rsv vaccines. we used two laboratory surveillance systems to examine the total number and number of positive rsv tests in children aged <5 years in england from 2010 to 2014. we derived odds ratios (ors) with 95% confidence intervals (cis) comparing children by birth mo ...201626916807
respiratory viral infections during the 2009-2010 winter season in central england, uk: incidence and patterns of multiple virus co-infections.acute viral respiratory infections are the most common infections in humans. co-infection with different respiratory viruses is well documented but not necessarily well understood. the aim of this study was to utilise laboratory data from the winter season following the 2009 influenza a(h1n1) outbreak to investigate rates of respiratory virus co-infections, virus prevalence in different age groups and temporal variations in virus detection. the health protection agency public health laboratory ( ...201222678349
utility of ambulance data for real-time syndromic surveillance: a pilot in the west midlands region, united kingdom.introduction the public health england (phe; united kingdom) real-time syndromic surveillance team (resst) currently operates four national syndromic surveillance systems, including an emergency department system. a system based on ambulance data might provide an additional measure of the "severe" end of the clinical disease spectrum. this report describes the findings and lessons learned from the development and preliminary assessment of a pilot syndromic surveillance system using ambulance dat ...201728760171
emergency department syndromic surveillance providing early warning of seasonal respiratory activity in england.seasonal respiratory infections place an increased burden on health services annually. we used a sentinel emergency department syndromic surveillance system to understand the factors driving respiratory attendances at emergency departments (eds) in england. trends in different respiratory indicators were observed to peak at different points during winter, with further variation observed in the distribution of attendances by age. multiple linear regression analysis revealed acute respiratory infe ...201626415918
mortality caused by influenza and respiratory syncytial virus by age group in england and wales 1999-2010.the mortality burden caused by influenza cannot be quantified directly from death certificates because of under-recording; therefore, the estimated number of influenza deaths has to be obtained through statistical modelling.201322405488
rotavirus, respiratory syncytial virus and non-rotaviral gastroenteritis analysis of hospital readmissions in england and quantify readmissions with infectious diseases and differences in readmission patterns.201323289533
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