high prevalence of antibodies against canine adenovirus (cav) type 2 in domestic dog populations in south africa precludes the use of cav-based recombinant rabies vaccines.rabies in dogs can be controlled through mass vaccination. oral vaccination of domestic dogs would be useful in the developing world, where greater vaccination coverage is needed especially in inaccessible areas or places with large numbers of free-roaming dogs. from this perspective, recent research has focused on development of new recombinant vaccines that can be administered orally in a bait to be used as adjunct for parenteral vaccination. one such candidate, a recombinant canine adenovirus ...201323867013
new cases of mokola virus infection in south africa: a genotypic comparison of southern african virus isolates.mokola virus, one of the six genotypes within the lyssavirus genus of the rhabdoviridae family, is believed to be exclusive to the african continent, where infections in various mammal species have been reported. after an isolation of mokola virus at umhlanga on the east coast of south africa in 1970, the virus was not reported in south africa until its reappearance in 1995. since then a total of six new isolates of the virus were made, three from the east london region in 1995 and 1996, two nea ...200010872870
importation of canid rabies in a horse relocated from zimbabwe to south july 2003 a 2-year-old thoroughbred colt was imported from harare, zimbabwe to the ashburton training centre, pietermaritzburg, south africa. five months after importation, the colt presented with clinical signs suggestive of rabies: it was uncoordinated, showed muscle tremors and was biting at itself. brain tissue was submitted for analysis and the clinical diagnosis was confirmed by the fluorescent antibody test and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr). phylogenetic anal ...200515991708
re-emergence of dog rabies in mpumalanga province, south rabies has commonly been associated with the eastern and southern border areas in mpumalanga province, and the nkomazi district in the east has been most affected. in other parts of the province, canid rabies has been under control for many years; however, in 2008, dog rabies spread to other parts of the province and resulted in a widespread outbreak. the objective of this study was to genetically characterize rabies viruses in an attempt to determine the source of this recent outbreak. fift ...201020370435
canid and viverrid rabies viruses in south africa.historical records suggest that in south africa rabies was present in viverrids in the early 1800s. in the early 1950s a wave of canine rabies spread from namibia through botswana into the northern transvaal and by 1961 a second front had penetrated south from mozambique into swaziland and northern natal. today, rabies is regularly confirmed in a number of canid and viverrid species in most regions of south africa. a panel of anti-nucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies was used to examine 83 virus ...19937777314
emerging epidemic dog rabies in coastal south africa: a molecular epidemiological analysis.towards understanding the molecular epidemiology of a severe dog rabies epidemic in the kwazulu natal province of south africa, we analyzed a variable 592 nucleotide genome sequence domain of 170 rabies viruses from kwazulu natal and surrounding regions. viruses from the kwazulu natal and eastern cape provinces belonged to a unique lineage, circulating as two independent and expanding epidemiological cycles. the first presented as closely related dog cycles along the eastern coastal regions of t ...200717451828
use of a molecular epidemiological database to track human rabies case histories in south africa.the kwazulu natal and eastern cape provinces of south africa have experienced a serious dog rabies epidemic over the past three decades. towards a better understanding of this epidemic, we have previously analysed nucleotide sequences of 142 rabies virus specimens that were obtained from these regions during 2003-2004 and provided a molecular description of the geographical distribution of rabies viral variants in the affected provinces. here, as an extension, we studied five human cases that oc ...200817961278
emergence of rabies in the gauteng province, south africa: 2010-2011.canine rabies is enzootic throughout sub-saharan africa, including the republic of south africa. historically, in south africa the coastal provinces of kwazulu-natal and eastern cape were most affected. alarmingly, outbreaks of canine rabies have been increasingly reported in the past decade from sites where it has previously been under control. from january 2010 to december 2011, 53 animal rabies cases were confirmed; these were mostly in domestic dogs from southern johannesburg, which was prev ...201323718320
a case study of rabies diagnosis from formalin-fixed brain material.rabies is caused by several lyssavirus species, a group of negative sense rna viruses. although rabies is preventable, it is often neglected particularly in developing countries in the face of many competing public and veterinary health priorities. epidemiological information based on laboratory-based surveillance data is critical to adequately strategise control and prevention plans. in this regard the fluorescent antibody test for rabies virus antigen in brain tissues is still considered the b ...201122616442
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