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rabies surveillance in the united states during 2006.during 2006, 49 states and puerto rico reported 6,940 cases of rabies in animals and 3 cases in humans to the cdc, representing an 8.2% increase from the 6,417 cases in animals and 1 case in a human reported in 2005. approximately 92% of the cases were in wildlife, and 8% were in domestic animals. relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,615 raccoons (37.7%), 1,692 bats (24.4%), 1,494 skunks (21.5%), 427 foxes (6.2%), 318 cats (4.6%), 82 cattle (1.2%), and 79 dogs (1. ...200717696853
first report of angiostrongylus vasorum and hepatozoon from a red fox (vulpes vulpes) from west virginia, usa.angiostrongylus vasorum was identified in the lungs of a red fox (vulpes vulpes) from west virginia, united states (us), indicating a new geographical location for this metastrongylid nematode. the fox was euthanized and submitted for necropsy after displaying erratic behavior. we did not detect rabies virus or canine distemper virus from the fox. we observed bronchopneumonia associated with a. vasorum infection disseminated in both lungs. in addition, protozoal meronts were observed in the live ...201424412356
a descriptive epidemiological study of raccoon rabies in a rural environment.a recent outbreak of rabies in raccoons, procyon lotor (l.), in loudoun county, virginia (1981-82), prompted a study of the epidemiology of the disease. parameters studied included the occurrence and movement of the disease over time, sex and age relationships, and behavior patterns of raccoons. during the 18 mo, 427 raccoons were tested, of which 75% were infected with rabies virus. interpretation of rainfall data and the subsequent spatial occurrence of infected raccoons within the county indi ...19853999245
rabies in the united states and canada, 1983.primarily as a result of organized canine rabies vaccination, leash laws, and other preventive procedures aimed at the canine population, the number of rabid dogs decreased markedly in the last thirty years (figure 10). this decrease was accompanied by a similar marked reduction in human rabies (table 2, figure 11). as domestic animal rabies declined, rabies in wildlife increased. since 1958 the number of cases of rabid wildlife surpassed domestic rabies cases, and today they account for over 85 ...19853932839
rabies antibody prevalence and virus tissue tropism in wild carnivores in virginia.carnivores trapped in a rabies control program in virginia were examined for rabies virus and serum neutralizing antibody. local antibody prevalence ranged from 0% to 29% in gray foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus). rabies virus was pantropic in naturally infected gray foxes and a bobcat (lynx rufus).1978739588
environmental and human demographic features associated with epizootic raccoon rabies in maryland, pennsylvania, and virginia.we assessed land use and demographic data as predictors discriminating between counties experiencing large or small first epizootics of rabies among raccoons (procyon lotor). monthly county reports of raccoons testing positive for rabies were obtained from rabies surveillance databases from maryland, pennsylvania, and virginia (usa). environmental and demographic data for the three states were obtained from public sources. on the basis of total reports of raccoon rabies during the first defined ...200314733282
predictive spatial dynamics and strategic planning for raccoon rabies emergence in ohio.rabies is an important public health concern in north america because of recent epidemics of a rabies virus variant associated with raccoons. the costs associated with surveillance, diagnostic testing, and post-exposure treatment of humans exposed to rabies have fostered coordinated efforts to control rabies spread by distributing an oral rabies vaccine to wild raccoons. authorities have tried to contain westward expansion of the epidemic front of raccoon-associated rabies via a vaccine corridor ...200515737065
rabies surveillance in the united states during 1996.in 1996, 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico reported 7,124 cases of rabies in non-human animals and 4 cases in human beings to the centers for disease control and prevention. nearly 92% (6,550 cases) were wild animals, whereas 8% (574 cases) were domestic species. the total number of reported cases decreased 9.6% from that of 1995 (7,881 cases). although much of the decline was the result of fewer reported cases of rabies in raccoons, fewer cases were also reported among most g ...19979412679
the landscape epidemiology of rabies in virginia.rabies virus, the gray fox, and the alleghenian biotic region form a pathobiocenose; rabies in virginia exists in a diffuse nidus, the alleghenian biotic region. physiographic features may serve as barriers or as passageways for epidemic spread of rabies. epidemic spread is characterized by a radial pattern and a linear northeast-southwest pattern reflecting physiographic features. incidence of rabies in the fox varies according to seasons. present control efforts are generally ineffective; unde ...1978677370
A Spatial Model to Forecast Raccoon Rabies Emergence.Abstract Although raccoons are widely distributed throughout North America, the raccoon rabies virus variant is enzootic only in the eastern United States, based on current surveillance data. This variant of rabies virus is now responsible for >60% of all cases of animal rabies reported in the United States each year. Ongoing national efforts via an oral rabies vaccination (ORV) program are aimed at preventing the spread of raccoon rabies. However, from an epidemiologic perspective, the relati ...201121995266
rabies in a dog imported from egypt with a falsified rabies vaccination certificate--virginia, 2015.canine rabies virus variant has been eliminated in the united states and multiple other countries. globally, however, dogs remain the principal source for human rabies infections. the world health organization recommends that when dogs cross international borders, national importing authorities should require an international veterinary certificate attesting that the animal did not show signs of rabies at the time of shipment, was permanently identified, vaccinated, or revaccinated, and had been ...201526678293
human rabies---virginia, 2009.on october 28, 2009, cdc notified the virginia department of health (vdh) of suspected rabies in a virginia man aged 42 years. earlier that day, an infectious disease physician in virginia had contacted cdc requesting confirmatory diagnostic testing and reported initiating treatment with the milwaukee protocol after consultation with staff at the medical college of wisconsin. this report summarizes the patient's exposure history, clinical course, and treatment, and describes efforts to identify ...201020881935
safety and immunogenicity of ontario rabies vaccine bait (onrab) in the first us field trial in raccoons (procyon lotor).in 2011, we conducted a field trial in rural west virginia, usa to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a live, recombinant human adenovirus (adrg1.3) rabies virus glycoprotein vaccine (ontario rabies vaccine bait; onrab) in wild raccoons (procyon lotor) and striped skunks (mephitis mephitis). we selected onrab for evaluation because of its effectiveness in raccoon rabies management in ontario and quebec, canada, and significantly higher antibody prevalence rates in raccoons compared with a ...201424807178
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2009.during 2009, 49 states and puerto rico reported 6,690 rabid animals and 4 human rabies cases to the cdc, representing a 2.2% decrease from the 6,841 rabid animals and 2 human cases reported in 2008. approximately 92% of reported rabid animals were wildlife. relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,327 (34.8%) raccoons, 1,625 (24.3%) bats, 1,603 (24.0%) skunks, 504 (75%) foxes, 300 (4.5%) cats, 81 (1.2%) dogs, and 74 (1.1%) cattle. compared with 2008, numbers of rabid ...201020839985
first north american field release of a vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein recombinant virus.following nearly 10 yr of extensive laboratory evaluation, a vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein (v-rg) vaccine was the first recombinant virus to undergo limited north american field release on 20 august 1990. the free-ranging raccoon population on parramore island (virginia, usa) was exposed to a high density (10 baits/ha) of vaccine-laden baits distributed on a 300 ha vaccination area. an annual total of 887 raccoons were live-trapped for sedation, physical examination and blood collection for rabie ...19989577769
ecology and epidemiology of raccoon rabies.two areas of the united states presently are experiencing epizootics of raccoon rabies, which have been followed by the development of an enzootic state. these include four southeastern and five mid-atlantic states. information was obtained from 1,610 raccoons submitted for rabies testing in four of the affected mid-atlantic states during 1982 and 1983 and from 798 raccoons from virginia during 1984 and 1985. analysis of the two sets of data provided an opportunity to characterize certain aspect ...19883264616
rabies virus in salivary glands of raccoons (procyon lotor). 19854032628
proposed field evaluation of a rabies recombinant vaccine for raccoons (procyon lotor): site selection, target species characteristics, and placebo baiting trials.prior to a limited field application of an orally-administered vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein (v-rg) recombinant virus vaccine for wildlife, background data were obtained for the proposed site on parramore island, virginia (usa). mammalian target and nontarget species, potentially at risk for exposure to vaccine were inventoried. placebo baiting trials with a fishmeal polymer bait resulted in high bait disturbance (88 to 100%), primarily by raccoons (procyon lotor), with infrequent visitation and ...19892810556
human rabies--virginia, 1998.on december 31, 1998, a 29-year-old man in richmond, virginia, died from rabies encephalitis caused by a rabies virus variant associated with insectivorous bats. this report summarizes the clinical and epidemiologic investigations by the virginia department of health and cdc.199910072266
knowledge, attitudes, and practices of veterinary facility owners regarding rabies preexposure prophylaxis--west virginia, 2011.to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding rabies preexposure prophylaxis among veterinary facility owners in west virginia and to compare facilities in counties where raccoon rabies virus variant (rrvv) is or is not enzootic.201323786192
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2007.summary: during 2007, 49 states and puerto rico reported 7,258 cases of rabies in animals and 1 case in a human to the cdc, representing a 4.6% increase from the 6,940 cases in animals and 3 cases in humans reported in 2006. approximately 93% of the cases were in wildlife, and 7% were in domestic animals. relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,659 raccoons (36.6%), 1,973 bats (27.2%), 1,478 skunks (20.4%), 489 foxes (6.7%), 274 cats (3.8%), 93 dogs (1.3%), and 57 ca ...200818795848
rabies surveillance in the united states during 1997.in 1997, 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico reported 8,509 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 4 cases in human beings to the centers for disease control and prevention. nearly 93% (7,899) were wild animals, whereas 7% (610) were domestic species. the total number of reported cases increased 19.4% from that of 1996 (7,128 cases). increases were apparent in each of the major species groups, with the exception of cattle. the relative contributions of these groups to the total ...19989861958
rabies surveillance in the united states during 1989.in 1989, 4,808 cases of rabies in animals other than human beings were reported to the centers for disease control, 1.8% more (4,724 to 4,808) than in 1988. eighty-eight percent (4,224/4,808) of those affected were wild animals and 12% (584/4,808) were domestic animals. cases were reported from 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico; hawaii remained rabies-free. skunks (1,657) continued to be the most commonly reported rabid wild animal. for the second consecutive year, more cats ( ...19902276949
update: raccoon rabies epizootic--united states and canada, 1999.in 1977, an outbreak of raccoon rabies was detected in an area on the west virginia-virginia border. since then, the area affected by this distinct variant of rabies virus associated with raccoons has spread to ohio in the west and new york, pennsylvania, vermont, new hampshire, and maine in the north. in addition, the once separate epizootics of rabies among raccoons in the southeastern and mid-atlantic states converged in north carolina. in july 1999, the raccoon rabies virus variant was repor ...200010680602
first human death associated with raccoon rabies--virginia, 2003.rabies is an acute, progressive, incurable viral encephalitis, caused by the bite of an infected animal. in march 2003, a previously healthy man aged 25 years from northern virginia died from a diagnosed illness of meningoencephalitis of unknown etiology after a 3-week illness. histopathologic review of central nervous system tissues at cdc revealed viral inclusions suggestive of negri bodies, and subsequent tests confirmed a diagnosis of rabies. genetic sequencing identified a rabies virus vari ...200314614408
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2003.during 2003, 49 states and puerto rico reported 7,170 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings to the cdc. this represents a 10% decrease from the 7,967 cases in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings reported in 2002. more than 91 (n = 6,556) were in wild animals, and 8.6% (614) were in domestic species (compared with 92.5% in wild animals and 74% in domestic species in 2002). the relative contributions of the major groups of animals were as follows: 2,635 raccoons ...200415643834
from the centers for disease control and prevention. human rabies--virginia, 1998. 199910078471
geographical clusters and predictors of rabies in three southeastern states.the rabies virus causes progressive encephalomyelitis that is fatal in nearly 100% of untreated cases. in the united states, wildlife act as the primary reservoir for rabies; prevention, surveillance, and control costs remain high. the purpose of this study is to understand the current distribution of wildlife rabies in three southeastern states, with particular focus on raccoons as the primary eastern reservoir, as well as identify demographic and geographic factors which may affect the risk of ...201728418772
rabies surveillance in the united states during 1995.in 1995, 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico reported 7,877 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 4 cases in human beings to the centers for disease control and prevention. nearly 92% (7,247 cases) were wild animals, whereas 8% (630 cases) were domestic species. the total number of reported cases decreased 4.2% from that of 1994 (8,230 cases). most of the decline was the result of 17.1% fewer reported cases of rabies in raccoons in areas of the northeast, where rabies is now e ...19968960176
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