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update: west nile virus activity--eastern united states, 2000.data reported to cdc through the west nile virus (wnv) surveillance system have shown an increase in the geographic range of wnv activity in 2000 compared with 1999, the first year that wnv was reported in the western hemisphere. in response to this occurrence of wnv, 17 states along the atlantic and gulf coasts, new york city, and the district of columbia conducted wnv surveillance, which included monitoring mosquitoes, sentinel chicken flocks, wild birds, and potentially susceptible mammals (e ...200011105767
west nile virus activity--united states, september 22-28, 2004.during september 22-28, a total of 180 cases of human west nile virus (wnv) illness were reported in the district of columbia (dc) and 24 states (alabama, arizona, california, georgia, illinois, iowa, kansas, kentucky, louisiana, maryland, michigan, minnesota, mississippi, missouri, montana, nebraska, nevada, new mexico, ohio, pennsylvania, texas, utah, wisconsin, and wyoming).200415457147
hematology, parasitology, and serology of free-ranging coyotes (canis latrans) from south carolina.blood and feces were collected from 34 adult (19 males, 15 females) and seven juvenile (three males, one female, three not reported) free-ranging coyotes (canis latrans) on the us department of energy's savannah river site (south carolina, usa). significant (p<0.05) hematologic differences by sex were noted for red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. biochemical differences by sex occurred only for albumen (p<0.05). twenty-one adults were antibody positive for at least one of four vir ...200919617502
higher mosquito production in low-income neighborhoods of baltimore and washington, dc: understanding ecological drivers and mosquito-borne disease risk in temperate cities.mosquito-vectored pathogens are responsible for devastating human diseases and are (re)emerging in many urban environments. effective mosquito control in urban landscapes relies on improved understanding of the complex interactions between the ecological and social factors that define where mosquito populations can grow. we compared the density of mosquito habitat and pupae production across economically varying neighborhoods in two temperate u.s. cities (baltimore, md and washington, dc). seven ...201323583963
avian roosting behavior influences vector-host interactions for west nile virus hosts.extensive work has shown that vectors almost never feed at random. often, a subset of individual hosts and host species are fed on much more frequently than expected from their abundance and this can amplify pathogen transmission. however, the drivers of variation in contact patterns between vectors and their hosts are not well understood, even in relatively well-studied systems such as west nile virus (wnv).201425167979
west nile virus and other nationally notifiable arboviral diseases - united states, 2014.arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes and ticks. west nile virus (wnv) is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the united states (1). however, several other arboviruses also cause sporadic cases and seasonal outbreaks. this report summarizes surveillance data reported to cdc in 2014 for wnv and other nationally notifiable arboviruses, excluding dengue. forty-two states and the district of colu ...201526334477
west nile virus and other arboviral diseases - united states, 2013.arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes and ticks. west nile virus (wnv) is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the united states. however, several other arboviruses also cause sporadic cases and seasonal outbreaks of neuroinvasive disease (i.e., meningitis, encephalitis, and acute flaccid paralysis). this report summarizes surveillance data reported to cdc in 2013 for wnv and other nationally ...201424941331
west nile virus and other nationally notifiable arboviral diseases - united states, 2015.arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes and ticks. the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the united states is west nile virus (wnv) (1). other arboviruses, including la crosse, st. louis encephalitis, jamestown canyon, powassan, and eastern equine encephalitis viruses, also cause sporadic cases and outbreaks. this report summarizes surveillance data reported to cdc in 2015 for nationally notifiab ...201728103209
survey for west nile virus antibodies in wild ducks, 2004-06, usa.detection of west nile virus (wnv) in ducks has been reported in north america in isolated cases of mortality in wild waterbirds and following outbreaks in farmed ducks. although the virus has been noted as an apparent incidental finding in several species of ducks, little is known about the prevalence of exposure or the outcome of infection with wnv in wild ducks in north america. from 2004-06, we collected sera from 1,406 wild-caught american wigeon ( anas americana ), mallard ( anas platyrhyn ...201626981693
west nile virus: epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and prevention.west nile virus was recognized in the united states for the first time in 1999, when it caused an epidemic of encephalitis and meningitis in new york city, ny. since then, the disease has been steadily moving westward, and human cases were recognized in 39 states and the district of columbia in 2002. the infection is caused by a flavivirus that is transmitted from birds to humans through the bite of culicine mosquitoes. most infections are mild, with symptoms primarily being fever, headache, and ...200312962168
a tiger tale. 200212202788
application of a degree-day model of west nile virus transmission risk to the east coast of the united states of america.a geographical information systems model that identifies regions of the united states of america (usa) susceptible to west nile virus (wnv) transmission risk is presented. this system has previously been calibrated and tested in the western usa; in this paper we use datasets of wnv-killed birds from south carolina and connecticut to test the model in the eastern usa. because their response to wnv infection is highly predictable, american crows were chosen as the primary source for model calibrat ...201223242676
modeling dynamics of culex pipiens complex populations and assessing abatement strategies for west nile virus.the primary mosquito species associated with underground stormwater systems in the united states are the culex pipiens complex species. this group represents important vectors of west nile virus (wnv) throughout regions of the continental u.s. in this study, we designed a mathematical model and compared it with surveillance data for the cx. pipiens complex collected in beaufort county, south carolina. based on the best fit of the model to the data, we estimated parameters associated with the eff ...201425268229
surveillance for human west nile virus disease - united states, 1999-2008.west nile virus (wnv) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) in the family flaviviridae and is the leading cause of arboviral disease in the united states. an estimated 80% of wnv infections are asymptomatic. most symptomatic persons develop an acute systemic febrile illness that often includes headache, myalgia, arthralgia, rash, or gastrointestinal symptoms. less than 1% of infected persons develop neuroinvasive disease, which typically presents as encephalitis, meningitis, or acute flaccid p ...201020360671
dry weather induces outbreaks of human west nile virus infections.since its first occurrence in the new york city area during 1999, west nile virus (wnv) has spread rapidly across north america and has become a major public health concern in north america. by 2002, wnv was reported in 40 states and the district of columbia with 4,156 human and 14,539 equine cases of infection. mississippi had the highest human incidence rate of wnv during the 2002 epidemic in the united states. epidemics of wnv can impose enormous impacts on local economies. therefore, it is a ...201020181272
false-positive results with a commercially available west nile virus immunoglobulin m assay - united states, 2008.in september 2008, cdc, the food and drug administration (fda), and state health departments began a nationwide investigation into an increase in false-positive test results obtained with a commercially available west nile virus (wnv) immunoglobulin m (igm) capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). the investigation revealed that, in the united states, one lot of the commercially available test kits was the source of the false-positive results. that lot was recalled, and a second lot di ...200919444147
west nile virus activity--united states, january 1-november 7, 2006.this report summarizes west nile virus (wnv) surveillance data reported to cdc through arbonet as of 3 a.m. mountain standard time, november 7, 2006. a total of 41 states and the district of columbia had reported 3,830 cases of human wnv illness to cdc.200617093387
west nile virus activity--united states, january 1-october 10, 2006.this report summarizes west nile virus (wnv) surveillance data reported to cdc through arbonet as of 3 a.m. mountain daylight time, october 10, 2006. a total of 41 states and the district of columbia had reported 3,135 cases of human wnv illness to cdc. a total of 1,717 (55%) cases for which such data were available occurred in males; median age of patients was 50 years (range: 3 months-99 years). dates of illness onset ranged from january 6 to september 25; a total of 97 cases were fatal.200617035928
prediction of equine risk of west nile virus infection based on dead bird surveillance.since the introduction of west nile virus (wnv) to the united states in 1999, the efficacy of dead bird surveillance for the prediction of human and veterinary wnv infection has been an issue of debate. we utilized south carolina's department of health and environmental control surveillance data from 2003 to determine whether dead bird surveillance accurately predicts equine wnv infection on a county level. we adjusted for human population density as a potential confounder of an association betw ...200616584321
the epidemic of west nile virus in the united states, 2002.since 1999, health officials have documented the spread of west nile virus across the eastern and southern states and into the central united states. in 2002, a large, multi-state, epidemic of neuroinvasive west nile illness occurred. using standardized guidelines, health departments conducted surveillance for west nile virus illness in humans, and west nile virus infection and illness in non-human species. illnesses were reported to the centers for disease control and prevention (cdc) through t ...200415018774
west nile virus in the united states: an update on an emerging infectious disease.west nile virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus and human neuropathogen. since the virus was recognized in new york city in 1999, it has spread rapidly across the united states, with human disease documented in 39 states and the district of columbia. west nile virus can cause a broad range of clinical syndromes, including fever, meningitis, encephalitis, and a flaccid paralysis characteristic of a poliomyelitis-like syndrome. approximately one in 150 infections results in severe neurologic illnes ...200312952382
west nile virus activity--united states, july 3-9, 2003.this report summarizes west nile virus (wnv) surveillance data reported to cdc through arbonet as of 8 a.m. mountain daylight time, july 9, 2003.200312855948
west nile virus activity--united states, 2001.in 2001, west nile virus (wnv) activity was reported from 359 counties in 27 states and the district of columbia (dc) to arbonet, a web-based, surveillance data network maintained by 54 state and local public health agencies and cdc. this activity represented a marked increase from 2000, when wnv activity was reported from 138 counties in 12 states and dc. this report summarizes surveillance data for 2001, which indicate that 66 human illnesses were reported from 10 states and that widespread wn ...200212079245
west nile virus activity--eastern united states, 2001.in 2000, arbonet, an enhanced human and animal surveillance system designed to monitor the geographic spread of west nile virus (wnv) in the united states and to identify areas at increased risk for human infections with wnv, detected wnv activity in the district of columbia and 12 states. this system, first implemented in the district of columbia and 20 states along the atlantic and gulf coasts, was later expanded throughout the continental united states. this report summarizes arbonet data fro ...200111787570
infectious disease. the enigma of west nile. .fifteen months after the 1999 outbreak of west nile virus in new york city, which sickened 62 mostly elderly people and killed seven, scientists are still hard pressed to predict how abundant the virus will eventually become or how serious a public health threat it will pose. this summer, the human toll has been relatively mild, with just 18 cases and one death. but the virus has been found in more than 60 bird species and about a dozen mammals; in a little more than a year, it has spread to 11 ...200011185500
mosquito landing rates on nesting american robins (turdus migratorius).we measured mosquito landing rates on adult and nestling american robins at nests with infrared cameras in washington, d.c., and maryland, united states. mosquitoes landed on nesting robins almost exclusively between dusk and dawn. the mean number of mosquito landings per night was higher for adults (123.3 +/- se 32.8) than nestlings (37.26 +/- 14.8). the fraction of mosquitoes landing at a nest on nestlings increased with decreases in adult brooding. oral swabs from nestlings at these and 13 ot ...200717767414
west nile virus activity--united states, january 1-september 12, 2006.this report summarizes west nile virus (wnv) surveillance data reported to cdc through arbonet as of 3 a.m. mountain daylight time, september 12, 2006. a total of 36 states and the district of columbia had reported 1,634 cases of human wnv illness to cdc. a total of 921 (57%) cases for which such data were available occurred in males; median age of patients was 51 years (range: 3 months-95 years). dates of illness onset ranged from january 6 to september 10; a total of 52 cases were fatal.200616971889
west nile encephalitis: an emerging disease in the united states.in 1999, an epidemic of west nile virus (wnv) encephalitis occurred in new york city (nyc) and 2 surrounding new york counties. simultaneously, an epizootic among american crows and other bird species occurred in 4 states. indigenous transmission of wnv had never been documented in the western hemisphere until this epidemic. in 2000, the epizootic expanded to 12 states and the district of columbia, and the epidemic continued in nyc, 5 new jersey counties, and 1 connecticut county. in addition to ...200111595987
west nile virus activity - united states, 2009.west nile virus (wnv) was first detected in the western hemisphere in 1999 in new york city and has since caused seasonal epidemics of febrile illness and neurologic disease across the united states, where it is now the leading cause of arboviral encephalitis. this report updates a previous report and summarizes wnv activity in the united states reported to cdc in 2009. a total of 38 states and the district of columbia (dc) reported 720 cases of wnv disease. of these, 33 states and dc reported 3 ...201020592686
west nile virus disease and other arboviral diseases --- united states, 2010.arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes and ticks. since west nile virus (wnv) was first detected in the western hemisphere in 1999, it has become the leading cause of neuroinvasive arboviral disease in the united states. however, several other arboviruses continue to cause sporadic cases and seasonal outbreaks of neuroinvasive disease (i.e., meningitis, encephalitis, or acute flaccid paralysis). this report summarizes su ...201121814163
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