vaccination of free-ranging pennsylvania raccoons (procyon lotor) with inactivated rabies vaccine.thirty-nine free-ranging raccoons (procyon lotor) in an endemic rabies area of pennsylvania (usa) were vaccinated with a single intramuscular inoculation of commercial inactivated rabies virus vaccine, 17 june to 23 august 1987. paired serum samples, pre- and postvaccination, were obtained from eight raccoons and were analyzed in vitro for rabies virus neutralizing antibody using a modified rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test. seven of eight (88%) recaptured raccoons demonstrated seroconvers ...19902338729
adult raccoon survival in an enzootic rabies area of pennsylvania.twenty-one adult raccoons (procyon lotor) were radio-marked on each of two areas in centre county, pennsylvania from 17 june to 23 august 1987. raccoons on area 1 were vaccinated with a commercial inactivated rabies virus vaccine administered intramuscularly, whereas on area 2 raccoons were not vaccinated. survival rates were estimated for three periods: pre-season (23 august to 23 october 1987), harvest season (24 october 1987 to 23 january 1988) and post-season (24 january to 26 march 1988). k ...19902388357
ecology and epidemiology of raccoon rabies.two areas of the united states presently are experiencing epizootics of raccoon rabies, which have been followed by the development of an enzootic state. these include four southeastern and five mid-atlantic states. information was obtained from 1,610 raccoons submitted for rabies testing in four of the affected mid-atlantic states during 1982 and 1983 and from 798 raccoons from virginia during 1984 and 1985. analysis of the two sets of data provided an opportunity to characterize certain aspect ...19883264616
rabies in the united states and canada, 1983.primarily as a result of organized canine rabies vaccination, leash laws, and other preventive procedures aimed at the canine population, the number of rabid dogs decreased markedly in the last thirty years (figure 10). this decrease was accompanied by a similar marked reduction in human rabies (table 2, figure 11). as domestic animal rabies declined, rabies in wildlife increased. since 1958 the number of cases of rabid wildlife surpassed domestic rabies cases, and today they account for over 85 ...19853932839
rabies surveillance in the united states during 1995, 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico reported 7,877 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 4 cases in human beings to the centers for disease control and prevention. nearly 92% (7,247 cases) were wild animals, whereas 8% (630 cases) were domestic species. the total number of reported cases decreased 4.2% from that of 1994 (8,230 cases). most of the decline was the result of 17.1% fewer reported cases of rabies in raccoons in areas of the northeast, where rabies is now e ...19968960176
update: raccoon rabies epizootic--united states and canada, 1977, an outbreak of raccoon rabies was detected in an area on the west virginia-virginia border. since then, the area affected by this distinct variant of rabies virus associated with raccoons has spread to ohio in the west and new york, pennsylvania, vermont, new hampshire, and maine in the north. in addition, the once separate epizootics of rabies among raccoons in the southeastern and mid-atlantic states converged in north carolina. in july 1999, the raccoon rabies virus variant was repor ...200010680602
environmental and human demographic features associated with epizootic raccoon rabies in maryland, pennsylvania, and virginia.we assessed land use and demographic data as predictors discriminating between counties experiencing large or small first epizootics of rabies among raccoons (procyon lotor). monthly county reports of raccoons testing positive for rabies were obtained from rabies surveillance databases from maryland, pennsylvania, and virginia (usa). environmental and demographic data for the three states were obtained from public sources. on the basis of total reports of raccoon rabies during the first defined ...200314733282
A Spatial Model to Forecast Raccoon Rabies Emergence.Abstract Although raccoons are widely distributed throughout North America, the raccoon rabies virus variant is enzootic only in the eastern United States, based on current surveillance data. This variant of rabies virus is now responsible for >60% of all cases of animal rabies reported in the United States each year. Ongoing national efforts via an oral rabies vaccination (ORV) program are aimed at preventing the spread of raccoon rabies. However, from an epidemiologic perspective, the relati ...201121995266
human vaccinia infection after contact with a raccoon rabies vaccine bait - pennsylvania, 2009.since 2003, the u.s. department of agriculture's wildlife services has coordinated a multistate oral rabies vaccination (orv) program for wildlife in a 15-state zone extending from maine to alabama and in texas. the program seeks to enhance local control and prevent the spread of epizootic rabies among raccoons and, in texas, among gray foxes and coyotes. the program uses baits containing liquid vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein (v-rg) recombinant virus vaccine. because contact with ruptured baits ca ...200919893480
predictive spatial dynamics and strategic planning for raccoon rabies emergence in ohio.rabies is an important public health concern in north america because of recent epidemics of a rabies virus variant associated with raccoons. the costs associated with surveillance, diagnostic testing, and post-exposure treatment of humans exposed to rabies have fostered coordinated efforts to control rabies spread by distributing an oral rabies vaccine to wild raccoons. authorities have tried to contain westward expansion of the epidemic front of raccoon-associated rabies via a vaccine corridor ...200515737065
landscape genetics of raccoons (procyon lotor) associated with ridges and valleys of pennsylvania: implications for oral rabies vaccination programs.raccoons are the reservoir for the raccoon rabies virus variant in the united states. to combat this threat, oral rabies vaccination (orv) programs are conducted in many eastern states. to aid in these efforts, the genetic structure of raccoons (procyon lotor) was assessed in southwestern pennsylvania to determine if select geographic features (i.e., ridges and valleys) serve as corridors or hindrances to raccoon gene flow (e.g., movement) and, therefore, rabies virus trafficking in this physiog ...200919125658
evaluation of knowledge, attitudes, and practices of deer owners following identification of a cluster of captive deer with rabies in pennsylvania in july evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices of deer owners following identification of a cluster of captive deer with rabies as an aid for the development of rabies prevention educational materials.201323600787
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