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ciprofloxacin resistant campylobacter spp. in humans: an epidemiological and laboratory study.from the end of april 1991 until the end of 1991, 2209 isolates of campylobacter spp. have been collected in plymouth phl of which 91 (4.1%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin. none of the 91 patients involved had taken a quinolone, but 30/91 (33%) had travelled abroad (16 to the iberian peninsula) in the three months preceding isolation of the ciprofloxacin-resistant campylobacter spp. in the case-control study 12/15 (80%) of the cases had recently consumed poultry as had 20/24 (83%) of controls w ...19968722540
campylobacter contamination of raw meat and poultry at retail sale: identification of multiple types and comparison with isolates from human infection.campylobacter species are the major cause of acute bacterial enteritis reported in the united kingdom, nonetheless many aspects of campylobacteriosis epidemiology remain poorly understood. the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in fresh bovine, ovine, and porcine liver and chicken portions from retail outlets and compare strain subtype distributions with those associated with cases of human campylobacteriosis occurring within the same ...200011131886
a case-case comparison of campylobacter coli and campylobacter jejuni infection: a tool for generating hypotheses.preventing campylobacteriosis depends on a thorough understanding of its epidemiology. we used case-case analysis to compare cases of campylobacter coli infection with cases of c. jejuni infection, to generate hypotheses for infection from standardized, population-based sentinel surveillance information in england and wales. persons with c. coli infection were more likely to have drunk bottled water than were those with c. jejuni infection and, in general, were more likely to have eaten pâté. im ...200212194770
enhanced surveillance of campylobacter infection in the north west of england 1997-1999.to identify sources and routes of infection for sporadic cases of campylobacter infection in the north west of england.200312504607
campylobacter coli - an important foodborne pathogen.campylobacters are the most common bacterial cause of infectious intestinal disease (iid) in temperate countries. c. jejuni is the predominant cause of campylobacter iid, but the impact of other, less prevalent species has largely been ignored. here, we present estimates of the burden of indigenously acquired foodborne disease (ifd) due to campylobacter coli, the second most common cause of human campylobacteriosis.200312850159
demonstration of the shorter flagellin (flaa) gene of urease-positive thermophilic campylobacter isolated from the natural environment in northern ireland.the pcr amplicons (about 1450 bp in length) of flaa gene fragments of 11 isolates of urease-positive thermophilic campylobacter (uptc) isolated from the natural environment not including wild birds in northern ireland were demonstrated to be shorter than those of c. jejuni 81116 and six isolates of c. jejuni and c. coli (about 1700 bp) isolated in northern ireland and japan. when the nucleotide lengths of the possible open reading frame (orf) of the flaa genes were determined, those from the 11 ...200617004648
detection by pcr of eight groups of enteric pathogens in 4,627 faecal samples: re-examination of the english case-control infectious intestinal disease study (1993-1996).the english case-control infectious intestinal disease study (1993-1996) failed to detect an enteric pathogen or toxin in 49% of cases of gastroenteritis. in the present study, polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays were applied to dna and cdna generated from 4,627 faecal samples from cases and controls archived during the original study for the detection of norovirus, rotavirus, sapovirus, campylobacter spp., salmonella spp., enteroaggregative escherichia coli, cryptosporidium spp., and giardia ...200717447091
comparison of campylobacter populations in wild geese with those in starlings and free-range poultry on the same farm.wild geese are a potential source of campylobacter infection for humans and farm animals and have been implicated in at least two large waterborne disease outbreaks. there have been few investigations into the population biology of campylobacter in geese, carriage rates are reported to vary (0 to 100%), and no genetic characterization of isolates has been performed. fecal samples collected from wild geese in oxfordshire, united kingdom, were culture positive for c. jejuni (50.2%) and c. coli (0. ...200818390684
temporal patterns and risk factors for escherichia coli o157 and campylobacter spp, in young cattle.escherichia coli o157 and campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli are zoonotic pathogens originating from farm animals. cattle are the main reservoir for e. coli o157 and also contribute to human cases of campylobacteriosis through contaminated milk, direct contact, and environmental contamination. thirty groups of young cattle on 30 farms were observed for 7 months and sampled on 4 to 6 separate occasions for e. coli o157 and c. jejuni/coli to characterize shedding patterns and identify ris ...200919343935
prevalence of campylobacter spp. in raw retail poultry on sale in northern ireland.a year-long survey of fresh, retail poultry products on sale in northern ireland was undertaken to define the prevalence of campylobacter spp. by using protocols based on iso (standard) 10272-1:2006. incubation at 37 and 42 degrees c was undertaken to increase the diversity of isolates obtained. overall, 652 isolates were identified as campylobacter spp. by using pcr and amplified fragment length polymorphic typing. phenotyping wrongly identified 21% of isolates. prevalences of campylobacter fou ...200919777882
investigation of food and environmental exposures relating to the epidemiology of campylobacter coli in humans in northwest england.this study uses multilocus sequence typing (mlst) to investigate the epidemiology of campylobacter coli in a continuous study of a population in northwest england. all cases of campylobacter identified in four local authorities (government administrative boundaries) between 2003 and 2006 were identified to species level and then typed, using mlst. epidemiological information was collected for each of these cases, including food and recreational exposure variables, and the epidemiologies of c. je ...201019854914
novel sampling method for assessing human-pathogen interactions in the natural environment using boot socks and citizen scientists, with application to campylobacter seasonality.this paper introduces a novel method for sampling pathogens in natural environments. it uses fabric boot socks worn over walkers' shoes to allow the collection of composite samples over large areas. wide-area sampling is better suited to studies focusing on human exposure to pathogens (e.g., recreational walking). this sampling method is implemented using a citizen science approach: groups of three walkers wearing boot socks undertook one of six routes, 40 times over 16 months in the north west ...201728500040
molecular epidemiology and characterization of campylobacter spp. isolated from wild bird populations in northern england.campylobacter infections have been reported at prevalences ranging from 2 to 50% in a range of wild bird species, although there have been few studies that have investigated the molecular epidemiology of campylobacter spp. consequently, whether wild birds are a source of infection in humans or domestic livestock or are mainly recipients of domestic animal strains and whether separate cycles of infection occur remain unknown. to address these questions, serial cross-sectional surveys of wild bird ...200919286781
rapid evolution and the importance of recombination to the gastroenteric pathogen campylobacter jejuni.responsible for the majority of bacterial gastroenteritis in the developed world, campylobacter jejuni is a pervasive pathogen of humans and animals, but its evolution is obscure. in this paper, we exploit contemporary genetic diversity and empirical evidence to piece together the evolutionary history of c. jejuni and quantify its evolutionary potential. our combined population genetics-phylogenetics approach reveals a surprising picture. campylobacter jejuni is a rapidly evolving species, subje ...200919008526
risk factors for campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in young cattle on english and welsh farms.campylobacter jejuni and c. coli are the most prevalent causes of bacterial diarrhoea in most of the western world. in great britain, the source remains unknown for the majority of cases, though poultry is considered the main source of infection. molecular typing methods identify cattle as a potential source of a proportion of the non-source-attributed cases, mainly through direct contact, environmental contamination or milk, but little is known about the epidemiology of campylobacter in cattle. ...200918835052
extended sequence typing of campylobacter spp., united kingdom.supplementing campylobacter spp. multilocus sequence typing with nucleotide sequence typing of 3 antigen genes increased the discriminatory index achieved from 0.975 to 0.992 among 620 clinical isolates from oxfordshire, united kingdom. this enhanced typing scheme enabled identification of clusters and retained data required for long-range epidemiologic comparisons of isolates.200818826829
recovery of thermophilic campylobacters from pond water and sediment and the problem of interference by background bacteria in enrichment culture.the aim of this study was to address problems in the determination of thermophilic campylobacters in turbid pond water and sediment. thirty sets of three samples of pond water (volumes 10, 100, 1000 ml) or sediment (0.1, 1.0, 5.0 ml) were examined for the presence of thermophilic campylobacters. the different volumes of pond water were processed by membrane filtration followed by selective enrichment. the samples of sediment were subjected directly to selective enrichment. presumptive isolates w ...200515979120
prevalence and genetic diversity of campylobacter spp. in environmental water samples from a 100-square-kilometer predominantly dairy farming area.water samples were taken systematically from a 100-km2 area of mainly dairy farmland in northwestern england and examined for campylobacter spp. pulsed-field gel electrophoresis-restriction fragment length polymorphism (pfge-rflp) and flaa strain typing of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolates were done. data on the water source and the adjacent environment were recorded and examined as explanatory variables. campylobacter spp. were isolated from 40.5% (n = 119) of the water sampl ...200515812015
genotypic and antibiotic susceptibility characteristics of a campylobacter coli population isolated from dairy farmland in the united kingdom.campylobacter infections are the most common cause of bacterial enteritis in humans, and nearly 8% of such infections are caused by campylobacter coli. most studies have concentrated on campylobacter jejuni, frequently isolated from intensively farmed poultry and livestock production units, and few studies have examined the spread and relatedness of campylobacter across a range of geographical and host boundaries. systematic sampling of a 100-km2 area of mixed farmland in northwest england yield ...200414766560
drug resistance in campylobacter jejuni, c coli, and c lari isolated from humans in north west england and wales, 1997.to test the sensitivity of strains of campylobacter species isolated from humans in england and wales against a range of antimicrobial agents for the purpose of monitoring therapeutic efficacy and as an epidemiological marker.199910690169
serotyping scheme for campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli based on direct agglutination of heat-stable antigens.campylobacter is now the most frequently reported cause of gastrointestinal disease in england and wales, yet few isolates are characterized beyond the genus level. the majority of isolates are campylobacter jejuni (90%), with most of the remainder being campylobacter coli. we describe an adaptation of the penner serotyping scheme in which passive hemagglutination has been replaced by detection of heat-stable antigens by direct bacterial agglutination; absorbed antisera are used where appropriat ...19989466737
phage typing of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli and its use as an adjunct to serotyping.campylobacter is the most commonly reported cause of gastro-intestinal infection in england and wales, with over 50,000 reported cases in 1997. the majority of human campylobacter isolates in england and wales are c. jejuni (c. 90%) with most of the remainder being c. coli. we describe the use of phage typing as an extension to serotyping for more detailed characterization within these two species. the scheme was piloted during a study of 2407 c. jejuni and 182 c. coli strains isolated in wales ...199910487641
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