numberous radicular enamel pearls in a premolar of a wild unusually large number of enamel pearls were found in a premolar of a wild sheep from tibet, purported to be the tooth of a tibetan saint. the enamel pearls show marked preference for the roots.19751054472
epidemiological studies on cystic echinococcosis in china--a the four decades from 1951 to 1990, the six provinces or autonomous regions (xinjiang, gansu, qinghai, ningxia, xizang and nei monggol) reported a total of 26,065 surgical cases of hydatid disease, most of which were reported in the recent decade. about one third of the patients was children and adolescents under 15 years old. so far, cystic hydatid infections of local origin have been confirmed in 22 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities in the whole nation. findings of x-ray exam ...19957546341
an epidemiological survey of cystic echinococcosis among tibetan school pupils in west china.human cystic echinococcosis (ce) caused by infection with a larval stage of echinococcus granulosus is a serious public health problem in west china. because ce is a zoonosis, dogs and livestock are important hosts in transmission. tibetans, especially teenagers, have a natural relationship with these definitive and intermediate hosts in west china and although some areas of tibet are therefore ce-endemic, few, if any, detailed community studies have been reported. a total of 451 tibetan school ...200111579862
survey on cystic echinococcosis in tibetans, west china.human cystic echinococcosis (ce) is a serious public health problem in west china. the tibetan has a nature relation with these definitive and intermediate hosts in west china. although tibet is ce endemic, a few community studies have been reported. eight hundred and eighty two tibetans residing in the three rural communes of tianzhu county, gansu province of west china were investigated by serology and ultrasound scanning. 11.2% serum antibody positive rate in elisa test was found out, and a 1 ...200212039679
epidemiology of ovine theileriosis in ganan region, gansu province, china.the epidemiology of ovine theilreiosis in gannan tibet autonomous region was investigated. the results of these studies indicate that this disease is endemic in the following counties of gannan where the vector tick was identified as haemaphysalis qighaiensis: luqu, xiahe, hezuo, zhuoni, lintan, diebu, maqu. the disease mainly occurred from march to may and some cases also occurred in september and october. the incidence rates in lambs of sheep brought from areas free of the disease were high. o ...200212051605
short report: identification of echinococcus species from a yak in the qinghai-tibet plateau region of china.the species identification of an echinococcal lesion in the liver of a yak in the qinghai-tibet plateau region of china, where both echinococcus granulosus and e. multilocularis are present, was difficult to determine because of the atypical appearance of the lesion. polymerase chain reaction-based mitochondrial genotyping allowed us to discriminate the echinococcus species. nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and cytochrome b (cytb) genes amplified from the echinoc ...200314640506
contribution of nitric oxide to adaptation of tibetan sheep to high altitude.we examined the effects of endogenous nitric oxide synthase (nos) inhibition on pulmonary hemodynamics in awake sheep living at low and high altitudes to evaluate the role of no in adaptation to an hypoxic environment. unanaesthetized male sheep in three places--matsumoto, japan (680 m above sea level), xing, china (2300 m) and maxin, china (3750 m)--were prepared for measurements of pulmonary artery (ppa) and pulmonary vascular resistance (pvr) before and after the nos inhibition. the non-selec ...200415134666
economic effects of echinococcosis in a disease-endemic region of the tibetan plateau.this report attempts to quantify the economic losses due to echinococcus multilocularis and e. granulosus in shiqu county, sichuan, people's republic of china, as well as illustrate the cost effectiveness of dog anthelmintic prophylaxis combined with a sheep and goat vaccination program in terms of disability-adjusted life years (dalys) saved. we evaluated human losses associated with treatment costs and loss of income due to morbidity and mortality, in addition to production losses in livestock ...200516014823
echinococcus shiquicus, a new species from the qinghai-tibet plateau region of china: discovery and epidemiological shiqu county of the qinghai-tibet plateau, many wild and domestic mammals are involved in the transmission cycles of echinococcus spp. echinococcus multilocularis and echinococcus granulosus genotype g1 (sheep strain) are sympatrically distributed in the plateau. in 1995, we identified a unique strobilate stage of echinococcus from the tibetan fox, vulpes ferrilata, but considered it to be a variant of e. multilocularis. subsequent molecular genetic studies revealed that a hydatid cyst from t ...200616337180
dual infection of animal hosts with different echinococcus species in the eastern qinghai-tibet plateau region of china.the eastern qinghai-tibet plateau of china is a highly endemic region of echinococcosis where echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (sheep strain), echinococcus multilocularis, and echinococcus shiquicus are distributed sympatrically. we developed a polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (pcr-rflp) method for the identification of the three species in this region. the pcr-rflp showed the dual infection of animals with different echinococcus spp. the first case w ...200616896135
[cloning and homologous analysis of coding region of alpha-globin gene from tibetan antelope].to clone and analyze the encoding region of alpha-globin gene from tibetan antelope.200717618582
cystic and alveolar echinococcosis: an epidemiological survey in a tibetan population in southeast qinghai, epidemiological investigation on echinococcosis was made in jiuzhi county of qinghai province, western china. ultrasonography and an indirect hemagglutination test revealed a morbidity of 8.0% (124/1,549) and a seroprevalence of 25.8% (287/1,113), respectively, in the tibetan population. the morbidity in herdsmen (16.6%) and buddhist priests (15%) was significantly higher than that in other occupation groups (3.2%), and it was higher in females (9.8%) than in males (6.2%). the ultrasound imag ...200818503183
peste des petits ruminants virus in tibet, china.serologic and molecular evidence indicates that peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) infection has emerged in goats and sheep in the ngari region of southwestern tibet, people's republic of china. phylogenetic analysis confirms that the pprv strain from tibet is classified as lineage 4 and is closely related to viruses currently circulating in neighboring countries of southern asia.200919193278
echinococcus granulosus infection and options for control of cystic echinococcosis in tibetan communities of western sichuan province, china.human cystic echinococcosis (ce) is highly endemic in the tibetan regions of sichuan where most families keep guard dogs and where there are considerable numbers of ownerless/stray dogs. strong buddhist beliefs do not allow for elimination of stray dogs, and many strays are actually fed and adopted by households or monasteries. on account of the high altitude (3900-5000 m), pasturage is the major agricultural activity in this area. the harsh mountainous climate often leads to many grazing animal ...200919399162
[investigation on echinococcosis in animals in gannan tibetan autonomous prefecture].to make an investigation on echinococcosis among animals in gannan tibetan autonomous prefecture.200919459495
mosquitoes and mosquito-borne arboviruses in the qinghai-tibet plateau--focused on the qinghai area, investigation was conducted to identify the distribution of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne arboviruses in the qinghai-tibet plateau, china from july to august in 2007. a total of 8,147 mosquitoes representing six species from three genera (aedes, culex, and anopheles) were collected in three locations (geermu city, altitude of 2,780 m; xining city, 2,200 m; minhe county, 1,700 m). six virus isolates were obtained including tahyna virus (tahv), liaoning virus, and culex pipiens pallens densovir ...201020348523
borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in sheep keds (melophagus ovinus), tibet, china. 201021168285
Methanotrophic community structure and activity under warming and grazing of alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau.Knowledge about methanotrophs and their activities is important to understand the microbial mediation of the greenhouse gas CH(4) under climate change and human activities in terrestrial ecosystems. The effects of simulated warming and sheep grazing on methanotrophic abundance, community composition, and activity were studied in an alpine meadow soil on the Tibetan Plateau. There was high abundance of methanotrophs (1.2-3.4?×?10(8) pmoA gene copies per gram of dry weight soil) assessed by real-t ...201121847510
[comparisons of endocrine hormones levels between tibetan antelope and tibetan sheep].the tibetan antelope, a prototype mammal, has developed a unique adaptation to extreme high altitude-associated hypoxia. to investigate the role of the endocrine system in adaptation to high altitude in the tibetan antelope, comparisons of endocrine hormones levels between tibetan antelope (n = 9) and tibetan sheep (n = 10) were performed. both two kinds of animals were captured at an altitude of 4 300 m and then transported to experimental base at 2 800 m altitude. the blood samples were drawn ...201121861053
[genetic cloning and expression of hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha in high altitude hypoxic adaptation species tibetan antelope (pantholops hodgsonii)].in order to investigate the role of the hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (hif-1α) in the adaptation mechanism to high altitude hypoxia, the cloning of the hif-1α gene cdna of tibetan antelope (pantholops hodgsonii), using rt-pcr and race, was applied, and the comparative analysis of the tissue-specific expressions of hif-1α among tibetan antelope, tibetan sheep and plain sheep was performed using real-time pcr and western blot. the sequence analysis indicated that the cdna sequences acquired by ...201122193452
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii infection in tibetan sheep in tibet, china.abstract in the present investigation, the seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii antibodies in 455 tibetan sheep in tibet, china, was examined using an indirect hemagglutination test. of these, 26 (5.7%) tibetan sheep were seropositive at the cut-off of 1:64 serum dilution. the seroprevalence ranged from 2.2% to 8.9% among tibetan sheep of <1-yr-old, 1- to 3-yr-old, and >3-yr-old, but the differences among the age groups were not significant (p > 0.05). the prevalence in male tibetan sheep (2.8%) ...201121787216
variation in the yak dectin-1 gene (clec7a).c-type lectin domain family 7, member a (clec7a, dectin-1) plays an important role in antifungal immunity and belongs to the family of c-type lectin receptors. variation in the extended exon 4-6 region of the yak dectin-1 gene (clec7a), which encodes the β-glucan recognition domain, was investigated using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformational polymorphism (pcr-sscp). three and two variant sequences were identified in exons 4 and 5, respectively, and no variation was found in exo ...201121612412
[sequence analysis of the matrix protein and fusion protein genes of a field peste des petits ruminants virus strain from tibet, china].the nucleotide sequences of m and f genes from a field strain of peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) ("china/tib/gej/07-30") was firstly determined. the m gene was 1 483 nucleotides in length with a single open reading frame (orf), encoding a protein of 335 amino acids. the f gene was 2411 nucleotides in length, encoding a protein of 546 amino acids. the resulting nucleotide sequence and the deduced amino acid sequences were compared with the homologous regions of other pprv isolates. the nu ...201020836385
detection and genetic characterization of peste des petits ruminants virus in free-living bharals (pseudois nayaur) in tibet, china.peste des petits ruminants (ppr) is an important viral disease of sheep and goats. the wildlife hosts of ppr, which may play an important role in the epidemiology of this disease, are not well characterized. the research was undertaken to study the infection of ppr virus (pprv) in free-living bharals (pseudois nayaur) in tibet, china. in 2007, pprv infection was confirmed in two bharals in rutog county of tibet based on clinical signs and detection of pprv rna in tissue samples. in 2008, pprv in ...201120591454
extensive diversity of the adrb3 gene in chinese sheep identified by pcr-sscp.the beta(3)-adrenergic receptor (adrb3) is the main mediator of the lipolytic and thermogenic effects of high catecholamine concentrations. polymorphism in the ovine adrb3 gene has been reported to be associated with birth weight, growth rate, carcass composition, and cold survival. eight alleles have been identified in new zealand sheep, but to date, breeds from other countries have not been studied in detail. in this study, we employed pcr-sscp to detect adrb3 polymorphism in the hu, tan, smal ...200919507019
detection and differentiation of ovine theileria and babesia by reverse line blotting in china.a reverse line blot (rlb) assay was developed for detection and specific identification of the different ovine theileria and babesia parasites. in a polymerase chain reaction (pcr), the hypervariable region 4 (v4 region) of the 18s ribosomal dna gene was amplified with a set of general primers specific for members of the genera theileria and babesia. meanwhile, specific oligonucleotide probes were designed and bound on membrane. after one single-pcr amplification, the amplified fragment was hybr ...200919205742
[simulation on the seasonal growth patterns of grassland plant communities in northern china].soil moisture is the key factor limiting the productivity of grassland in northern china ranging from arid to subhumid arid regions. in this paper, the seasonal and annual growth, foliage projective cover (fpc), evaporative coefficient (k), and net primary productivity (npp) of 7 types of grasslands in north china were simulated by using a simple model based on well established ecological processes of water balance and climatic data collected at 460 sites over 40 years. the observed npps were us ...200819123350
development of one-step real-time rt-pcr assay for detection and quantitation of peste des petits ruminants this study, a rapid and specific taqman-based, one-step real-time quantitative reverse transcription pcr (qrt-pcr) has been described for the detection of peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv). primers and probe were designed based on the nucleocapsid protein gene sequence. the real-time qrt-pcr assay was able to detect pprv isolates from very distinct geographical areas (africa, middle east and asia). the specificity of the assay was assessed by including rinderpest virus and other morbill ...200818243345
serological investigation of ovine theileriosis by elisa in gannan tibet region of gansu province in china.the gannan tibet autonomous region is the biggest and most important stock-raising region of gansu province, people's republic of china. many sheep and goats from this region suffer from theileria challenge each year, resulting in inestimable economical losses. a first large-scale serological investigation by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of ovine theileriosis in this region was performed by testing a total of 1,165 sera samples collected from seven districts of three counties. the results s ...200717823828
[sequence characterization of the 5'-flanking region of the ghr gene in tibetan sheep].the 5'-flanking sequence (including the p1 promotor and exon 1a) of the ghr gene in oura-type tibetan sheep (o. aries) was cloned by t-a method and sequenced (genbank accession no. ef116490). characterization and comparison of this sequence with mouflons (o. musimon), goat (c. hircus), cattle (b. taurus) and european bison (b. bonasus) orthologues were also conducted. results showed that: 1) the 5'-flanking region contained many potential transcriptional factor binding sites such as those for c/ ...200717681925
group size effects on foraging and vigilance in migratory tibetan antelope.large group sizes have been hypothesized to decrease predation risk and increase food competition. we investigated group size effects on vigilance and foraging behaviour during the migratory period in female tibetan antelope pantholops hodgsoni, in the kekexili nature reserve of qinghai province, china. during june to august, adult female antelope and yearling females gather in large migratory groups and cross the qinghai-tibet highway to calving grounds within the nature reserve and return to q ...200717582704
a mitochondrial genome sequence of the tibetan antelope (pantholops hodgsonii).to investigate genetic mechanisms of high altitude adaptations of native mammals on the tibetan plateau, we compared mitochondrial sequences of the endangered pantholops hodgsonii with its lowland distant relatives ovis aries and capra hircus, as well as other mammals. the complete mitochondrial genome of p. hodgsonii (16,498 bp) revealed a similar gene order as of other mammals. because of tandem duplications, the control region of p. hodgsonii mitochondrial genome is shorter than those of o. a ...200516144518
endogenous nitric oxide and pulmonary circulation response to hypoxia in high-altitude adapted tibetan sheep.nitric oxide (no) is important for the pulmonary circulation response to acute and chronic hypoxia. we examined effects of endogenous nitric oxide synthase (nos) inhibition on pulmonary vascular tone in response to hypoxia in tibetan sheep dwelling at 3,000 m above sea level using a pressure chamber. unanaesthetized male sheep living at 2,300 m above sea level ( n=7) were prepared for vascular monitoring. pulmonary artery ( p(pa)), pulmonary artery wedge ( p(cwp)) and systemic artery pressures t ...200415316790
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