two syntopic zymodemes of leishmania infantum cause human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in the naples area, italy. 19921356308
experimental infections of a phlebotomus perniciosus colony using different procedures.flies of two colonies of phlebotomus perniciosus established in italy and spain respectively, were infected with a leishmania infantum isolate from spain. only p. perniciosus from spain was completely found susceptible to the infection. experimental infections of p. perniciosus from spain with the same l. infantum isolate were carried out using rpmi or pbs as infective feeding mediums. the results demonstrate that using pbs it is possible to re-feed a great quantity of infected flies.19911841239
successful in vitro isolation and cultivation of italian dermotropic strains of leishmania infantum sensu lato. 19892603211
natural infections of phlebotomine sandflies with trypanosomatidae in central and south a survey of leishmania infections of phlebotomine sandflies caught in central and south italy in 1986, zymodeme mon-1 (montpellier 1) of leishmania infantum was isolated from phlebotomus perniciosus and l. tarentolae [= trypanosoma platydactyli?] was isolated from sergentomyia minuta, providing for mainland italy the first direct proof of these long-suspected parasite-vector associations. the roles of p. perfiliewi and p. perniciosus in the transmission of leishmania spp. in italy are discuss ...19883188148
[isolation and in vivo behavior of the etiologic agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in italy].tentatives of culturing in vivo and in vitro the etiological agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in italy have in the past been carried out by several authors without, however, obtaining stable culture. the use of lhc inbred hamsters, treated with cortisone acetate, gives the possibility of isolating the parasite from human cutaneous lesions. the parasite is localized in the internal organs (spleen, liver and bone marrow) of the host, regardless of the site of inoculation. the infection is similar ...19853870640
early efficacy of liposomal amphotericin b in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis.the rapidity and efficacy of a short course of liposomal amphotericin b was evaluated in 29 children affected by visceral leishmaniasis (leishmania infantum). their overall health status was assessed using the prognostic inflammatory and nutritional index (pini), and their haematological status by the reticulocyte count and haemoglobin blood levels. all these quantities were measured on day 0, and 3 and 10 d after starting therapy. a significant decrease of inflammatory signs, associated with an ...19968758092
treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in children with liposomal amphotericin b.we used liposomal amphotericin b as first-choice treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in 106 immunocompetent children who acquired the infection in a temperate region of southern europe (italy) where leishmania infantum visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. the aim of the study was to identify the minimum total dose of liposomal amphotericin b needed to cure the infection in children and reduce the period of hospitalization. we conclude that the optimal regimen in immunocompetent children with l. in ...19979290615
an immunodiffusion assay for the detection of canine leishmaniasis due to infection with leishmania immunodiffusion assay (ida) with polyethylene glycol (peg) was tested for usefulness as diagnostic test for canine leishmaniasis (cl). a comparative analysis of dog sera was made using ida with peg, immunofluorescence assay (ifa) and enzyme immunosorbent assay (elisa) techniques. fourty-four dogs from italy with cl (endemic dogs) and eight dutch dogs with cl contracted in south europe (expatriate dogs) were tested together with 40 endemic and 35 expatriate controls. specificity did not differ ...19979477507
nitric oxide production by macrophages of dogs vaccinated with killed leishmania infantum promastigotes.human visceral leishmaniosis is endemic in southern italy, where the dog is the main reservoir of viscerotropic strains of leishmania infantum. the release of nitric oxide (no) by interferon (ifn)-gamma-activated macrophages is an important leishmanicidal mechanism in several animal species. in this work no production, phagocytosis and killing capacity of monocyte-derived dog macrophages were evaluated in vitro before and after administration of a vaccine composed of killed leishmania infantum p ...200111440191
leishmania infantum and neospora caninum simultaneous skin infection in a young dog in italy.leishmania infantum, the agent of canine leishmaniasis in mediterranean countries, and neospora caninum, a recently recognized protozoal pathogen in dogs, were diagnosed in a 9-month-old argentine dogo dog. both skin lesions and neurological signs were present. histopathology of cutaneous lesions revealed a suppurative, diffuse dermatitis with numerous intracellular protozoa. serology was positive for both l. infantum (1:640) and n. caninum (1:800). double-label immunohistochemical staining of s ...200111705654
autochthonous mucosal leishmaniasis in a hemodialyzed italian patient.a case of mucosal leishmaniasis in a 60-year old hemodialysis patient who had never lived outside italy is described. the patient complained of fever, epistaxis and nasal obstruction. an anterior rhinoscopy disclosed a mass of two centimetres in diameter in the right nasal fossa. histological examination revealed leishmania amastigotes. serology for leishmania was positive with antibody titer of 1/320. a culture yielded a very slow growth of leishmania infantum mon-24. in spite of a two-month tr ...200211841048
feline leishmaniosis due to leishmania infantum in italy.a case of leishmaniosis in domestic cats (felis catus domesticus) is described. the subject showed a nodular lesion on the eyelid. the diagnosis was achieved by serological, parasitological, and light and electron microscopic investigations. by molecular techniques the aetiological agent was identified as belonging to leishmania infantum, the species implicated in human and canine leishmaniosis in southern europe. a preliminary study on the prevalence of asymptomatic feline leishmaniosis, perfor ...200212062507
[interpretation of laboratory data during cryptic leishmaniasis in dog].leishmaniasis is a zoonosis caused by an intracellular parasite belonging to the genus leishmania. in europe, africa, south america and china, visceral leishmaniasis is caused by l. infantum. the vectors of leishmaniasis are phlebotomine sandflies belonging to the genera phlebotomus. according to the world health organization there are 2 million new cases each year and 1/10 of the world's population is at risk of infection. leishmaniasis is considered a zoonosis and human are generally accidenta ...200415305723
sero-epidemiological survey of neospora caninum infection in dogs in north-eastern italy.risk factors associated with neospora caninum seroprevalence in north-eastern italy in healthy dogs were assessed. antibodies to n. caninum were found in 10.9% of 707 kennel and owned dogs by a commercial competitive elisa (vmrd inc.). all dogs were negative for leishmania infantum by indirect fluorescent antibody test indicating no cross reactivity or association between the two protozoa in this area. seroprevalence association with breed and age of dogs and other factors are discussed.200415325040
failure of a multi-subunit recombinant leishmanial vaccine (mml) to protect dogs from leishmania infantum infection and to prevent disease progression in infected animals.we report results of a phase iii trial of the multi-subunit recombinant leishmania polyprotein mml for the protection of dogs against infection by leishmania infantum. the antigen, also known as leish-111f, is the first antileishmanial human vaccine entered phase i clinical testing. the study was performed in a leishmaniasis endemic area of southern italy. three groups of 15 leishmania-free beagle dogs each, received 3 monthly injections with vaccines a (mml+mpl-se adjuvant), b (sterile saline = ...200516054272
a rare case of localized mucosal leishmaniasis due to leishmania infantum in an immunocompetent italian host.the case of authoctonous isolated laryngeal leishmaniasis due to l. infantum in an italian immunocompetent host is reported. it is highlighed the need to consider mucosal leishmaniasis in the differential diagnosis of laryngeal tumors. rapid nested-pcr technique and enzyme restriction analysis were useful for diagnosis and species identification directly from bioptic samples.200516121766
detection of leishmania infantum kinetoplast dna in laryngeal tissue from an immunocompetent patient.mucosal leishmaniasis of the upper respiratory tract is usually associated with the visceral form or is found in immunosuppressed individuals. this report presents a case of isolated mucosal leishmaniasis in an immunocompetent patient, whose diagnosis mainly rested on histology and positive polymerase chain reaction result for leishmania donovani in the laryngeal tissue. a 59-year-old man, who never lived outside italy, showed a subglottic mucosal polypoid-like lesion. the typical morphological ...200516226116
characterization of leishmania infantum strains in blood samples from infected dogs and humans by pcr-rflp.characterization of leishmania infantum is based on zymodeme analysis, which requires parasite isolation and therefore is not routinely employed. moreover, the majority of strains in the mediterranean basin belong to zymodeme mon-1, and this is a major limitation for this technique in epidemiological studies in this region. we developed a pcr-rflp method based on kdna amplification, which was able to discriminate l. infantum strains directly from peripheral blood. twenty-eight samples were teste ...200616343571
evaluation of an elisa rapid device for the serological diagnosis of leishmania infantum infection in dog as compared with immunofluorescence assay and western this study we compared a commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) rapid test (snap clatk canine leishmania antibody test kit, idexx-snap) with indirect immunofluorescence assay (ifa) and western blot (wb) for the detection of leishmania infantum antibodies in dogs. in total sera from 234 dogs were collected: 59 positives and 51 doubtful sera (ifa 1:40-1:80) from an l. infantum endemic area and 124 negative sera from a non-endemic area were tested. to evaluate the snap clatk's perf ...200717046162
risk factors for canine neosporosis in farm and kennel dogs in southern italy.neosporosis by neospora caninum causes losses to livestock production through abortion in cattle while, in dogs, it induces neuromuscolar disease. this study investigated neosporosis seroprevalence associated risk factors (including the seropositivity to leishmaniosis) in dogs of southern italy, determined the prevalence of n. caninum oocyst shedding and examined the relationship between seroprevalence of neosporosis in farm dogs and cattle. using an inhibition elisa, 20.9% of 306 dogs had perce ...200717257762
presence of leishmania infantum in red foxes (vulpes vulpes) in southern, lymph node (popliteal), and bone marrow samples were collected from 50 red foxes (vulpes vulpes) from may 2004 to may 2005 in southern italy. samples were tested for leishmania infantum by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). the parasite was detected by pcr from 20 of 50 (40%) fox carcasses. all 20 positive cases were pcr-positive from lymph node and bone marrow samples, whereas 17 of 20 positive cases were pcr-positive from skin samples. infection status was not related to age or sex. this i ...200717699092
the northward spread of leishmaniasis in italy: evidence from retrospective and ongoing studies on the canine reservoir and phlebotomine vectors.visceral leishmaniasis (vl) incidence has been increased in italy in humans and dogs since the 1990s, with new foci being detected within traditional boundaries of endemic transmission but also in northern regions previously regarded as non-endemic. to monitor the putative vl spreading, surveillance was implemented in northern continental italy comprising: analysis of human cases recorded from 1990 through 2005; retrospective literature analysis of canine leishmaniasis (canl) and phlebotomine sa ...200818304273
mapping the main leishmania phlebotomine vector in the endemic focus of the mt. vesuvius in southern italy.geographical information systems and remote sensing were used to analyze the distribution of the leishmania infantum-phlebotomus perniciosus parasite-vector system in relation to environmental features of two opposite sides (coastal and apennine) of mt. vesuvius, an area of intense transmission of human and canine leishmaniasis in southern italy. weekly phlebotomine collections were carried out during two consecutive warm seasons (2004- 2005) in 24 and 25 sites of the coastal and apennine sides, ...200718686244
acute renal failure due to visceral leishmaniasis by leishmania infantum successfully treated with a single high dose of liposomal amphotericin b.we report a visceral leishmaniasis case in an immunocompetent immigrant with acute renal failure. parasites were demonstrated in bone marrow, peripheral blood, and kidney samples. a collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis was documented, which was successfully treated with a single infusion of 10 mg/kg liposomal amphotericin b.200819006511
leishmania infantum in a central italy dog shelter: retrospective study of serologic reactivity during a 4-year period in a confined dog population subjected to preventive and therapeutic treatment.leishmaniasis from leishmania infantum is a parasitary zoonotic disease and a serious problem to public health. guidelines from italian health authority (istituto superiore di sanità) suggest to control the zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis canine reservoir in endemic areas using an association of preventive and therapeutic tools. moreover, in literature there are no studies about the long term effects on the disease seroprevalence and incidence in relation to this "holistic" approach. past resear ...200919111991
toward diagnosing leishmania infantum infection in asymptomatic dogs in an area where leishmaniasis is endemic.the most frequently used diagnostic methods were compared in a longitudinal survey with leishmania infantum-infected asymptomatic dogs from an area of italy where leishmaniasis is endemic. in february and march 2005, 845 asymptomatic dogs were tested by an immunofluorescence antibody test (ifat), a dipstick assay (ds), and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for l. infantum and by ifat for ehrlichia canis. dogs seronegative for l. infantum were further parasitologically evaluated by mic ...200919129471
experimental and field investigations on the role of birds as hosts of leishmania infantum, with emphasis on the domestic this study, 19 chickens were experimentally infected by leishmania infantum and tissue samples, collected at different times, were cultured and subjected to conventional pcr and/or real time pcr (qpcr) to assess their susceptibility to infection. in addition, 121 serum samples from rural chickens (n=73) and backyard birds (n=48) were tested for anti-l. infantum antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence test. all the 19 animals showed to be molecularly positive at least at one tissue sample. i ...201019818726
clinical and laboratory monitoring of dogs naturally infected by leishmania infantum.the clinical evolution of leishmania infantum infection in dogs is largely influenced by the host's individual immune response. few studies have investigated the time course and clinical evolution of the infection both under experimental and natural conditions. in the present investigation, the time course of l. infantum infection was studied by monitoring clinical and laboratory features in naturally infected dogs sheltered in southern italy. twenty-three dogs that had one or more positive diag ...201019836279
cryptic leishmania infantum infection in italian hiv infected patients.visceral leishmaniasis (vl) is a protozoan diseases caused in europe by leishmania (l.) infantum. asymptomatic leishmania infection is more frequent than clinically apparent disease. among hiv infected patients the risk of clinical vl is increased due to immunosuppression, which can reactivate a latent infection. the aims of our study were to assess the prevalence of asymptomatic l. infantum infection in hiv infected patients and to study a possible correlation between leishmania parasitemia and ...200920003257
detection of leishmania infantum in rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks from brazil and italy.canine leishmaniosis is a widespread disease caused by leishmania parasites, which are transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies. however, in some areas where canine leishmaniosis is endemic, but the primary vectors have not been found, ticks have been suspected to play a role in transmitting the infection. herewith, we report the detection of leishmania infantum kinetoplast minicircle dna (kdna) in ticks collected from naturally infected dogs living in rural areas of southern italy (site a) and no ...201020127362
diagnosis of canine vector-borne diseases in young dogs: a longitudinal study.canine vector-borne diseases (cvbds) pose a diagnostic challenge, particularly when a dog is coinfected with more than one pathogen. the purpose of this study was to generate information about the diagnosis of cvbds in young dogs following their first exposure to flea, tick, sand fly, louse, and mosquito vectors. from march 2008 to may 2009, 10 purpose-bred young naive beagle dogs and a cohort of 48 mixed-breed dogs living in an area to which cvbd is endemic in southern italy were monitored usin ...201020660218
quantification of leishmania infantum dna in females, eggs and larvae of rhipicephalus sanguineus.:201121489252
Canine antibody response to Phlebotomus perniciosus bites negatively correlates with the risk of Leishmania infantum transmission.Phlebotomine sand flies are blood-sucking insects that can transmit Leishmania parasites. Hosts bitten by sand flies develop an immune response against sand fly salivary antigens. Specific anti-saliva IgG indicate the exposure to the vector and may also help to estimate the risk of Leishmania spp. transmission. In this study, we examined the canine antibody response against the saliva of Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector of Leishmania infantum in the Mediterranean Basin, and characterized ...201122022626
successful treatment of imported mucosal leishmania infantum leishmaniasis with miltefosine after severe hypokalemia under meglumine antimoniate treatment.old world mucosal leishmaniasis is a rare but regularly reported disease in southern europe. we report the case of a 64-year-old woman who developed severe hypokalemia under meglumine antimoniate treatment and was successfully treated under second line therapy with miltefosine.201122414039
diagnosis and incidence risk of clinical canine monocytic ehrlichiosis under field conditions in southern europe.canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (cme), due to the bacterium ehrlichia canis and transmitted by the brown dog tick rhipicephalus sanguineus, is a major tick-borne disease in southern europe. in this area, infections with other vector-borne pathogens (vbp) are also described and result in similar clinical expression. the aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence risk of clinical cme in those endemic areas and to assess the potential involvement of other vbp in the occurrence of clinical ...201525561342
canine antibodies against salivary recombinant proteins of phlebotomus perniciosus: a longitudinal study in an endemic focus of canine leishmaniasis.phlebotomine sand flies are vectors of leishmania parasites. during blood feeding, sand flies deposit into the host skin immunogenic salivary proteins which elicit specific antibody responses. these anti-saliva antibodies enable an estimate of the host exposure to sand flies and, in leishmaniasis endemic areas, also the risk for leishmania infections. however, the use of whole salivary gland homogenates as antigen has several limitations, and therefore, recombinant salivary proteins have been te ...201526111018
a randomised, double-blind, controlled efficacy trial of the liesp/qa-21 vaccine in naïve dogs exposed to two leishmania infantum transmission seasons.canine leishmaniasis is an important zoonosis caused by uncontrolled infection with leishmania infantum, where an inappropriate immune response is not only responsible for permitting this intracellular parasite to multiply, but is also responsible for several of the pathological processes seen in this disease. effective canine vaccines are therefore a highly desirable prevention tool. in this randomised, double-blinded, controlled trial, the efficacy of the liesp/qa-21 vaccine (canileish, virbac ...201425299614
paediatric visceral leishmaniasis in italy: a 'one health' approach is we describe a case of paediatric visceral leishmaniasis recorded in an infant initially suspected for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia due to the clinical and haematological presentation. eventually the patient was found positive for leishmania infantum infection and successfully treated. this case emphasises how pivotal a 'one health' approach is for diagnosing this zoonotic disease; highlighting the importance of including visceral leishmaniasis in the differential diagnosis of leukaemia-lik ...201323627880
acute febrile illness is associated with rickettsia spp infection in dogs.rickettsia conorii is transmitted by rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks and causes mediterranean spotted fever (msf) in humans. although dogs are considered the natural host of the vector, the clinical and epidemiological significance of r. conorii infection in dogs remains unclear. the aim of this prospective study was to investigate whether rickettsia infection causes febrile illness in dogs living in areas endemic for human msf.201525886403
prevalence of leishmania infantum and co-infections in stray cats in northern italy.stray cats in the city of milan, italy, were tested for leishmania infantum and other selected infections. twenty-seven cats (30.0%) were seroreactive by indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat), with an antibody titer of 1:40 for 16 (17.7%) cats and 1:80 (cut-off for feline l. infantum infection) for 11 (12.2%) cats. one blood (1.1%) and one popliteal lymph node (1.1%) sample tested positive by real-time polymerase chain reaction; no oculoconjunctival swabs tested positive. feline immunodefici ...201627012922
are vector-borne pathogen co-infections complicating the clinical presentation in dogs?infection by two or more canine vector-borne disease (cvbd)-causing pathogens is common in subtropical and tropical regions where vectors are plentiful. co-infections may potentiate disease pathogenesis, thereby altering clinical manifestations typically associated with singular infections. these factors complicate diagnosis, treatment and can adversely influence prognosis if the practitioner fails to suspect, document, and treat each concurrent infection. the spectrum of pathogens co-infecting ...201323587324
management of candida guilliermondii joint infection in a dog.candida spp. are dimorphic fungi in the family cryptococcaceae. infections with candida spp. are usually rare conditions in dogs, but immunocompromised patients have a higher risk for developing invasive candidal infections.201627391227
molecular evidence of leishmania infantum in ixodes ricinus ticks from dogs and cats, in italy.leishmaniosis, caused by leishmania infantum, is an endemic zoonosis in the mediterranean basin. to date, phlebotomine sand flies are the only accepted biological vectors of leishmania parasites to dogs and humans. the absence of the primary vector in autochthonous leishmania outbreaks suggests a possible role of fleas or ticks as alternative vectors. in this study, 119 ticks were collected between august 2007-june 2008 and between march 2010-october 2010 from various animal species and humans l ...201425546069
spleen nodules: a potential hallmark of visceral leishmaniasis in young children.visceral leishmaniasis (vl) is a severe disease caused by leishmania infantum in the mediterranean basin, and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. infantile vl may begin suddenly, with high fever and vomiting, or insidiously, with irregular daily fever, anorexia, and marked splenomegaly. delays in diagnosis of vl are common, highlighting the need for increased awareness of clinicians for vl in endemic european countries.201425496484
a case of imported leishmania infantum cutaneous leishmaniasis; an unusual presentation occurring 19 years after travel.leishmania infantum is a flagellated protozoan parasite that is able to parasitize blood and tissue. leishmania species cause a spectrum of clinical disease with cutaneous, visceral or mucosal involvement. l. infantum is recognised as a cause of visceral leishmaniasis (vl) and is less commonly reported as a cause of cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) from countries around the mediterranean basin. this is the first report of imported l. infantum cl to australia and is remarkable for a 19 year period be ...201425428722
visceral leishmaniasis due to leishmania infantum with renal involvement in hiv-infected patients.we describe histological, clinical findings and outcomes of renal involvement during leishmania infantum infection in four hiv-infected patients in south france and north italy hospital settings.201425358548
ecology of phlebotomine sand flies and leishmania infantum infection in a rural area of southern italy.phlebotomine sand flies are insects of major medico-veterinary significance in the mediterranean region, as they may transmit pathogens to animals and humans, including viruses and protozoa. the present study was conducted in southern italy, in an area where visceral leishmaniasis caused by leishmania infantum is endemic. insects were collected monthly during two consecutive years using light traps set in five different ecologic contexts (i.e., a stonewall near a woodhouse, a tree near volcanic ...201424813871
diagnostic value of conjunctival swab sampling associated with nested pcr for different categories of dogs naturally exposed to leishmania infantum infection.the objective of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of a noninvasive assay, conjunctival swab (cs) nested-pcr (n-pcr), for diagnosing canine leishmaniasis (canl) in different stages of infection in comparison to the performance of the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (ifat), lymph node microscopy, and buffy coat n-pcr. to this end, we performed a cross-sectional survey among 253 nonselected dogs in areas of endemicity in central italy. we also performed a longi ...201222649018
preliminary study of the effects of preventive measures on the prevalence of canine leishmaniosis in a recently established focus in northern italy.canine leishmaniosis is endemic in mediterranean areas, with a well-documented northward spread. the mass use of preventive measures against sandfly bites (collar and spot-on formulations) was tested in a small focus recently established in an isolated hilly area of north-eastern italy (colli euganei). in 2006 and 2007, a total of 449 dogs living in the southern part of colli euganei were screened against leishmania infantum using an immunofluorescence antibody test (ifat), and 31 (6.9%) were se ...201323888415
a 22-year survey of leishmaniasis cases in a tertiary-care hospital in an endemic setting.the northward spread of leishmaniasis from mediterranean to continental europe affects our area where it is typically associated with leishmania infantum infection. in this study a 22-year survey was performed in patients (including both patients with and without history of travel through endemic areas other than italy) attending the university hospital of parma, northern italy, in order to make a contribution to describe the cases of the visceral leishmaniasis (vl) and cutaneous leishmaniasis ( ...201424619118
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