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west nile virus antibody prevalence in wild mammals, southern wisconsin.twenty percent prevalence of west nile virus antibody was found in free-ranging medium-sized wisconsin mammals. no significant differences were noted in antibody prevalence with regard to sex, age, month of collection, or species. our results suggest a similar route of infection in these mammals.200617326959
communicating emerging infectious disease outbreaks to the public through local television news: public health officials as potential spokespeople.objective:  to assess how west nile virus (wnv) was reported to the american public on local television news and identify the main factors that influenced coverage. methods:  a representative sample of wnv stories that were reported on 122 local television news stations across the united states during october 2002, covering 67% of the nation's population, were coded for self-efficacy, comparative risk scenarios, symptoms and recommendations, high-risk individuals, and frame. in addition, public ...201021149218
occurrence of avian plasmodium and west nile virus in culex species in wisconsin.the occurrence of multiple pathogens in mosquitoes and birds could affect the dynamics of disease transmission. we collected adult culex pipiens and cx. restuans (cx. pipiens/restuans hereafter) from sites in wisconsin and tested them for west nile virus (wnv) and for avian malaria (plasmodium). gravid cx. pipiens/restuans were tested for wnv using a commercial immunoassay, the ramp wnv test, and positive results were verified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. there were 2 wnv- ...201020402347
investigation of fathead minnows (pimephales promelas) as a biological control agent of culex mosquitoes under laboratory and field conditions.many urban areas have engineered storm-water runoff control structures such as ditches and detention ponds. these often serve as excellent habitats for culex pipiens and culex restuans, the primary enzootic vectors of west nile virus in the midwest. we evaluated predation and control of these species by a fish species native to wisconsin, the fathead minnow (pimephales promelas). in the lab, a single minnow consumed an average of 74 cx. pipiens larvae in a 24-h period. minnow gender and age had ...200919852220
urban wet environment as mosquito habitat in the upper midwest.sampling of culex larval habitat plays an important role in west nile virus surveillance and control programs. although many cities have established mosquito sampling programs and abatement districts, there is relatively little information describing the extent and ecology of urban surface waters and stormwater systems in different geographic areas and how these parameters affect mosquito communities and control strategies. an aerial survey of the city of madison, wisconsin revealed 521 above-gr ...200818648797
west nile virus activity--united states, january 1-august 15, 2006.this report summarizes west nile virus (wnv) surveillance data reported to cdc through arbonet as of 3 a.m. mountain daylight time, august 15, 2006. a total of 26 states had reported 388 cases of human wnv illness to cdc. a total of 214 (56%) cases for which such data were available occurred in males; median age of patients was 49 years (range: 2-91 years). dates of illness onset ranged from january 6 to august 10; a total of 13 cases were fatal. a total of 68 presumptive west nile viremic blood ...200616915222
wild bird mortality and west nile virus surveillance: biases associated with detection, reporting, and carcass persistence.surveillance targeting dead wild birds, in particular american crows (corvus brachyrhynchos), plays a critical role in west nile virus (wnv) surveillance in the united states. using crow decoy surrogates, detection and reporting of crow carcasses within urban and rural environments of dekalb county, georgia were assessed for potential biases that might occur in the county's wnv surveillance program. in each of two replicated trials, during july and september 2003, 400 decoys were labeled with re ...200616699152
serologic evidence of west nile virus infection in three wild raptor populations.we assayed for west nile virus (wnv) antibodies to determine the presence and prevalence of wnv infection in three raptor populations in southeast wisconsin during 2003-04. this study was conducted in the framework of ongoing population studies that started before wnv was introduced to the study area. for 354 samples, 88% of 42 adult cooper's hawks (accipiter cooperii), 2.1% of 96 nestling cooper's hawks, 9.2% of 141 nestling red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis), and 12% of 73 nestling great hor ...200516252490
west nile virus infection and its neurological manifestations.the west nile virus caused an epidemic of meningoencephalitis in midwest north america during 2002. the peak incidence coincided with the highest activity period of mosquito vectors in affected states. this epidemic followed recent established trends, not only of increased central nervous system involvement by the virus, but also increased incidence of dramatic neuromuscular impairment. two cases are presented which illustrate the most concerning types of neuromuscular sequelae, diffuse weakness ...200315931302
mosquito surveillance for west nile virus in southeastern wisconsin--2002.in 2001, west nile virus (wnv) was identified among dead american crows and bluejays in five counties in southeastern wisconsin. in response to the introduction of wnv, a pilot mosquito surveillance program was initiated in these five southeastern wisconsin counties during the summer of 2002. forty sites were selected for surveillance one night each week during a 17-week period. mosquitoes were collected in carbon dioxide-baited light traps and gravid traps. during the study period 31,419 mosqui ...200315931283
west nile virus activity--united states, october 13-19, 2004.during october 13-19, a total of 200 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 20 states (arizona, arkansas, california, colorado, illinois, indiana, iowa, kansas, maryland, michigan, mississippi, missouri, nevada, new mexico, north carolina, oklahoma, pennsylvania, south dakota, wisconsin, and wyoming).200415499683
changes in west nile virus seroprevalence and antibody titers among wisconsin mesopredators 2003-2006.after the 2001 occurrence of west nile virus (wnv) in wisconsin (wi), we collected sera, during 2003-2006, from south-central wi mesopredators. we tested these sera to determine wnv antibody prevalence and geometric mean antibody titer (gmat). four-fold higher antibody prevalence and 2-fold higher gmat in 2003-2004 indicated greater exposure of mesopredators to wnv during the apparent epizootic phase. the period 2005-2006 was likely the enzootic phase because wnv antibody prevalence fell to a le ...200919556585
endemic human mosquito-borne disease in wisconsin residents, 2002-2006.west nile virus (wnv) and la crosse virus (lac) are the primary mosquito-borne arboviruses associated with human disease in wisconsin. we examined wnv and lac human illness surveillance data collected during 2002 through 2006.200717844707
surveillance of above- and below-ground mosquito breeding habitats in a rural midwestern community: baseline data for larvicidal control measures against west nile virus vectors.mosquitoes in the genus culex are thought to play a major role as vectors in the transmission cycle of west nile virus (wnv) and other arboviruses in the united states. effective control of mosquitoes through larviciding and adulticiding is expensive for communities and should be guided by reliable surveillance data on the distribution of mosquito breeding habitats. however, few small to medium sized cities in rural areas of the midwestern united states have this type of baseline information ava ...200515962015
west nile virus infection among turkey breeder farm workers--wisconsin, 2002.in 2002, wisconsin public health officials were notified of two cases of febrile illness in workers at a commercial turkey breeder farm (farm a) in county a. the wisconsin division of public health (wdph) initiated an investigation that found a high prevalence of west nile virus (wnv) antibody among farm a workers and turkeys. an associated high incidence of febrile illness among farm a workers also was observed. this report summarizes the results of this investigation, which indicate possible n ...200314574276
west nile virus activity--united states, september 8-14, 2004.during september 8-14, a total of 195 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 26 states (alabama, arizona, arkansas, california, colorado, florida, georgia, idaho, illinois, iowa, kansas, maryland, minnesota, missouri, nebraska, nevada, new mexico, new york, north dakota, oklahoma, oregon, pennsylvania, south dakota, tennessee, texas, and wisconsin).200415371969
west nile virus activity--united states, september 22-28, 2004.during september 22-28, a total of 180 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported in the district of columbia (dc) and 24 states (alabama, arizona, california, georgia, illinois, iowa, kansas, kentucky, louisiana, maryland, michigan, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, montana, nebraska, nevada, new mexico, ohio, pennsylvania, texas, utah, wisconsin, and wyoming).200415457147
west nile virus activity--united states, august 18-24, 2004.during august 18-24, a total of 154 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 18 states (alabama, arizona, california, colorado, connecticut, florida, georgia, illinois, kentucky, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, nevada, new mexico, north carolina, south dakota, tennessee, and wisconsin).200415329654
west nile virus infection in commercial waterfowl operation, wisconsin.a west nile virus (wnv) outbreak occurred at a commercial waterfowl operation in wisconsin in 2005. retrospective analysis of dead and live birds was conducted. wnv was detected by pcr in 84.1% of 88 dead birds; neutralizing antibodies were found in 14 of 30 randomly sampled asymptomatic or recovered birds.200617073102
west nile virus activity--united states, september 15-21, 2004.during september 15-21, a total of 218 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported from 21 states (arizona, california, florida, illinois, indiana, kansas, maryland, michigan, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, nebraska, nevada, new mexico, north dakota, oklahoma, south dakota, texas, utah, wisconsin, and wyoming).200415385920
willingness to pay for mosquito control: how important is west nile virus risk compared to the nuisance of mosquitoes?public health programs that control mosquitoes and other disease vectors have the added benefit of reducing residents' exposure to pest insects. we surveyed homeowners in madison, wisconsin, and used an economic valuation method, stated-choice experiments, to measure willingness to pay (wtp) for control of west nile virus (wnv)-transmitting and nuisance mosquitoes under current and increased levels of wnv risk. under current wnv risk levels (approximately 1 in 250,000), the average madison surve ...201222651384
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